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PRAJAPATI, BHADRESH A [AG/1630]

From:

djtillack@aol.com

Sent:

Thursday, April 08, 2010 8:52 PM

To:

PRAJAPATI, BHADRESH A [AG/1630]

Subject:

Re: Effect of tungsten on iron-nickel alloy

Mr. Prajapati,

In your original inquiry you said that you wanted to know about the effect of tungsten on iron nickel alloy. My response to y primarily centered around iron nickel alloys.

You have clarified your request by asking about the effect of tungsten on Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, specifically about the statements an article by Avesta Sheffield.

I agree with the statements made in the Avesta Sheffield article. Tungsten is a heavy element and is prone to segregation.

tends to form deleterious phases, such as Laves, which lowers corrosion resistance in addition to negatively affecting mec

properties. The precipitation of unwanted phases, such as chi, sigma and Laves, usually occurring during a slow cool-dow high temperature or by exposure to intermediate temperatures during service. For this reason, some of the N-Cr-Mo alloys recommended for use at intermediate temperatures.

These phases are harmful for several reasons. They are, themselves, brittle and thus lower the ductility of the base materi also tie up elements that impart corrosion resistance, notable chromium. In this regard they are similar to the sensitization stainless steels caused by chromium carbide precipitation. In many of the stainless steels, phases similar to the ones discu above, such as sigma, can also form during exposure to intermediate temperatures.

It should be kept in mind that the difference in corrosion resistance between a 7Mo alloy and a 5Mo2W alloy might be a fa aggressive corrosive environments but the formation of deleterious phases is often a function of the processing and expos history of the alloy.

I hope these comments are helpful.

Donald J. Tillack Technical Consultant to the Nickel Institute DJTillack@aol.com

-----Original Message----- From: PRAJAPATI, BHADRESH A [AG/1630] <bhadresh.a.prajapati@monsanto.com> To: djtillack@aol.com Sent: Mon, Apr 5, 2010 12:56 pm Subject: RE: Effect of tungsten on iron-nickel alloy

Dear Donald,

I appreciate your response. I asked the question, because we were told that the replacement of “Molybdenum” with

“Tungsten”, I.e. adding tungsten in Ni-Cr-Mo alloy to replace some of Mo is not desirable (Research by Avesta Sheffield AB in Sweden). According to paper, the W is susceptible to segregate and create “Laves Phase” at grain boundary, that result in poor corrosion resistance, This is also called Sensitization of stainless steel.

I am wondering if you can elaborate the concept or give your comment on concept.

For your reference, I am forwarding the research work.

Thank you Bhadresh Prajapati

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From: djtillack@aol.com [mailto:djtillack@aol.com] Sent: Monday, April 05, 2010 10:29 AM To: PRAJAPATI, BHADRESH A [AG/1630] Cc: JMcGurn@nickelinstitute.org Subject: Effect of tungsten on iron-nickel alloy

Mr. Prajapati,

The Nickel Institute has asked me to respond to your inquiry regarding the effect of tungsten on the corrosion resistance of iron-nickel alloys.

Tungsten additions to nickel-chromium-iron alloys does increase corrosion resistance. One of the commonly used pitting resistance equations has tungsten rated the same as molybdenum and niobium with regard to resisting pitting corrosion:

PREN = Cr + 1.5(Mo + W + Nb) + (30 X N). The tungsten acts as a matrix stiffener, or solid solution strengthener, as well as assisting in resisting corrosive attack.

The above comments are for NiCrFe alloys. When chromium is eliminated, however, as in the case of FeNi alloys, the role of W changes somewhat. Chromium and tungsten (and other elements as well) are powerful carbide formers. When there is a considerable amount of chromium present, chromium carbides form (normally as Cr23C6). When there is no chromium, however, tungsten carbides can form, which effectively take the tungsten out of solution which can decrease corrosion resistance. Both Mo and W are heavy elements and tend to segregate during cooling, which is a particular problem during welding and the very rapid cooling rates associated with that process. This is the reason that alloys with Mo contents are usually welded with electrodes that are considerably higher in Mo than the base metal.

With FeNI alloys with additions of Mo, the Mo does not readily form carbides. If the Mo is replaced (either all or in part) with W, the corrosion resistance would decrease primarily due to the formation of tungsten carbides, thus lowering the corrosion resistance of the material.

I hope this answers your question satisfactorily. Please let us know if you have additional questions.

Donald J. Tillack Technical Consultant to the Nickel Institute DJTillack@aol.com

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