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Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1978.

10: 247-66
Copyright 1978 by Annual Reviews Inc. All rights reserved
FLOW THROUGH SCREENS
E. M. Laws and J. L. Livesey
Department of Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Salford,
Salford M5 4WT, England
INTRODUCTION
:8123
Control of the velocity distribution of a fuid fow is a fundamental problem In
engineering fuid mechanics. The possible consequences for the operation and
efciency of downstream components need no emphasis here. Ability to control
the fow is also necessary in component testing where, for results to be meaningful,
test conditions must reproduce the composite fow situation.
A screen may be used in both these operational modes to remove or create
time-mean velocity nonuniformities, change the fow direction, and reduce or
increase the scale and intensity of turbulence in a controlled manner.
A screen may be thought of as any distributed resistance that efects a change
in fow direction and a reduction in pressure. Common examples of screens for
aerodynamic applications are arrays of parallel rods, honeycombs, perforated plates,
and wire-gauze screens. This review focusses on the wire-gauze screen, with brief
consideration of other types of screen.
A survey of the available literature on the topic of fow through screens divides
roughly into three categories:
CATEGORY I Investigations concerned principally with characterizing the fow
properties of the screen.
CATEGORY 2 Investigations concerned with the efect of a screen on time-mean
velocity distributions. In engineering applications there are two seemingly contra
dictory main objectives: the production of a uniform profle from arbitrary and
nonuniform conditions upstream of the screen (e.g. in wind-tunnel applications)
and the production of a specifed velocity profle from arbitrary, though often
uniform, conditions upstream of the screen (e.g. in simulating test conditions).
CATEGORY 3 Investigations concerned with the turbulence distribution downstream
of gauze screens. This is the combination of three distinct turbulence profles. The
frst is due to the passage of turbulence upstream of the screen through the screen,
the second is due to turbulence generated by the screen itself, and the third is
shear-generated turbulence produced by nonuniformities in the generated time
mean profle as it decays. The interrelation ami interaction between these three
247
0066-4189/78/0115-0247$01.00
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Further
ANNUAL
REVIEWS
248 LA WS & LIVESEY
efects leads to complications in flow prediction. Paradoxically, until simulation
techniques are so refned that mean profle and turbulence structure can virtually
be created independently, a concise experimental program covering all aspects of
this category may be impossible to envisage.
In this review the literature covering these three categories is discussed. Because
of the volume of literature involved no attempt is made to give au exhaustive
survey; however, the reader is directed to the most pertinent sources df information
wherever possible.
CATEGORY 1: SCREEN PROPERTIES
The weaving process of gauze manufacture is likely to contribute to inherent
variations in screen dimensions that could lead to signifcant downstream efects,
particularly for fne-mesh screens (Simmons & Cowdrey 1945). The screen in situ
may also be liable to contamination from dust and dirt, which could also contribute
to departurc from uniformity. Advances madc in thc analytical treatmcnt of fow
through screens usually assume that the screen dimensions are uniform; however,
Jackson (1972) has considered the efect of non uniformities in mesh sizes on screen
coefcients.
In a sense the fow through the screen is modelled on actuator-sheet theory,
the presence of the screen being regarded as a fnite discontinuity in the fow.
How far such a simple model can describe the fow through what is essentially,
from the aerodynamic point of view, a complicated distribution of bluf bodies,
is open to some doubt. Nevertheless, it is on the basis of this assumption that
most previous work is developed.
Since the momentum normal to the screen is conserved, the drag D on the
screen is due solely to the pressure loss through each orifce. Considering the fow
through a single gauze element (Figure I), the nondimensional drag coefcient,
REGION
I
Figure 1
REGION
2
Coordinate system for fow through gauze element.
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 249
CD, is given by D/t.pw2S, where w is the undisturbed velocity and S a typical
gauze area.
For wire-gauze screens specifed by wire diameter d and wire spacing I, the area
usually taken as S i the solid area of the mesh (1-flz, where {, the porosity,
is defned as the ratio of open to total gauze area. For square-mesh wire screens
f
=
(l-d/l)z. Pinker & Herbert (1967) have shown that f underestimates the
efective area of the gauze and suggest a sinusoidal porosity, f*, based on the
assumption that each wire forms a sine wave. Historically, however, f has been
adopted as the describing parameter; therefore
CD = (Pz
-
pd/tp
w
i(! -f.
The resistance (or pressure loss) coefcient Ko at approach angle 8 is defned by
KO=CD(1-f);
thus
Ke = Ko cosz 8,
where Ko is the resistance coefcient at normal incidence (8 = 0). Some authors
refer to a defection force coefcient Fe, which is analogous to Ko, such that the
tangential force component is given by tpuIFo; thus
jpuIFo = PUI cos 8(Ul sin 8 -Uz sin c).
Hence,
Fo = 2cos o sec csin (e - c).
The deflection coefcient B is defined by B
=
1 -uzlu 1, so that B = sin (8 -c)/
sin 0 cos c.
Experimental evidence suggests that cl8 tends to a fnite limit, e, as 8 tends to
zero (Taylor & Batchelor 1949) and also that a fow approaching at an angle 8
will be defected towards the normal to the screen on passing through the screen.
Thus 0 e 1.
For small angles of e, therefore,
B = 1 -e = F 0128 and 0 B 1.
On the basis of an actuator sheet the boundary conditions at the screen are described
in terms of the resistance and defection coefcients of the mesh, and therefore it
is important that these parameters be capable of accurate prediction or measurement.
Resistance Coefcient
Most previous work, which falls in Category 1, has concentrated on the behavior
of Ko. This may be because of early engineering interest in losses and in damping
screens in which K 0 is the dominant parameter, or possibly because it was considered
relatively easy to measure; however, see Morgan (1959) and Pinker & Herbert
(1967).
It is well documented that Ko is a function of porosity, Reynolds number, and
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250 LA WS & LIVESEY
Mach number. The reader is directed to the paper by Pinker & Herbert (1967),
who reviewed the literature on this topic. Many of the suggested correlations of
earlier workers (e.g. Glauert et al 1933, Collar 1939, Taylor & Davies 1944) have
been compared with their own detailed experimental results; these correlations
are based on a variety of fow models, discussions of which, for compactness,
cannot be included in this review.
The variation of Ku(fJ,Rd,M) is such that for incompressible fow (strictly zero
Mach number) Ko decreases with Rd (Reynolds number based on the gauze-wire
diameter and approach-fow velocity) until Rd> 250, after which point Ku is a
function of porosity only.
The optimum expression for this functional relationship has been found by
Pinker & Herbert (1967) and Reynolds (1969) to be
Ku = 0.52(1-f2)/f
The fact that Ko would also vary with Reynolds number was frst suggested by
Collar (1939). The resistance coefcient was shown to decrease with Reynolds
number, until a limiting value was attained. Annand (1953), from data due to
Simmons & Cowdrey (1945) and Cornell (1958), suggested that a further increase
in Reynolds number should result in an increase in K u; however, Pinker & Herbert
(1967) doubted the evidence for this conclusion.
Pinker & Herbert (1967) carried out a very detailed experimental program in
which the variation of Ko for a range of Reynolds number at fxed Mach numbers
was obtained. They observed no tendency for Ku to subsequently increase with
Reynolds number, and after reviewing the literature (e.g. Taylor & Davies 1944,
Jonas 1957 and Davis 1957) concluded that the optimum description for the
variation of Ko with Reynolds number was given by
Ko = At(Re)(I-f2)jf2.
Figure 2 shows the dependence of AI on Reynolds number.
07
06
04
0
3
,

..


0
2 3 4
I _v
0
1
-
'
0 o 0"
0
2 34
R/ft
Figure 2 Variation of At with Re
y
nolds number.
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 251
At higher Mach numbers the resistance coefcient increases at a rate strongly
dependent on the screen porosity until choking occurs. The choking Mach number,
Meh, was shown by Adler (1946) to satisfy the simple one-dimensional expectation
f = A*/A = f(Mch).
Pinker & Herbert (1967) showed that a more accurate determination of Mch was
given if [* replaced [, which suggests that [* is a more practical parametric
description. They suggested a method of extrapolating data obtained for incompres
sible fow to higher Mach numbers.
The conclusion that can be drawn . from the literature is that the resistance
coefficient can be evaluated with a fair degree of accuracy (within the limitations
previously mentioned). However, for high accuracy it may still be necessary to
determine the value experimentally.
For perforated plates information may be found in Baines & Peterson (1951),
Rice (1954), and Budof & Zorumski ( 1971).
Defection C oe.cient
The evaluation of the defection coefcient presents considerable difculties, which
arise because the screen is not plane as assumed but actually rippled. This results
in highly irregular variations in local transverse velocity that may defy any analytical
treatment. The rippled nature of the gauze makes the defection coefcient difcult
to measure and possibly accounts for the scatter in experimental results. Gauze
anisotropy is also likely to afect measurement of the defection coefcient since a
defnite variation is noted when fow incidence to the mesh is maintained constant
and the gauze orientation to the fow varied.
A connection between the resistance and defection coefcients has been noted.
However, though both theoretical and semi-empirical attempts have been made to
establish the exact form of this relationship, no entirely satisfactory form has been
established.
Taylor & Batchelor (1949), Schubauer et al (1950), Elder (1959), and more recently
Reynolds (1969) and Gibbings (1973) have all developed correlations for the relation
ship between Ke and B. The basis of these various fow models cannot be included
here, nor can individual comparisons with experimental data.
Observations from such a comparison indicate that the expression due to
Gibbings (1973) gives the best overall agreement, particularly for Ko < 3. Since in
most aerodynamic applications screens with resistance coefcients well below three
will be used, this suggested expression should yield reasonably accurate values for
general applications.
If an experimental evaluation is indicated care must be taken and the screen
orientation carefully controlled.
Flow Instability Downstream of Screens
Corrsin (1944), Baines & Peterson (1951), Morgan (1960), Bradshaw (1964), and
Patel (1966) all describe a fow instability that occurs downstream of low-porosity
screens.
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252 LA WS & LIVESEY
Baines & Peterson (1951) observed the instability by noting appreciable and
unsteady diferences between measured and expected downstream profles. They
attributed this to local minute variations in wire diameter and spacing producing
signifcant local variations in velocity and pressure so that the jet fow through
each element of the screen could either coalesce or diverge with its neighbor in a
fairly random manner. This efect occurred only in screens with f < 0.5.
Both Morgan (1960) and Bradshaw (1964) suggest that in this jet coalescence
it is possible for the jets not to emerge orthogonal to the screen. This, as illustrated
in Bradshaw (1963), gives rise to a pattern of trailing vortices of various sizes
in the downstream flow. These vortices can persist for appreciable distances down
stream of the screen and can have a signifcant efect on downstream fow para
meters, causing a spanwise variation in skin-friction coefcient. Bradshaw (1964)
found that screens with porosities less than 0.57 could exhibit this phenomenon
and therefore recommended that such screens should be avoided in wind-tunnel
applications, since they could cause serious efects due to boundary-layer disturbance
on fow models. Since such a porosity would imply a screen with a resistance
coefcient appreciably less than the K: 2.8 required to produce uniformity,
Bradshaw (1964) suggested that multiple screens should be used to reproduce the
required pressure loss.
Patel (1966) conducted an experimental investigation into this instability and
found that the span wise variations in skin-friction coefcient could almost be
eliminated by the addition of a deep-ell, good-quality honeycomb downstream of
the ofending screen.
Cowdrey (1968), investigating self-excited oscillations in tube banks, carried out
some experimental work using single rows of closely spaced rods at right angles
to an air stream. He varied the number of rods in order to produce fow instability
and found that in certain cases the instability could be eliminated by displacing
certain rods a small distance downstream. A defnite preferred pattern was founp for
stable fow which could be obtained by judicious choice of the number of rods in
the grid.
In the choice of screen for a particular application the possible consequences
of fow instability for low-porosity screens must be considered.
CATEGORY 2: EFFECT OF SCREENS ON THE TIME-MEAN
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION
Early methods of profle generation and fow control were mainly by trial and
error, the profle being produced downstream of some distribution of blockages the
precise shape of which was determined by laborious experimental work. This method
was not only time consuming but also limited since it afforded little or no control
of the turbulence structure, and generated profles sufered from rapid decay rates
and often involved large secondary fows.
The frst major attempt at a theoretical design of a generating grid to produce
a specifed velocity profle was made by Owen & Zienkiewicz (1957), who con
centrated on the design of a two-dimensional grid of parallel rods of variable
spacing such that the velocity profle downstream of the grid was a linear shear.
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 253
By describing the fow through the grid in terms of resistance and defection
coefcients, they were able to obtain a relationship between the downstream profle
and the rod spacing on the assumption that the upstream profle was uniform
and that fow departures from uniformity were small.
They teste
d
the design method by producing a grid to generate a shear with
parameter }"LjU of 0.45 and obtained good agreement with experiment. They also
found that there was no evidence of any large-scale secondary fows and that the
profle showed no tendency to decay as the distance from the generator increased.
A minimum value of loss coefcient was found for a given shear parameter.
Livesey & Turner (1964a) and Cockrell & Lee (1966) applied the method of
Owen & Zienkiewicz (1957) to the design of generating grids for specifc applications.
Cockrell & Lee (1966) produced a modifed method that was later improved by
Durgin (1970).
The analytical treatment of Owen & Zienkiewicz (1957) was followed by a method
due to Elder (1959). Elder (1959) focused attention on the fow downstream of
shaped wire-gauze screens and linearized the equations of motion for flow through
the screen on the basis of certain assumptions. By describing the fow conditions
at the screen in terms of a resistance coefcient, K, and defection coefcient, B, he
obtained a relationship between the velocity profles upstream and downstream of
the screen, the screen shape, and the span wise variation of resistance coefcient
across the screen.
Adopting the notation of Figure 3 we may summarize the results of this analysis
by the equations
u*-J = A(u-I)-O.S(l-A)s(y)+EIlncos(nnyjL),
B tan 0 = I
In sin
(nny/L),
where
y = K cos
2
( = yo[l +s(y)J,
with
[ s(y) ey = 0,
I s(y) I <
1,
and
E = Yo/(2+Yo-B
),
A = l-yo
(
1-E).
U
Lx
C
I \
I ,
I '
I \
I
1 / 9
1//
n
x=O
Lu

u*
Figure 3 Coor
d
inate system for fow through a shape
d
-gauze screen.
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254 LA WS & LIVESEY
Nondimensional profles far upstream and downstream of the screen (theoretically
at x
= 0) are denoted by u and u*.
Though in its stated form the two-dimensional case is considered, the theory
can also be applied to axisymmetric fows in pipe and annulus and to fows in
converging and diverging ducts. Elder (1959) also gave the solution to fow through
multiple screens with interference, though this particular aspect has been considered
in more detail by Davis (1957).
As a result of the linearization procedure the expression for the downstream
profle is composed of three terms. The frst term represents the attenuation of
the upstream fow variation by a uniform plane gauze of equivalent resistance
coefcient normal to the fow; the second term describes the efect of a span wise
variation in resistance coefcient; and the fnal term accounts for the variation in
screen angle, f.
The screens of common practical interest are the shaped gauze screen of uniform
resistance and the screen of nonuniform resistance placed normal to the fow (cf
Owen & Zienkiewicz 1957). The analysis can be applied to both of these situations
with ease.
The formulation of Elder (1959) becomes identical with that of Owen &
Zienkiewicz (1957) when ( = 0 and K is variable, say, K(y). When the screen is
plane and of uniform resistance, the method describes the efect of such a screen
on a nonuniform upstream profle [u*-1 = A(u-l)J.
When A = 0 the value of K " 2.8 and thus a scrcen with this value of K will
produce a uniform downstream profle no matter what the upstream profle. A
screen with K > 2.8 will reverse upstream velocity variations. This result is in
agreement with the fndings of Taylor & Batchelor (1949); prior to their paper it
was thought K = 2 was the required value since the defection coefcient had been
neglected.
Thus, using a range of screens with K " 2.8 but with varying wire. diameter
gives a means of producing a variation of grid-generated turbulence intensity while
maintaining a uniform time-mean profle. Unfortunately, there are definite limits to
the range of turbulence intensities that can be produced in this way, 10% being a
typical maximum value for longitudinal turbulence intensity.
Elder (1959) contains some comparison with experimental results and also the
design of a screen to produce a linear shear. Some errors in this paper have been
pointed out by Lau & Baines ( 1968) and Turner (1969).
Livesey and Laws used Elder's method to generate axisymmetric pipe profles
and results obtained during the course of their investigation can be found in
Livesey & Laws (1973a, 1973b). Discrepancies between measured and calculated
profles lead to a re-examination of the original linearization described in Elder
(1959). One of the basic assumptions of this linearization was that the screen angle
was small, and Livesey & Laws (1973b) have shown that diferences between
profles arise because Elder (1959) retained a second-order term [namely
s
l
y
)] in a
first-order theory.
Since this violation occurs only when ( is variable, the theory applied to the plane
grid with resistance variation is valid.
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 255
When ( is variable as in the shaped, uniform K gauze screen, the s-term must be
neglected since it is second-order and thus
u* -I = A(u-I)+E I en cos (nnyjL).
If a shaped screen also had variable K the full equation would be valid:
u*-1 = A(u-1)-O.5(1-A)s(y)+ E
I
e"
cos (nny/L),
but in this case the s-term would be due solely to the variation in K.
Thus the original formulation due to Elder (1959)
contained a fundamental error.
The corrected theory shown above is the correctly linearized frst-order theory.
The correct second-order theory would include not only the s-term but also other
second-order terms that have been neglected earlier in the analysis. Elder's (1959)
original solution is in general a mixture of frst- and second-order terms and is
referred to here as a "pseudo" solution.
In a particular experiment designed to demonstrate the error in Elder's solution,
a two-dimensional profle was produced downstream of a sinusoidal gauze screen.
The results of the investigation are shown in Figure 4 in which the experimental
profle is compared with both the original and modifed theory.
As the linearized theory is formulated there are two possible ways in which the
theory can be applied. These ways are referred to as the direct and indirect methods.
11
,.
I ,
I ,
I \
\
\
/ ..
I \
I
\
I
\
\
\
,
I'
\
\
.u ( .!
'0
i
09
I
\
x
I
I
,
SOLUTION INCLUDING S -TERM.
SOLUTION OMITTING S - TERM.
X EXPERIMENTAL POINTS.
0'9
Figure 4 Velocity profle measured downstream of screen compared with theoretical
profles.
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256 LA WS & LIVESEY
In the direct method the upstream velocity profle, the screen shape, and the
screen properties are specifed and the downstream profle calculated. In the indirect
method the upstream profle, the required downstream profle, and the screen
properties are specifed, and the required screen shape is calculated.
In the "pseudo" solution the indirect method involved an iterative technique
because of the interrelation between the three terms composing the downstream
profle. Turner (1969) tackled the indirect method using Elder (1959) and experienced
difculties in obtaining convergence. He tested a grid designed to produce a linear
shear and commented that there was only a slight change in the screen shape if the
s-term was neglected. This may account for the reasonable agreement between
experiment and theory that he obtained with this screen.
Lau & Baines (1968) in an independent analysis considered the fow of a stratifed
fuid through a shaped-gauze screen. This method is capable of modifcation to non
stratifed fows, but the resulting analysis is more complex and calculations more
tedious than that due to Elder (1959). Lau & Baines ( 1968) also investigated the
efect of screens on the boundary-layer region of the upstream fow. Owen &
Zienkiewicz (1957) observed that the profles they produced departed from linearity
near the walls where a bulge in the downstream profle occurred. This was
attributed to the fact that the fuid in the boundary layer sufered a smaller loss
in total head than the fuid outside the layer in passing through the screen.
A similar occurrence was observed by Lau & Baines (1968) when fuid fows
through a screen. They demonstrate that a screen with K > 1 would cause a bulge
in the boundary layer and that the larger the values of K the larger the bulge.
Because of this, they recommend that, if possible, screens with values of K higher
than 4 should not be used.
In generating a time-mean profle by means of a shaped-gauze screen it is possible
to generate the same profle by using a screen with a high value of K and low
screen angle or a screen with a low K value and high screen angle. It is in this
way that it is possible to control profle and grid-generate turbulence independently.
The frst method could produce excessive pressure loss, cause boundary-layer bulge,
and also result in fow instability (see Category 1); the second could violate the
limits of application of the linear theory. Thus caution is necessary in selecting
screen coefcients.
An indication from Livesey & Laws (1973b) is that the linearized frst-order
theory, though strictly applicable to weakly sheared fows and for small screen
angles, gives reasonable results up to 0 of at least 45, and with severe profle
departures from uniformity. Nevertheless, the theory is limited and cannot be applied
to three-dimensional fows.
McCarthy ( 1964) considered the passage of moderately sheared three-dimensional
fow through variable resistance screens and obtained a solution without having to
impose any limits on the magnitude of the span wise resistance variation or on the
velocity variation across the grid.
The method cannot cater for screens of arbitrary shape and is restricted to
fows in which the velocity profle upstream of the grid is uniform. The generators
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 257
are plane screens of variable resistance formed by overlaying and combining screens
to form the specifed distribution of resistance. McCarthy's paper includes a com
parison between experimental and theoretical profles; the experimental profles were
measured one duct length from the screen.
For situations where high accuracy is not required Livesey & Laws (1974)
have shown that an empirical extension to the three-dimensional case can be
achieved using the approximation gauze-profle inverse.
With the same objective but along diferent lines Kotansky (1966) has used
honeycombs with transversely varying stream lengths to produce specifed velocity
distributions. Sajben et al (1973) also designed variable K profle generators, which
were fabricated from plane screens by an electro-plating process.
Flow Through Partial Screens
Taylor (1944) considered the fow through a screen in an external fow and
developed equations which for K 4 gave reasonable agreement with experiment.
Elder (1959) suggested that his linear theory could be applied to partial screens
in internal fow situations as long as the restrictions on spanwise resistance variation
were satisfed and thus K < 1. Elder (1959) produced no experimental data to
validate this statement. The method due to McCarthy (1964) may also be applied
to fow through partial screens.
Koo & James (1973) devised a mathematical model for steady two-dimensional
fow through a partial screen. In the model the screen is replaced by a source
distribution and the stream function adjusted to give the correct mass and momen
tum fow across the screen. Reasonable accuracy was obtained with K values up to
10. Theoretical profles produced using Elder (1959) were also compared with their
experimental results and gave reasonable results for K < 2 with signifcant de
partures for higher values.
Graham (1976) extended the quasi-steady theories of Davenport (1961) and
Vickery (1965) to the drag of plane lattice-like structures in a fnite external fow.
He used the method of Taylor (1944) and Blockley (1968) for the fow past and
through the screen and a simplifed version of the work of Hunt (1972, 1973) treating
the turbulence in the linearized approach fow by a rapid distortion theory.
Following Bearman (1969) and Roberts (1971), drag, admittance, and velocity spectra
upstream of the screen are reasonably predicted for values of K < 4.
Flow Through Multiple Screens
Davis (1957) and Elder (1959) have considered fow through two shaped-gauze
screens sufciently close to each other to cause interference. (Though no experi
mental comparisons were included.)
For a single plane gauze screen it has been mentioned previously that a screen
with K = (2-B)/(I-B) produced a uniform profle whatever the profle upstream
of the screen. Davis (1957) has shown that two aerodynamically interfering plane
screens cannot completely remove the upstream velocity variation. However, they
can remove a particular harmonic component. Even if one of the screens has
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258 LA WS & LIVESEY
K 2.8 the screen arrangement will not produce uniformity unless the screens are
positioned sufciently far apart (theoretically infnite spacing) for interference efects
to be negligible.
For zero separation, in which case the screens are overlayed, the two values of
K, K [, and K
2
are related by
1
2(K
1
+
K
2
) = 1
+
(
1
-B
d(l
-
82)'
Thus if two screens satisfy this relationship they will produce uniformity at zero
separation, which will always incur a higher pressure loss than the single gauze
screen. Therefore, in general, a single screen will be preferred for this application
(see Category 3).
The advantage of using two screens lies in the fact that there is an extra parameter
that may be varid. namely the spacing of the screens. With any two screens, no
matter what the values of K, it will always be possible to space them such that they
remove at least a particular harmonic component; with a single screen only
K 2.8 would produce uniformity.
It must be noted that in obtaining the resistance coefcient of an overlay of
two gauze screens it is not sufcient to add the resistance coefcients of the
individual screens. Indeed, in some circumstances it is possible for the resistance
coefcient of the combined screen to be less than that of either of the individual
screens. Care must be taken in the orientation of wires in overlayed screens so that
the combined screen porosity can be estimated.
Velocity Profle Decay
Baines & Peterson (1951) commented that 5-10 mesh lengths downstream of any
screen were necessary
'
to ensure reasonably good fow establishment. In most
experimental investigations, however, a duct diameter has been allowed before
measurements have been made. Further from the screen the velocity distribution
will decay as the shears within the generated profle establish a turbulence structure
that interacts with the mean fow.
At the present time, when some sophistication in generating techniques is
available, little is known about the profle decay rate. Livesey & Turner (1964b)
have shown that the decay rate can have a signifcant efect on the behavior of
downstream components, and therefore the simulation technique will have to
reproduce the velocity distribution and additionally the complete turbulence
structure of the fow.
The practical difculties of achieving such a complete simulation will probably
lead to a focus on the more easily measured feature, namely the decay rate of
the velocity distribution, with some simple boundary conditions. It is quite clear
that turbulence decay rates must also be considered.
An investigation undertaken by Lim (1977) under the supervision of the authors
of this review will provide much useful insight into profle decay with associated
turbulence structure.
If the features of profle decay were understood, the possibility of generating
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1.0
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06
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x PARTIAL GAUZE
o SHAPED GAUZE
(a)
Nondimensional velocity distribution
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06
4
FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 259
x PARTIAL GAUZe
o SHAPED GAUZE
0
. 0
(b)
Longitudinal turbulence intensity
Filure 5 Velocity and turbulence profles measured downstream of diferent screens :
X, 7.5D downstream of partial screen, 0, 5.5D downstream of shaped-gauze screen.
profle and turbulence structure independently could be achieved, not only using
the methods previously described but in addition by using the decay phenomenon.
Lack of space precludes further discussion on this point. However, as an example,
Figure 5a shows two practically identical profles produced downstream of two
entirely diferent generators. One profle was producd 7.5 diameter downstream
of a partial gauze screen, the other 5.5 diameters downstream of a complete
shaped-gauze screen. Figure 5b illustrates the longitudinal intensities /U
2
/UL
measured at the same planes.
CATEGORY 3: SCREENS AND TURBULENCE
It is necessary to identify two basic roles for screens either as turbulence sup
pressors or turbulence generators. In the suppressor role the downstream turbulence,
in both intensity and scale, is reduced from any upstream value. The screens are
typically of very fne mesh, avoiding the introduction of turbulence due to the
screen (by operation at low Reynolds number) or ensuring that the scale and
intensity of such generated turbulence is small enough to guarantee its very rapid
downstream decay. In the generator role the turbulence downstream is of high
intensity (typically 10 per cent or higher) and is often achieved deliberately with
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260 LA WS & LIVESEY
control of scale and intensity by choice of element width (wire or rod diameter),
mesh size and Reynolds number with a typically coarser mesh, higher solidity and
operating at higher Reynolds number. The generated turbulence, initially much
higher in intensity than any upstream turbulence, decays giving in the decay
(intensity falls, scale grows) a further control of intensity and scale.
Previously in this review the generation or suppression of turbulence by the
screen has been largely ignored (but see Category 2: Velocity Profle Decay). Any
arbitrary generated time-mean velocity profle, as well as containing possible
turbulence originating from the screen elemelts, will immediately begin to establish
a turbulence structure dependent on the shear distribution and varying with its
interaction with the time-mean velocity profle, as afected by the boundary con
ditions. This review would not therefore be complete without a brief mention of the
associated features of turbulence suppression and generation by screens. Here an
up-to-date sketch with signposts to sources is all that is attempted.
For an introduction to concepts, terminology, and measurements see Bradshaw
(1971) and Tennekes & Lumley (1972), and for the more specifc basic physics
and the historical context see Batchelor (1967), Townsend (1976), and Corrsin
(1963). A recent relevant review with excellent sources in the references and biblio
graphy is contained within Loehrke & Nagib (1972).
The General Downstream Flow
Some of the complicated features of the development of the time-mean velocity
profles and their inherent turbulent structures for arbitrarily generated velocity
profles have already been considered in relation to the decay processes (see
Category 2). Features of simpler fows lead to a greater understanding. Owen &
Zienkiewicz (1957) explained the relative permanence in the x-direction of a linear
velocity profle (du/dy constant) in terms of a conjectured constant eddy viscosity
expected downstream of a screen. Rose ( 1966), for a homogeneous turbulent shear
flow obtained the result, predicted by Corrsin ( 1963), of uniform constant turbulence
intensity and shear stress coupled with scale increasing with distance from the
screen. Later, Rose ( 1970) demonstrated that the turbulence scale imposed initially
by the screen fxed the level of the turbulence intensity. Below some minimum
initial scale the turbulence always decayed. Richards & Morton (1976), investigating
fows with quadratic time-mean velocity profles [constant total strain (x/V) dV/dyJ,
achieved sufciently large strain magnitude (> 3) to demonstrate that the initial
fndings of Rose (1966) were appropriate to only low strains and that turbulence
intensitics began to increase again at a certain distance from the screen. These
results confrmed that states of equilibrium are not reached in these simple develop
ing shear fows. In the references quoted very detailed measurements are available
of intensities, stresses, scales and occasionally spectra.
The generated arbitrary time-mean velocity profle with its arbitrary initial
turbulence structure is thus a truly complex turbulent fow. The description of
these fows in experimentally measured forms is very complicated, and the pre
diction of their behavior awaits the further development of the turbulence modelling,
closure, and prediction procedures surveyed by Reynolds (1976). An additional
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 261
feature adds to the complication. The generated shear fows are occasionally found
to be unstable in the classical sense, relating to the origin of the turbulent nature
of the fow, with characteristic, sometimes nearly periodic, large-scale energetic
eddies. These narrow band-width instabilities do not appear to be capable of
precise prediction. Clearly an average Reynolds number based on defect velocity
and zone width defned in an integral manner should be kept high; values less
than 500 might be regarded as indicative of these instability problems. These
fows may involve acoustic interactions with noise and vibration of screen elements
and adjacent boundaries (Loehrke & Nagib 1972). The interactions are predictable
if the basic frequencies are available. The features are particularly evident in fow
distributions that contain multiple adjacent shear layers.
Suppression of Turbulence
Good concise discussions concerning suppression of turbulence by screens are found
in eorrsin (1963), Townsend (1961), and Bradshaw & Pankhurst (1964). Loehrke &
Nagib (1972) list sources extensively, and although their discussion is instructive
it is somewhat confused by its consideration of some unusual specifc suppression
devices.
The aim basically is to obtain as uniform a mean fow, spatially, as possible, in
order to avoid further turbulence generation, and to remove existing turbulence or
reduce it to an acceptable low level. The production of a uniform mean fow has
already been discussed (see Category 2). If the local Reynolds number Ud/fv of the
wires is greater than 80 (the normal situation) the wire wakes will be turbulent and
the screen will contribute turbulence to the fow. For sufciently fne screens this
turbulence is of small scale and decays, 500 mesh lengths being allowed for this
process. The initial plane screen (K 2.8), normal to the fow, producing a uniform
flow implies a solidity greater than 0.45, and the occurrence of downstream
instability (see Category 2). Again, with a sufciently fne mesh screen, together
with a decay length, the added turbulence will be small and any remaining spatial
non uniformity may be dealt with by the later successive lower-solidity, stable-fow,
turbulence-suppressing screens. Taylor & Batchelor (1949), using a linear theory for
isotropic turbulence, indicated the selective efect of a screen on the longitudinal
and lateral turbulence components. The isotropic turbulence becomes axisymmetric
and the attenuation of the longitudinal component is much greater than that of
the lateral component. The magnitudes of the attenuations are not well predicted
and experimental values (Batchelor 1967, Townsend 1961) should be used in design.
Attention nee only be focused on the required reduction in the lateral component.
The lateral component attcnuation varies like (1 + K) - 1/2, and therefore several
screens are more efcient than one screen for the samc pressure drop. A fnal decay
length will normally enable a fnal intensity of 0.2 per cent to be achieved, dependent
upon the scale of the ducting and the infuence of the turbulent boundary layers on
the main fow. For ducts that are suitably large, a further order of magnitude
reduction in intensity is possibly by use of a suitable contraction in duct area of
carefully profled design [see Corrsin ( 1963) and Bradshaw & Pankhurst ( 1964)].
The greatest uncertainty in the above is the efect of the small-scale turbulence
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262 LA WS & LIVESEY
added by the fne-mesh screens because of the impracticability of operation at low
enough wire Reynolds number. A further difculty is the efect of upstream
turbulence on the performance of the screens. Both difculties are identifed as
signifcant by Schubauer et al (1950) and Loehrke & Nagib (1972). The frst difculty
is the more signifcant. The additional large wave-number energy should increase
the spectral transfer rate of the existing smaller wave-number energy and increase
its decay rate. What is unknown is the effect of the wave-number ratio, which
could presumably be too large. The mesh sizes of the screens are therefore usually
equal or in cascade, starting with the largest mesh frst, with mesh size ratios,
screen to screen, of approximately 2 and with adequate decay lengths between
screens. Availability, strength, handling, fabrication and the feasibility of cleaning
usually dictate the fnest screen. Gauze screens may be inappropriate for high-density
fows and liquid fows in particular. Here strength considerations dictate element
diameters implying Reynolds numbers in the vortex shedding range and the higher
dynamic loadings lead to fatigue failures. A solution is provided by the honeycomb
type of screens, which is also generally useful if swirl or initiaIIy high transverse
velocities are present. Lumley (1964) and Lumley & McMahon (1967) give a
treatment parallelling the approach described above for gauze screens and provide
systematic design information. The description of the downstream decay of the
generated turbulence due to the honeycomb is the least satisfactory treatment of
their work.
Generation of Turbulence
The simplest convenient method of generating turbulence is by means of screens of
relatively coarse mesh and diameter (more commonly referred to as grids) of
solidities typically OJ-O.4 placed normal to a uniform upstream fow of low
turbulence. Parallel cylinder arrays and biplane orthogonal square grids, of either
cylinders or square section bars, and commercial woven mesh grids as well as
punched plates have all been used. At a sufciently large distance downstream
(40 mesh lengths), the turbulence is near to homogeneous and nearly isotropic
[longitUdinal to transverse velocity ratio (rms) 1.15]' The intensity is highest near
to the grid and usually the variation downstream has been expressed as
U2jU = b(x-xo)jMK,
where b is approximately 100 (biplane grid Mid 5) or 50 for a single row of rods.
The virtual origin Xo is approximately 10 M. The intensity and energy ratio are
seen to be larger for larger K, but high K implies high solidity and possibly
extreme downstream inhomogeneity of unacceptable magnitude for these coarse
grids. The longitudinal integral length scale is typicaIIy like
Mid 5.
Approximate representations of the longitudinal correlation coefcient and spectrum
are
Rll(r, 0, 0) = u exp (-rIL)
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 263
Choice of turbulence properties are thus available within the decay downstream of
the grid. The above relationships are nearly independent of Reynolds number. For
detailed consideration of appropriate turbulence Reynolds numbers see Corrsin
(1963). It is difcult to generate intensities much higher than 10 per cent by grids
alone. Signifcantly higher intensities approaching 50 per cent (questionably
indicated by hot wire anemometer) may be obtained by difusing the fow, by
means of an area increase, lowering the time-mean velocity of the main fow. Control
of uniformity of the fow and homogeneity are poor but are aided by the initially
high turbulence levels of the grid-generated turbulence. Area divergence rates up to
twice conventional values (10 rather than 5 included angle cones) may be used
without separation of the duct boundary layers.
More recently jet grids have been used [Gad-el-Hak & Corrsin (1974)J with jet
injection into the wakes of the grid elements, using both downstream and upstream
injection. Cofow injection produces lower turbulence intensities and scales, counter
fow injection gives higher intensities and scales. Associated with sufciently high
injection rates, both cofow and counterfow, but especially the latter, are instabilities
like those obtained with high-solidity passive grids. The active jet grid gives more
control of turbulence intensity and scale magnitudes but at the expense of control
of homogeneity of both the turbulence and the mean fow. Gad-el-Hak & Corrsin
(1974) give details of turbulence intensities, scales, decays and spectra for their jet
grid. In the same paper are summarized the results, in tabular form, of no less than
twelve previous papers on both passive and active grids giving the turbulence
component magnitudes and decays in the diferent form
[or B(x/M)"J,
where x is the distance from the grid, which apparently described the results
sufciently well. Values of B, b, n for some or all of the component energies as well
as the grid Reynolds number Rm are quoted together with the details of the
grids employed.
SUMMARY
The wider engineering application of screens cannot be covered completely here,
and no more than a few examples with pertinent references can be included.
Gauze screens have been used in difusers to reduce fow separation and produce
uniform exit fows (Schubauer & Spangenburg 1948). With a gauze screen in
conjunction with a difuser of specifed wall design, wide-angle difusion in a short
overall length with little separation and uniform outlet profle is possible (Gibson
1959, Kachhara et aI1976). Gibbings (1973) has designed a pyramid gauze difuser.
Carefully positioned screens in jet engines have been used as efective noise
reduction devices (Callaghan & Coles 1955).
Aerodynamically designed sails (Barakat 1964) and fshing nets (Morgan 1966)
are similar applications of the screen (porous sheet), as is the design of shaped
flter bodies serving the dual role of fow conditioners.
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264
LA WS & LIVESEY
Future work that is needed in relation to this review and to which one might
hopefully look forward includes:
CATEGORY 1 Systematic design of specifc property actuator sheets glVlng
independent control of K and B. The manufacturing problem would be difcult but
is immediately feasible for two dimensions and axial symmetry, e.g. the low-loss
high-defection cascade, and the expanded metal plate with preferred defection
direction. For three dimensions new conceptions are required if we are to be
limited by planar screens, but the possibility for uniform screens of low loss
deformed out of the plane are clear.
CATEGORY 2 Generalization of the actuator sheet concept to cover arrays varying
in form from diferent classes of bluf bodies through to specifc property screens.
Higher-order extensions of existing theoretical models probably by wholly
numerical methods.
Three-dimensional calculation methods, initially rotational and in viscid, modifed
by dissipation and possibly in appropriate cases treating the upstream and down
stream turbulence by rapid distortion theory and eventually incorporating fuller
turbulence modelling.
CATEGORY 3 Efect of wave-number ratio of added screen-generated turbulence
on spectral transfer rates in relation to turbulence suppression and screen-to-screen
in terference.
Prediction methods for the behavior (de
v
elopment/decay) of arbitrary time-mean
profles accounting for initial turbulence structure and development.
Considered separately would be instability onset predictions and the possibility
. of high-energy stable arrays in general fows generated by screens.
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FLOW THROUGH SCREENS 265
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