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Cancer 1: A furled and an unfurled flag displayed from a vessel C ap ri cor n 1: An I ndi a n chi e f d e ma ndi n g r ecog ni t i on T h e f i r s t m o t i f c o n c e r n s AUT HORIT

Y F I GU RE S . T h e v e r b f ur l me a n s t o f o r m i n t o a c yl i n d e r b y r o l l i n g . 1 E v e n t h o u g h i t c on t a i n s o n l y o n e s y l l a b l e , i t i s a c t u a l l y f o r m e d f r o m t w o I n d o - E u r o p e a n ( I E ) r o o t s. T he f i rs t o f t h e s e r o o t s i s dh er -2 w h i c h m e a n s t o ho l d , f i r m l y , s up p o r t . 2 P a r o n y m s o f t he k e y w o r d i n c l u d e s irda r ( a p e r s o n o f hi g h r a n k , e s p e c i a l ly i n I n d i a ) , ta h s i l da r ( a d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l i n I n d i a i n c h a r g e o f r e v e n u e s a n d t a x a t i o n ) , a n d za m in da r ( a n o f f i c i a l i n p r e -c o l o n i a l I n d i a a s si g n e d t o co l l e c t t he l a n d t a x e s o f h i s d i st r i c t ) . The keyword chief means one who is highest in rank or a u t h o r i t y ; a le a d e r. 3 I t d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e I E r o o t k a put - w h i c h m e a n s h e a d a n d i t s p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e c a pt ai n, c h i e ft a in, c o rp o ra l , a n d h ea d. 4 T h e w o r d d e ma ndi n g d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I E r o o t man -2 wh i c h m e a n s h a n d a n d i t s p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e m a n a ge r a n d

c o m m a n de r.

T h e s e c o n d m ot i f co n c e r n s I NDIA NS . R e c a l l t ha t t he t h re e a ut h o r i t y f i g u r e s t h a t we r e p a r o n ym s o f f ur led a l l i n v o l v e d o f f i c i a l s a n d p e r s on s o f r a n k i n t he co u n t r y o f In di a . T h e s e c o n d S a b i a n s y m b o l c o n t a i n s t he k e y w o r d I n di an .

A t h i r d m o t i f c on c e r n s WAVE S . T h e k e y w o r d f l ag d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e IE r o o t p la k-1 w h i ch m e a n s t o b e f l a t a n d o n e o f i t s p a r o n y m s i s f l o w. 5

1 2 3 4 5

http://onelook.com/?w=furl&ls=a Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo -European Roots, p. 18 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/chie f Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 37 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo -European Roots, p. 67

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e O n l i n e Et ym o l o gy D ic t i o na ry , t he w o r d I n di a n e n t e re d E n g li s h f r om t h e L a t i n In di a , b y w a y o f t h e G re e k In di a m e a n i n g r e gi o n o f t h e I n d u s R i ve r a n d l a t e r u se d t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e g i on b e h i n d i t . T h e s e t w o t e r m s d e s c e n d u l t i m a t e l y , f r o m t h e S a n s k r i t s in dh u w h i c h m e a n s ri v e r . 6 T h e w o r d r i v e r d e s c e n d s f r o m I E r o o t r e i -1 w h i c h me a n s t o s c ra t c h, t e a r , c u t . 7 O n e o f i t s p a r o n y ms i s rip p le ( t o f o r m o r d i s p l a y li t t le u n d u l a t i o n s o r w a ve s o n t h e s u r f a ce , a s d i s t u r b e d w a t e r d o e s ) .

A f o u r t h m o t i f c o n c e r n s EA S INE SS . O n e o f t he p a r o n ym s o f f l a g i s c o mp la i s an t w h i c h me a n s E x h i b i t i n g a d e s i re o r w i l l i n gn e s s t o p l e a se ; c h e e r f u l l y o b l i g i n g. 8 T h e a n t on y m o f d ema ndi ng i s u n d e m a n d i n g a n d i t s d e fi n i t i on s i n c l u d e n o t n e e d i n g m u c h p h y s i ca l or m e n t a l e f f o r t . 9 B o t h c o m p l a is a nt a n d un de m a n di n g a r e s yn o n y m s o f e a s y .

A f i f t h m o t i f co n c e r n s KNOWL EDGE . O n e o f t he p a r o n ym s o f f u rl i s dh a rma , on e d e f i n i t i o n o f w h i c h i s k n o w l e d g e o f o r du t y t o u n d e r t a k e co n d u c t s e t f o r t h b y t h e B u d d h a a s a w a y t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . 10 T h e k e y w o r d r eco gn i t i on d e s ce n d s f r om t h e I E r o ot g no - w h i c h m e a n s t o k n o w . 11 I t s p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e kn o wl e dge a n d gn o s i s , i n t u i t i v e a p p re h e n s i o n o f s p i r i t ua l t r u t h s , a n e so t e r i c fo r m o f k n o w l e d g e s o u g h t b y t h e Gn o s t i c s. 12

A s i x t h m o t i f i n v o lv e s RE L I GIO N . R e c a l l t ha t t he k e yw o r d f u rl i s f o r m e d f r o m t w o I E r o o t s . T h e s e c o n d o f t he s e i s le i g - 1 w h i c h m e a n s t o b i n d . 13 O n e o f t h e k e y w o r d s p a r o n y m s i s re l i gi on .

6 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=India 7 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 70 8 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/complaisant 9 http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/undemanding#undemanding_3 10 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / d h a r m a 11 W a t k i n s , C . ( 2 0 0 0 ) , T h e A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y o f I n d o E u r o p e a n R o o t s , p p . 3 2 12 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / g n o s i s 13 W a t k i n s , c . ( 2 0 0 0 ) , T h e A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y o f I n d o - E u r o p e a n R o o t s , p . 4 7

O n e o f t he p a r o n ym s r e cog ni t i o n i s Gn o s t i ci s m w h i c h i s a r e l i g i o u s m o v e me n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a b e li e f i n g n o si s, t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e sp i r i t u a l e l e m e n t i n m a n c ou l d b e r e l e a s e d f r om i t s b o n d a g e i n m a t t e r : r e g a r d e d a s a he r e s y b y t h e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h . 14

A s e v e n t h m o t i f i n v o l v e s BOD IE S O F WATE R . P a r o n y m s o f f l ag i n c l u d e p l a ya ( a t e m p o r a r y l a k e , o r i t s d r y o f t e n sa l t y b e d , i n a d e s e r t b a si n ) a n d a rc h i p e la go ( a s e a , s u c h a s t h e A e g e a n , co n t a i n i n g a la r g e n u mb e r o f s c a t t e r e d i s la n d s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e O n l i n e Et ym o l o gy D ic t i o na ry , t he w o r d I n di a n e n t e re d E n g li s h f r om t h e L a t i n In di a , b y w a y o f t h e G re e k In di a m e a n i n g r e gi o n o f t h e I n d u s R i ve r a n d l a t e r u se d t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e g i on b e h i n d i t . T h e s e t w o t e r m s d e s c e n d u l t i m a t e l y , f r o m t h e S a n s k r i t s in dh u w h i c h m e a n s ri v e r . 15

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14 h t t p : / / w w w . c o l l i n s d i c t i o n a r y . c o m / d i c t i o n a r y / e n g l i s h / g n o s t i c i s m 15 h t t p : / / w w w . e t y m o n l i n e . c o m / i n d e x . p h p ? t e r m = I n d i a

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