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CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASE 1 (a) The following information is about two solution of ethanoic acid.

Maklumat berikut adalah tentang dua larutan asid etanoik.

Solution A
Larutan A

Ethanoic acid dissolve in water.

: Asid etanoik dilarutkan dalam air

Solution B : Ethanoic acid dissolve in propanone


Larutan B : Asid etanoik dilarutkan dalam propanon

Explain why dry blue litmus paper turns red in solution A and remain blue in solution B. Terangkan mengapa kertas litmus biru bertukar merah dalam larutan A dan kekal biru dalam larutan B. [4 marks] (b) In a titration, 22.00 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 25.00 cm3 of sodium hydroxide. Dalam satu pentitratan 22.00 cm3 asid sulfuric 0.1 mol dm-3 diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida. (i) Write the chemical equation of the reaction. Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini. (ii) Calculate the concentration of sodium hydroxide used in this experiment. Hitung kepekatan larutan natrium hidroksida yang digunakan dalam eksperimen ini. [6 marks] Perlis 2008

(a) Using suitable examples, explain what is meant by Dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai, terangkan apakah yang dimaksudkan

(i) (ii)

diprotic acid / Asid dwibes strong acid / asid kuat [ 4 marks ]

(b) Explain why sodium hydroxide solution and aqueous ammonia of the same concentration have different pH value. Terangkan mengapa larutan natrim hidroksida dan larutan ammonia yang mempunyai kepekatan yang sama tetapi berbeza nilai pH. [ 6 marks ]

(c) Describe how to prepare 250 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide starting
from solid potassium hydroxide. Explain how you would prepare 250 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide from above solution. Terangkan bagaimana untuk menyediakan suatu larutan kalium hidroksida yang berisipadu 250 cm3 dan kepekatan 1.0 mol dm-3 bermula daripada pepejal kalium hidroksida. Terangkan juga bagaimana untuk menyediakan suatu larutan yang berisipadu 250 cm3 dan kepekatan 0.1 mol dm-3 [ Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : H, 1; O, 16; K, 39] [ 10 marks ] Terangganu 2008

3. Table 3 shows the pH values of hydrochloric acid with different concentration. Jadual 3 menunjukkan nilai pH bagi asid hidroklorik dengan kepekatan yang berlainan Concentration (mol dm3 ) Kepekatan ( mol dm3 ) 0.1 0.01 0.001 pH value Nilai pH 1 2 3

Table 3 [Jadual 3] (a) Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. What is meant by strong acid? Asid hidroklorik adalah asid kuat. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan asid kuat? ...... [1 mark] (b) Predict the concentration of hydrochloric acid which has a pH value of 4. Ramalkan kepekatan asid hidroklorik dengan nilai pH 4. ..... [1 mark] (c) Calculate the volume of 0.01 moldm3 hydrochloric acid that is required to prepare 1000 cm3 of hydrochloric acid with a pH value of 3. Hitungkan isipadu asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-3 yang diperlukan untuk menyediakan 1000 cm3 asid hidroklorik dengan pH 3.

[2 marks] (d) The pH value of 0.1 mol dm of ethanoic acid is 4 while the pH value of 0.1 mol dm 3 of hydrochloric acid is 1. Explain why. Nilai pH bagi 0.1 mol dm -3 asid etanoik ialah 4 manakala nilai pH bagi 0.1 mol dm -3 asid hidroklorik ialah 1. Terangkan mengapa. .................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................
3

.............................................................................................................................. [2 marks]

(e) When excess 0.2 mol dm3 of lead(II) nitrate solution is added to 100 cm 3 of 0.1 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid, lead(II) chloride is precipitated. Apabila 0.2 mol dm3 larutan plumbum(II) nitrat yang berlebihan di campurkan kepada 100 cm3 0.1 mol dm3 asid hidroklorik, plumbum (II) klorida dimendakan. (i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction that has taken place. Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. ..... [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the mass of lead (II) chloride that is precipitated. Hitungkan jisim plumbum (II) klorida yang termendak.

[3 marks] (iii) The lead (II) chloride precipitate is filtered. Predict the observation that will take place when calcium carbonate powder is added to the filtrate. Mendakan plumbum (II) klorida terbentuk dituras. Serbuk kalsium karbonat dicampurkan kepada hasil turasannya. Nyatakan pemerhatian anda. ..... [1 mark] 4. (a) Diagram 3 shows the set-up of apparatus to prepare two solutions of hydrogen chloride in solvent X and solvent Y. Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menyediakan dua larutan hydrogen klorida didalam pelarut X dan pelarut Y. Hydrogen chloride Hidrogen klorida Hydrogen chloride Hidrogen klorida

Solvent X Pelarut X Beaker A Bikar A Beaker B Bikar B

Solvent Y Pelarut Y

Diagram 3 [ Gambarajah 3]

Table 5 shows the pH values of two solutions of hydrogen chloride in solvent X and solvent Y Solution Larutan Hydrogen chloride in solvent X Hidrogen klorida dalam pelarut X Hydrogen chloride in solvent Y Hidrogen klorida dalam pelarut Y Table 5 [Jadual 5] pH Value Nilai pH 7 1

(i)

Name possible substances that can be solvent X and solvent Y Namakan bahan yang mungkin adalah pelarut X dan pelarut Y [ 2 marks]

(ii)

Describe an experiment to differentiate the two solutions of hydrogen chloride in solvent X and solvent Y Huraikan satu ujian kimia untuk membezakan dua larutan hidrogen klorida di dalam pelarut X dan pelarut Y [ 6 marks]

Selangor 2008

(a)

Explain why the pH values of these two acids are different. [4 marks]

(b) The two solutions are tested with a dry red litmus paper and the results are tabulated below: Solution Ammonia in chloroform Ammonia in water Observation No change in colour Red litmus paper turns blue

Explain why only the aqueous ammonia solution turns red litmus paper blue. [5 marks]
SBP 2007

Perils 2008 Question 1. (a)

Answer Ethanoic acid ionizes in water produce H + ions The present of H+ ions shows the acidity Ethanoic acid in propanone, cannot ionize to form H+ ions//exist as molecules

Marks [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

(b)(i)

No H+ ions cannot shows the acidity H2SO4 + 2 NaOH Na2SO4 + 2 H2O Correct formula of reactant Correct formula of product Balance The no. of mol of H2SO4 =22x0.1/1000//0.0022 Mol of NaOH = 0.0044 Molarity of NaOH= 0.0044x 1000/25// = 0.176 mol dm -3 @ 0.1 x 22 = Mb x 25 2 1

Perils 2008

(a) (i) (a)(ii) (b)

( c)

Acid that will produce two moles of hydrogen ion, H + from one mole of the acid in water. H2SO4 Acid that dissociates completely into hydrogen ion, H + in water. HCl // HNO3 sodium hydroxide is a strong akali that undergoes complete dissociation in aqueous solution Ammonia is weak alkali that undergoes partial dissociation only The concentration of hydroxide ion in sodium hydroxide is higher than in ammonia Hence, the pH of sodium hydroxide is higher than that of ammonia. [calculation] 1.Molar mass of KOH = 39+16+1 = 56 Mass of KOH 2. Mol KOH = 250 x 1.0/1000 = 0.25 3. Mass = mol x molar mass = 0.25 x 56 = 14.0 gram [ preparation of 1.0 mol dm-3 KOH ] 4. Weigh exactly 14.0 g of KOH accurately in a weighing bottle. 5. Dissolve 14.0 g of KOH in a little water in a beaker 6. transfer the contents into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask 7. Rinse the beaker with distilled water and transfer all the contents into the volumetric flask 8. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask until the calibration mark. [ preparation of 0.1 mol dm-3 KOH ] [calculation] Volume of KOH is added 9. M1 x V1 = M2 x V2 V1 = M2 x V2 / M1 10. = 0.1 x 250 / 1 = 25 cm3 11. 25.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 KOH is transfer to 250 cm3 using 25.0 cm3 pipette. 12. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask until the calibration mark. TOTAL

1 1..2 1 1..2 1 1 1 1..4 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1.. 12 20

Terangganu 2008

(a)

[able to state the meaning of strong acid correctly] Example: A chemical substance / compound that can ionize completely in water To produce hydrogen ion 1 1 ......2

(b) (c)

[able to state the concentration of hydrochloric acid] 0.0001 mol dm-3 [able to calculate the concentration of hydrochloric acid correctly] Example: M1V1= M2V2 0.01 x V1 = 0.001 x 1000 V1 = 100cm3 [able to explain the difference in the concentration of hydrogen ion in hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid] 1. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, ethanoic acid is a weak acid.//Hydrochloric acid ionizes completely in water, ethanoic acid ionizes partially in water. 2. The concentration of hydrogen ions in hydrochloric is 1 ..2 higher than that in ethanoic acid. [able to write balance equation] (i) (ii) Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl PbCl2 + 2HNO3 [able to calculate the mass of lead(II) chloride formed] No of mole HCl = 0.01 mol From the equation 2 mol of HCl : 1 mol of 1 mol of lead(II) chloride 0.01 mol of HCl : 0.05 mol of lead(II) chloride Mass of lead(II) chloride = 0.005 x 278 = 1.39 g [able to state the observation correctly] Gas bubbles/efferverscence Total 11 1 1 1 1 ...1 1 1 1 .......2 1 .....1

(d)

(e)

(iii )
Selangor 2008

....4

(a)

(i)

[able to name solvent X and Y] 1:Solvent X : tetrachloromethane/methylbenzene/ any organic solvent 2 :Solvent Y : water

1 1

......2

(ii)

[able to describe an experiment to differentiate HCl in solvent X and Y] Procedure 1. Add 1 spatula of magnesium/zinc/calcium carbonate powder 2. into the beakers containing hydrogen chloride in solvent X and solvent Y 3. No noticeble changes occur in beaker A 4. Colourless bubbles formed in beaker B 5. Hydrogen chloride in solvent X/ tetrachloromethane/methylbenzene does not show acidic property 6. Hydrogen chloride in water shows acidic property

1 1 1 1 1 1
.....6

(b) (i)

[Able to identify the correct solution and give reason]

The hydrogen chloride in solvent Y/ water The hydrogen chloride solution will dissociate/ ionize into ions
Selangor 2008

1 1 .....2

(a)

1. pH value of ethanoic acid is higher than nitric acid/hydrochloric acid 2. ethanoic acid is a weak acid; nitric acid is a strong acid 3. ethanoic acid ionises partially in water to produce lower concentration of hydrogen ion 4. nitric acid ionises completely in water to produce higher concentration of hydrogen ion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ammonia exist as molecule in chloroform there are no hydroxide ions present; the solution is not alkaline when ammonia ionises partially in water to produce hydroxide ion NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHthe presence of OH- ions makes the solution alkali

1 1 1 14 1 1 1 1 15

(b)

SBP 2007