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Table of Contents of Project Report: Declaration 1.

Need of Study - Criteria that must be met for marketing to occur - The Marketing Vs. the selling concept - The 4 Ps 2. Key terms 3. Review of subject - What is Marketing - The Marketing Environment -- Elements of the Environment --Environmental Scanning - Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process - SWOT Analysis - Criteria for effective marketing plans - Consumer Behaviour - The Global Marketplace - Marketing Research -- Primary vs. Secondary Research - Electronic Commerce - Economics -- Historical Basics for Trade -- Protectionism -- Justifications for protectionism -- Effects of protectionism -- Efforts to encourage trade -- Stages in International Trade Agreements - Economics Issues - Measuring Country Wealth - Economic Trends - Culture - Political and Legal Influences - Segmentation, Targeting and positioning - Entry Strategies - Market Analysis Tools 4. Opinion of Respondent

5. Hypothesis 6. Major Findings (Conclusion) 7. Suggestions 8. Sample Design 9. Analysis of Data 10. Bibliography 11. Appendix

There are several good reasons for studying marketing. First of all, marketingissues are important in all areas of the organizationcustomers are the reasons why businesses exist! In fact, marketing efforts (including such services as promotion andd i s t r i b u t i o n ) of t e n a c c o u n t for more than half of the price of a product. As an added benefit, studying marketing often helps us become more savvy consumers. W e w i l l learn, for instance, that the per unit price of a bigger package is frequently higher thant h a t o f a s m a l l e r o n e , a n d t h a t m o r e e x p e n s i v e p r o d u c t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y n o t b e t t er i n quality. Criteria that must be met for marketing to occur: Several criteria must bemet for marketing to occur: There must be two parties, each with unsatisfied needs or wants. This want, of course, could be money for the seller. Each must have something to offer. Marketing involves voluntary exchangerelationships where both sides must be willing parties. Thus, a consumer who b u y s a s o f t d r i n k i n a v e n d i n g m a c h i n e f o r 6 0 m u s t v a l u e t h e s o f t d r i n k , available at that time and place, more than the money. Conversely, the vendor m u s t v a l u e t h e m o n e y m o r e . ( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t m o n e y i s , s t r i c t l y speaking, not necessary for this exchange to take place. It is possible, albeit a bitcumbersome, to exchange two ducks for a pair of shoes.) The parties must be able to communicate. This could be through a display in astore, an infomercial, or a posting on eBay. The marketing vs. the selling concept: T w o a p p r o a c h e s t o m a r k e t i n g e x i s t . T h e traditional selling concept emphasizes selling existing products. The philosophy here isthat if a

product is not selling, more aggressive measures must be taken to sell it e.g.,1
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NEED OF STUDY
There are several good reasons for

studying marketing. First of all, marketingissu es are important in all areas of the

organization customers are the reasons why business es exist! In fact, marketing

efforts (including such services as promotion anddistributio n) often account for more than

half of the price of a product. As an added benefit , studying marketing often helps

us become more savvy consumers. We willlearn, for instance, that the per unit price of a bigger

package is frequently higher thanthat of a smaller one, and that more expensive

products are frequently not better inquality. Criteria that must be met for marketing to occur:

Several criteria must bemet for marketing to occur:

There must be two parties, each

with unsatisfied needs or wants. This want, of course, could be

money for the seller.

Each must have something to offer. Marketing involves

voluntary exchangere lationships where both sides must be willing parties. Thus, a consumer

who buys a soft drink in a vending machine for 60 must value the soft drink,availabl

e at that time and place, more than the money. Conversely, the vendor must value the

money more. (It is interesting to note that money is, strictlyspeaki ng, not necessary for

this exchange to take place. It is possible, albeit a bitcumbersom e, to exchange two

ducks for a pair of shoes.)

The parties must be able to communicate. This could be through a

display in astore, an infomercial, or a posting on eBay. The marketing vs. the selling concept:

Two approaches to marketing exist. Thetraditional selling concept emphasizes

selling existing products. The philosophy here isthat if a product is not selling, more

aggressive measures must be taken to sell ite.g.,1

2cutting price, advertising more, or hiring more aggressive (and obnoxious)

sales- people. When the railroads started to lose business due to the advent of more

effectivetruck s that could deliver goods right to the customers door, the railroads cut pricesinstead

of recognizing that the customers ultimately wanted transportation of goods, notnecessaril

y railroad transportation . Smith Corona, a manufacturer of typewriters, wastoo slow

to realize that consumers wanted the ability to process documents and

nottypewriter s per se. The marketing concept, in contrast, focuses on getting consumerswh

at they seek, regardless of whether this entails coming up with entirely new products.

The 4 Ps product, place (distribution), promotion, and price represent thevariables that are

within the control of the firm (at least in the medium to long run). Incontrast, the firm is

faced with uncertainty from the environment. The suggested framework of international

marketing includes motivation for internatio nalization, SWOT analysis, a mix of

international marketing decisions andconsolidat ion of marketing efforts on the basis of

reviewing markets performance. 2

KEY TERM
Re-geocentric orientation: the approach that considers a region as a uniform

marketsegme nt and a firm following this approach adopts a similar marketing strategy

withinthe region but not across the region. Geocentric orientation: the approach that treats

the whole world as a single marketand attempt to formulate integrated

marketing strategies. Self reference criterion: an unconscious reference to ones own

cultural value,experie nce and knowledge as a basis for decision making.

Theory of mercantilism: attributes wealth of a nation by the size of its accumulatedt reasures,

usually measured in terms of gold. A theory that holds that national shouldaccum ulate

financial wealth in the form of gold by encouraging exports anddiscouragi ng imports.

Theory of international product life cycle: the cyclical pattern followed by theinternatio

nal markets over a time due to a variety of factors which explains the shift inthe markets as

well as manufacturin g bases of the firms. Domestic marketing: marketing practice

within the domestic markets. Foreign marketing: methods and practices used in the

home markets and also appliedin overseas markets with little adaptation.

Comparative marketing: Comparative study of two or more marketing system to findout the

differences and similarities.3

REVIEW OF SUBJECT
What is marketing?

Almost every marketing textbook has a different definition of the termmarketi ng. The

American Marketing Association (AMA) uses the following: The process of planning and executing

the conception, pricing, promotion, and distributionof ideas, goods, and services

to create exchanges that satisfy individual andorganizati onal objectives. From this

definition, we see that:

Marketing involves an ongoing process. The environment is dynamic.

Thismeans that the market tends to change what customers want today is notnecessaril

y what they want tomorrow. For example, sales of beef are decliningin the United

States because consumers have become health oriented. Similarly,Tupp erware parties

are less popular today than they once were because there arefewer housewives who do not

work outside the home.

This process involves both planning and implementing (executing) the plan.

Some of the main issues involved include:


o

Marketers help design products, finding out

what customers want andwhat can practically be made available given

technology and priceconstrain ts.


o

Marketers distribute products there must be

some efficient way to getthe products from the factory to the endconsumer.
o

Marketers also promote

products, and this is perhaps what we tend tothink of first when we think of marketing.

Promotion involvesadve rtisingand much more. Other tools to promote products includetrade

promotion (store sales, coupons, and rebates), obtaining favorableand visible shelfspace, and

obtaining favorable press coverage.


o

Marketers also price products to move

them. We know fromeconomi cs that, in most cases, sales correlate negatively

with price the4

5higher the price, the lower the quantity demanded. In some cases,howev er, price may

provide the customer with a signal of quality.Thus, the marketer needs to price the product to

(1) maximize profit and(2) communicate a desired image of the product.


o

Marketing is applicable to

services and ideas as well as to tangible prod ucts. For example, accountants may need to

market their tax preparatio n services to consumers.

THE MARKETING ENVIRONME NT

ELEMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT:

The marketing environment involves factors that, for the most

part, are beyondthe control of the company. Thus, the company must adapt to these

factors. It isimportant to observe how the environment changes so that a firm can adapt

itsstrategies appropriately. Consider these environmental forces:

Competition:

Competitors often creep in and threaten to take away markets fromfirms. For example,

Japanese auto manufacturer s became a serious threat toAmerican car makers in the late

1970s and early 1980s. Similarly, the LotusCorporat ion, maker of one of the first commercially

successful spreadsheets, soon faced competition from other software firms. Note that while

competitionm ay be frustrating for the firm, it is good for consumers. (In fact, we will

come back to this point when we consider the legal environment) . Note thatcompetiti

on today is increasingly global in scope.

Economics: Some firms in particular are extremely

vulnerable to changes in theeconomy. Consumers tend to put off buying a new car, going out to

eat, or building new homes in bad times. In contrast, in good times, firms serving thoseneeds

may have difficulty keeping up with demand.5

Political: Businesses are very vulnerable to changes in the political situation.

For example, because consumer groups lobbied Congress, more stringent rules

weremade on the terms of car leases. The tobacco industry is currently the target of much

negative attention from government and public interest groups. Currently,the desire to

avoid aiding the enemy may result in laws that make it moredifficult for American firms to

export goods to other countries.

Legal:
Firms are very vulnerable to

changing laws and changing interpretation s by the courts. Firms in the U.S. are very vulnerable to

lawsuits. McDonalds, for example, is currently being sued by people who claim that eating the

chainshambu rgers caused them to get fat. Some impacts of the legal environment.

Firms are significantly limited in what they can do by various lawssome laws,for example,

require that disclosures be made to consumers on the effectiveinter est rates they pay on

products bought on installment. A particularlyin teresting group of laws relate to

antitrust. These laws basically exist to promote fair competition among firms.

Some principles involved here include:


o

Collusion: Firms may not conspire to

fix prices (agree that they willnot sell below an agreed upon price) or reduce services.
o

Predation: Firms may not sell their products below their cost of production for the

purpose of driving competitors out of business so thatthey, themselves, can raise

prices when competition is reduced.


o

Market share: Firms which have an unacceptably large market

sharemay be broken up by court order so that many smaller firms will bearound to compete. (This is what

happened to AT&T, and at times, IBMhas been worried about this prospect). Tying: A firm that controls

avaluable product may not require the consumer to buy a morecommon place one to

get the scarce product. For example, Intel controls6

7many of the newest microprocesso rs (e.g., Pentium IV). Intel also makesmother boards for

computers; however, motherboards are made by a lotof firms. Intel would be thought to abuse its

effective monopoly power if it required consumers to buy a motherboard in order to

get its newestchips.

Technological : Changes in technology may significantly

influence the demand for a product. For example, the advent of the fax machine was bad news for

FederalExpres s. The Internet is a major threat to travel agents.

Social:

Changes in customs or demographic s greatly influence firms. Fewer babies today are

being born, resulting in a decreased demand for baby foods.More women work outside the

home today, so there is a greater demand for prepared foods. There are more unmarried

singles today. This providesoppo rtunities for some firms (e.g., fast food restaurants)

but creates problemsfor others (e.g., manufacturer s of high quality furniture that many people

put off buying until marriage). Today, there are more blended families that

result as parents remarry after divorce. These families are often strapped for

money butmay require duplicate items for children at each parents residence.

Environment al scanning:
Its helps the firm understand developments in the market. Such

developments may involve changes in the market place due to social trends (e.g., Gerber, amanufactur

er of baby products, faces a serious challenge with declining U.S. birthrates),

technology (e.g., VCR makers are threatened by DVD players), or new or potential

competitors (e.g., Internet service providers are being threatened by increasingmar keting efforts

from MSN). Note that environmenta l scanning must be performedcon tinuously, since

environmental change does not cease.

Economic cycles :
7

8The economy goes through cycles. In the late 1990s, the U.S. economy wasquite

strong, and many luxury goods were sold. Currently, the economy is somewhatwe ak, and many

firms are facing the results. Car makers, for example, have seendeclining profit margins

(and even losses) as they have had to cut prices and offer lowinterest rates on

financing. Generally, in good economic times, there is a great deal of demand,

but this introduces a fear of possible inflation. In the U.S., the Federal Reservewill

then try to prevent the economy from overheating. This is usually done byraising

interest rates. This makes businesses less willing to invest, and as a result, people

tend to make less money. During a recession, unemployme nt tends to rise,causing consumers to

spend less. This may result in a bad circle, with more peoplelosing their jobs due to lowered

demands. Some businesses, however, may take thisopportunit y to invest in growth now

that things can be bought more cheaply.

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND THE MARKETING PROCESSPla

ns and planning:
Plans are needed to clarify what kinds of strategic objectives an

organizationw ould like to achieve and how this is to be done. Such plans must consider the amountof

resources available. One critical resource is capital. Microsoft keeps a great deal of cash

on hand to be able to jump on opportunities that come about. Small startupsoftwa re firms, on

the other hand, may have limited cash on hand. This means that theymay have to forego what

would have been a good investment because they do not havethe cash to invest and cannot find a

way to raise the capital. Other resources that affectwhat a firm may be able to

achieve include Trademarks/b rand names: It would be verydifficult to compete

factors such as: Patents: It would be difficult to against Cokeand Pepsi in the cola market.

Compete against Intel and AMD in the microprocess or market since both these People:

firms have a number of patents that it is difficult toget around. Even with all of Microsofts money

available, it could not immediatelyhi re the Distribution: Stores have space

people needed to manufacture computer chi ps. For only a fraction of the products they are

offered, so they must turn manyaway. A firm that does not have an established

relationship with stores will be at adisadvantag e in trying to introduce a new product.8

9Plans are subject to the choices and policies that the organization has made.Some

firms have goals of social responsibility, for example. Some firms are willing totake a greater risk,

which may result in a very large payoff but also involve the risk of alarge loss, than others.

Strategic marketing is best seen as an ongoing and neverending process. Typically:

The organization will identify the objectives it wishes to achieve. This couldinvolve profitability

directly, but often profitability is a long term goal that mayrequire some intermediate

steps. The firm may seek to increase market share,achieve distribution in more outlets, have sales

grow by a certain percentage, or have consumers evaluate the product more favorably.

Some organizations haveobjective s that are not focused on monetary profite.g., promoting

literacy or preventing breast cancer.

An analysis is made, taking into consideration issues such

as organizationa lresources, competitors, the competitors strengths, different

types of customers,ch anges in the market, or the impact of new technology.

Based on this analysis,

a plan is made based on tradeoffs between theadvantage s and disadvantages of different

options available.

This strategy is then carried out. The firm may design new products,

revamp itsadvertising strategy, invest in getting more stores to carry the product, or

decideto focus on a new customer segment.

After implementati on, the results or

outcome are evaluated. If results are not asdesired, a change may have to be made to the

strategy. Even if results aresatisfactor y, the firm still needs to monitor the

environment for changes. Levels of planning and strategies: Plans for a firm can be made at

several different levels. At the corporate level ,the management considers the

objectives of the firm as a whole. For example,Micr osoft may want seek to grow by providing

high quality software, hardware, andservices to consumers. To achieve this goal, the

firm may be willing to investaggress ively.9

10Plans can also be made at the business unit level . For example, althoughMicr

osoft is best known for its operating systems and applications software, the firmalso provides

Internet access and makes video games. Different managers will haveresponsi bilities for

different areas, and goals may best be made by those closest to the business area being

considered. It is also more practical to hold managers accountablefo r performance

if the plan is being made at a more specific level. Boeing has bothcommerc ial aircraft and defense

divisions. Each is run by different managers, althoughthere is some overlap in technology

between the two. Therefore, plans are needed bothat the corporate and at the

business levels.Occasio nally, plans will be made at the functional level

, to allow managers tospecialize and to increase managerial accountability . Marketing,

for example, may becharged with increasing awareness of Microsoft game

consoles to 55% of the U.S. populatio n or to increase the number of units of Microsoft

Office sold. Finance may becharged with raising a given amount of capital at a given cost. Manufacturin

g may becharged with decreasing production costs by 5%.The firm needs to

identify the business it is in. Here, a balance must be made sothat the firms scope is not defined

too narrowly or too broadly. A firm may define itsgoal very narrowly and then miss opportunities

in the market place. For example, if Dell were to define itself only as a computer company, it

might miss an opportunity to branch into PDAs or Internet service. Thus, they might instead define

themselves as a provider of information solutions. A company should not define itself

too broadly,howe ver, since this may result in loss of focus. For example, a manufacturer

of bakingsoda should probably not see itself as a manufacturer of all types of chemicals.So

metimes, companies can define themselves in terms of a customer need. For example,

3M sees itself as being in the business of making products whose surfaces are bonded

together. This accounts for both Post-It notes and computer disks.A firms mission

should generally include a discussion of the customers served(e.g., Wal-Mart and

Nordstroms serve different groups), the kind of technologyinv olved, and the

markets served.10

11Several issues are involved in selecting target customers. We will consider

thesein more detail within the context of segmentation , but for now, the firm needs

toconsider issues such as:

The size of various market segments;

How well these segments are being served by existing firms;

Changes in the market

e.g., growth of segments or change in technology;

How the firm should be positioned, or seen by

customers. For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as providing value in retailing,

while Nordstroms definesitself more in terms of high levels of customer service.

The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) matrix provides a firm an opportunity toassess how

well its business units work together. Each business unit is evaluated interms of

two factors: market share and the growth prospects in the market. Generally,the larger a

firms share, the stronger its position, and the greater the growth in amarket, the better future

possibilities. Four combinations emerge:

A star represents a business unit

that has a high share in a growing market. For example, Motorola has a large share in the rapidly

growing market for cellular phon es.

A question mark

results when a unit has a small share in a rapidly growingmark et. The firms position, then, is not as

strong as it would have been had itsmarket share been greater, but there is an opportunity

to grow. For example,Hew lett-Packard has a small share of the digital camera market, but

this is avery rapidly growing market.

A cash cow results when a firm has a

large share in a market that is notgrowing, and may even be shrinking. Brother has a large share of

the typewriter ma rket.

A dog results when a business unit has a

small share in a market that is notgrowing. This is generally a somewhat unattractive

situation, although dogs canstill be profitable in the short run. For example, Smith Corona how has a

smallshare of the typewriter market.11

12Firms are usually best of with a portfolio that has a balance of firms in eachcategory . The cash

cows tend to generate cash but require little future investment. Onthe other hand, stars generate

some cash, but even more cash is needed to invest in thefuture for research and

development, marketing campaigns, and building newmanufact uring facilities. Therefore, a

firm may take excess cash from the cash cow anddivert it to the star. For example, Brother could harvest its

profits from typewritersan d invest this in the unit making color laser printers, which will need the cash

to grow.If a firm has cash cows that generate a lot of cash, this may be used to try to improvethe

market share of a question mark. A firm that has a number of promising stars in its portfolio

may be in serious trouble if it does not have any cash cows to support it. If itis about to

run out of cash regardless of how profitable it is is becomes vulnerableas a takeover

target from a firm that has the cash to continue running it.A SWOT (Strengths, Opportunities,

Weaknesses, and Threats) analysis is usedto help the firm identify effective strategies.

Successful firms such as Microsoft havecertain strengths. Microsoft, for example, has a great deal

of technology, a huge staff of very talented engineers, a great deal of experience in designing

software, a very largemarket share, a well respected brand name, and a great deal of cash.

Microsoft also hassome weaknesses, however: The game console and MSN units are currently

running ata loss, and MSN has been unable to achieve desired levels of growth. Firms may

faceopportuni ties in the current market. Microsoft, for example, may have the opportunityto

take advantage of its brand name to enter into the hardware market. Microsoft

mayalso become a trusted source of consumer services. Microsoft currently

faces severalthreats , including the weak economy. Because fewer new computers are

bough during arecession, fewer operating systems and software packages.Rat her than

merely listing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, aSWOT analysis should

suggest how the firm may use its strengths and opportunities toovercome weaknesses and threats.

Decisions should also be made as to how resourcessho uld be allocated. For example,

Microsoft could either decide to put more resourcesinto MSN or to abandon this unit entirely.

Microsoft has a great deal of cash ready tospend, so the option to put resources toward MSN is available.

Microsoft will also needto see how threats can be addressed. The firm can earn political good will by

engagingin charitable acts, which it has money available to fund. For example,

Microsoft has12

39has been serving a segment of premium quality cellular phone buyers in one countrycan

put its experience to use in another country that features that same segment.

(Eventhough segments may be similar across the cultures, it should be noted that it is

stillnecessary to learn about the local market. For example, although a segment commonacros

s two countries may seek the same benefits, the cultures of each country maycause

people to respond differently to the "hard sell" advertising that has beensuccessf

ul in one).The international product life cycle suggests that product adoption and spread

insome markets may lag significantly behind those of others. Often, then, a segment

thathas existed for some time in an "early adopter" country such as the U.S. or Japan

willemerge after several years (or even decades) in a "late adopter" country such as Britainor

most developing countries. (We will discuss this issue in more detail when we cover the

product mix in the second half of the term). Positioning across markets

Firms often have to make a tradeoff between adapting their products to theunique

demands of a country market or gaining benefits of standardizatio n such as costsavings

and the maintenance of a consistent global brand image. There are no easyanswers

here. On the one hand, McDonalds has spent a great deal of resources to promote its global image;

on the other hand, significant accommodati ons are made tolocal tastes and preferences

for example, while serving alcohol in U.S. restaurantsw ould go against the family image of the

restaurant carefully nurtured over severaldecad es, McDonalds has accommodate

d this demand of European patrons.

ENTRY STRATEGIES
Methods of entry: 39

40With rare exceptions, products just dont emerge in foreign markets overnight a firm has to

build up a market over time. Several strategies, which differ inaggressiven ess, risk, and the amount of

control that the firm is able to maintain, areavailable:

Exporting is a relatively low risk

strategy in which few investments are madein the new country. A drawback is that, because

the firm makes few if anymarketin g investments in the new country, market share

may be below potenti al. Further, the firm, by not operating in the country, learns less

about themarket (What do consumers really want? Which kinds of advertising campaignsare

most successful? What are the most effective methods of distribution?) If animporter

is willing to do a good job of marketing, this arrangement mayrepresent a "win-win" situation, but

it may be more difficult for the firm to enter on its own later if it decides that larger profits can be made

within the country.

Licensing and franchising are also low exposure methods of entryyou

allowsomeone else to use your trademarks and accumulated expertise. Your

partner puts up the money and assumes the risk. Problems here involve the fact that youare

training a potential competitor and that you have little control over how the business

is operated. For example, American fast food restaurants have foundthat foreign

franchisers often fail to maintain American standards of cleanliness.Si milarly, a foreign

manufacturer may use lower quality ingredients inmanufacturi ng a brand based on premium

contents in the home country.

Contract manufacturing involves having someone else

manufacture productswhile you take on some of the marketing efforts yourself. This savesinvestm

ent, but again you may be training a competitor.

Direct entry strategies, where the firm either

acquires a firm or buildsoperati ons "from scratch" involve the highest exposure, but

also the greatestoppor tunities for profits. The firm gains more knowledge about the

local marketand maintains greater control, but now has a huge investment.

In somecountrie s, the government may expropriate assets without

compensatio n, sodirect investment entails an additional risk. A variation involves a

joint venture,wher e a local firm puts up some of the money and knowledge about the

localmarket.4 0

41

MARKET ANALYSIS TOOLS:


Country Map
(Country Map is free to all

users worldwide and does not require alogin or password.)Be nchmarking national and

sectoral trade performance and competitiven ess.Profiles of 184 countries and territories,

freely available. Country Map provides a widerange of analytical tools, including the

Trade Performance Index on exportcompe titiveness, National Export Performance

and Import Profile, the econometrict rade simulation model Trade Sim on bilateral trade

potential and an assessment of thereliability and characteristic s of national

trade statistics. Country Map also includeslinks to Trade Information Sources,

Trade Support Institutions and current ITC projectsfor the country concerned. Trade Map:

Trade statistics for international business development. An online database of global trade

flows in goods and services and tariff measur es for international business development

and trade promotion, providingdeta iled export and import profiles and trends for over 5,300

products in over 200countries and territories. Based on the worlds largest

database COMTRADE, TradeMap presents import/export values and quantities, growth rates,

market shares andmarket access information. It allows users to analyze markets,

select priority countriesfor export diversification , review the performance of competing countries and

assessopport unities for product diversificatio n by identifying existing and potential

trade betwee n countries. Product Map Business information for going global a Web portal

presenting businessinfor mation and intelligence in a product context for 72 product clusters. The

productcluste rs range from agricultural machinery to wood products. Product Map includesmark

et studies, price indicators, links to product information, trade data and links to41

42over 20,000 companies and organizations. Companies can also create their

own basicweb site, which is hosted on the portal. Market Access Map: Making market

access barriers transparent Market Access Map is an interactivedat abase of

tariffs and market access barriers. It contains the market access conditionsapp

lied at the bilateral level by over 170 importing countries to the products exported by over 200

countries and territories. Market Access Maps strength lies in its widegeograph ical coverage;

its taking into account of almost all multilateral, regional and bilateral trade agreements;

the integration of ad valorem equivalents of specific tariffs;as well as certificates and rules of

origin. Market Access Map allows users to analyzethe protection of any geographic grouping and

sectoral aggregation. It also offers the possibilit y of simulating tariff reductions

using various negotiation formulae.Dev eloped by ITC in collaboration with CEPII, UNCTAD and

WTO, Market AccessMap aims to enhance market transparency, support international

trade promotion, andto facilitate the analysis of related trade policy issues.

Investment Map: Identifying foreign investment opportunitiesI nvestment Map is an

interactive web-based tool that combines statistics onforeign direct investment

(FDI), international trade and market access into a single portal. It allows analyses by

country, partner and industry. It also includes informationon the location, sales, employment

and parent company for over 70,000 foreignaffiliat es located in developing countries and economies in

transition. Investment Map,the foreign direct investment with foreign companies, international

trade and tariffs isavailable online free to Sub-Saharan Africa users.42

43

OPINION OF RESPONDE NT

It is a process of executing, planning, effective marketing mix for the purpose of achieving

objects for all those whose involve in the process.

International marketing will helps to

improve to banking facilities andadvantag es.

International marketing

helps to improve to the import & export goods &services.

The informal interviewing

gives valuable indication as to how use.

International marketing is helps to develop good

relations between twocountries and at international level we get best quality product.

The concept of International marketing is necessary to developing countries &

itimproves economic development of country.

International marketing will improve the

quality & quantity of the product.

International marketing improved the competitive

efficiency of forms.

International marketing product is reasonable one customer

like the product andthey keep on demanding.

International marketing

depends product life cycle and individual capacity.43

46

SUGGESTI ONS

Quality product should be produced.

Cost of productions should be under control.

People should vote for

political stability.

Simple rules and regulations for import & export

business are necessary.

E-commerce & E-banking should be used.

Research & development using should be proper.46

47

- SAMPLE DESIGN The present research work is important for

planning are development of internation al marketing, for effective research purpose, 50 sample are

selected fromvarious organization. They are of different age groups and they are engaged

directly onindirectly in the field. AGE GROUP 1 8 2 5 2 7 2 6 3 5 1 2

3 6 4 5 0 9 4 6 5 5 0 2 5 6 6 5 0 0 Total 50

The age group of the respondent is stated as aboveSEX

M a l e F e m a l e T o t a l 47

483 4 1 6 5 0 For research purpose 34 males and 16 females were selected. The

questionnaire containing 17 guest ions were developing with the help of project guide. The

questionsare as under: Question typeQues tion no.

Yes / no. types

Personal information

Multiple choice090404 Total

17The questionnaire was circulated among the 50 respondent for getting information onthe subject.

ANALYSIS OF DATA
Section -2 (questions wise)Q.1Have you noticed\witn

essed as unplanned changes inMarketing activities?


Y e s N o T o t a l

4 5 0 5 5 0 45 respondents witnessed unplanned changes in

marketing activities. 05 respondents do not notice.

Q.2-Is their any good

effect of modern technology o n Internatio nal Marketing?


Y e s N o T o t a l

4 8 0 2 5 0 Almost all agreed to above & very few do not agree.48

49

Q.3Developmen t of Information & Communica

tion brings closerInternational Markets? Do you agree with?


Y e s N o T o t a l

4 7 0 3 5 0 47 respondents say that development in information &

communicatio n bringscloser international markets. 03 do not agree.

Q.4Globalization

brings changes in International Marketing Systemis it true?


Y e s N o T o t a l

4 0 1 0 5 0 40 respondents agreed to this & 10 do not respond positively.

Q.5- Is it possible to globalize production of goods and services?


Y e s N o T o t a l

4 1 0 9 5 0 41 respondents said product can be globalizes.


09 respondents disagreed to this.

Q.6Domestic Marketing Decisions

And Internationa l MarketingD ecisions Are Not Same? Is It True?

Y e s N o T o t a l 5 0 N i l 5 0

All respondents agreed to

above statement. Q.7-

It Is True That Political Forces

Within A Country Affect TheInternati onal Marketing Decisions?

49

50 Y e s N o T o t a l 4 5 0 5 5 0 45 respondents agree.

05 respondents disagree.

Q.8- Do you agree that environmen tal challenges

influence themarketin g strategy?


Y e s N o T o t a l 4 2 0 8 5 0

42 respondents agree. 08 respondents do not agree.

Q.9-Do You Agree That

Political Stability And Government PolicyGreatl y Affects The

International Markets?
Y e s N o T o t a l 4 0 1 0 5 0

40 respondents

agree that political stability & govt. policies affect international marketing.

10 do not agree.

Q.10-Do You Agree That More Competition Is One Of

The DemeritsOf International Market?


Y e s N o T o t a l 4 7 0 3 5 0

47 respondents are agreeing for stiff competition. 03 respondents disagree.50

51

For more Notes, Presentat ions, Project

Reports visita2zm ba.blogs pot.comh rmba.blo

gspot.co mmbafin. blogspot. com


ANALYSIS OF

DATASecti on -2 (percentag e wise)


Q.1- Have You Noticed\Wit

nessed As Unplanned Changes InMarketing Activities?


Y e s N o T o t a l

9 0 1 0 1 0 0 90% respondents witnessed unplanned changes in

marketing activities. 10% respondents do not notice.

Q.2- Is Their Any Good

Effect Of Modern Technology OnInternatio nal Marketing?


Y e s N o T o t a l

9 6 0 6 1 0 0 Almost all agreed to above & very few do not agree.

Q.3Developmen t Of Information & Communicat ion Brings

CloserInternational Markets? Do You Agree With?


Y e s N o T o t a l

9 4 0 6 1 0 0 94% respondents say that development in information &

communicatio n bringscloser international markets.51

52 06% do not agree.

Q.4Globalization Brings Changes In

International Marketing SystemIs It True?


Y e s T o t 8 0 1 0

N o a l 2 0 0

80% respondents agreed to this & 20% do not respond positively.

Q.5- Is It Possible To

Globalize Production Of Goods And Services?


Y e s N o T o t a l

8 2 1 8 1 0 0 82% respondents said product can be globalizes.


18% respondents disagreed to this.

Q.6Domestic Marketing Decisions

And Internationa l MarketingD ecisions Are Not Same? Is It True?

Y e s N o T o t a l 1 0 0 N i l 1 0 0

All respondents agreed to

above statement.

Q.7- It Is True That Political Forces Within A

Country Affect TheInternati onal Marketing Decisions?


Y e s N o T o t a l

9 0 1 0 1 0 0 90% respondents agree.52

53 10% respondents disagree.

Q.8- Do you agree that environmen

tal challenges influence themarketin g strategy?


Y e s N o T o t a l

8 4 1 6 1 0 0 84 respondents agree. 16 respondents do not agree.


Q.9-Do You Agree That Political Stability And Government PolicyGreatl

y Affects The International Markets?


Y e s T o t 8 0 1 0

N o a l 2 0 0

80% respondents agree that political stability & govt. policies affectinternat

ional marketing. 20% do not agree.

Q.10-Do You Agree That More

Competition Is One Of The DemeritsOf International Market?

Y e s N o T o t a l 9 4 0 6 1 0 0 94% respondents are agreeing

for stiff competition. 06% respondents disagree.

BIBLIOGRA PHY

53

54

www.google.c om

www.yahoo.co m

International marketingVipu l Prakashan

International marketingHim alaya Publication

For more Notes, Presentat ions, Project

Reports visita2zm ba.blogs pot.comh rmba.blo

gspot.co mmbafin. blogspot. com


54

55

APPENDIXT he concept of internation

al marketing
Questionnair e:

Name:

Age:

Sex: male/female

Qualification :

Profession:

Have You Noticed\Witne ssed As Unplanned Changes In MarketingActi vities? Yes/No

Is Their Any Good Effect Of Modern Technology On InternationalM arketing? Yes/No

Development Of Information & Communicatio n Brings CloserInternational Markets? Do

You Agree With? Yes/No

Globalization Brings Changes In International

Marketing System Is ItTrue?Yes/No

Is It Possible To Globalize Production Of Goods And Services?

Yes/No

Domestic Marketing Decisions And International Marketing Decisions

AreNot Same? Is It True? Yes/No

It Is True That Political Forces Within A Country Affect The

InternationalM arketing Decisions? Yes/No

Do You Agree That Environmental

Challenges Influence The MarketingStrat egy? Yes/No

Do You Agree That Political

Stability and Government Policy GreatlyAffects the International Markets? Yes/No

55

56

Do You Agree That More Competition Is One Of The Demerits

Of Internationa l Market? Yes/No

Your Opinion?

DECL ARATI ON

I hereby declare that the project report title as-

STUDY OF INTERNATI ONAL MARKETIN G

That I am going to submit to is not substantiall ysame as one which

has already been submitted tothis or any another

authority for this any otherpurpo se.Place:Da te: Signatur e

56

57

Cert ifica

te
This is to certify that - The Project Report on-

STUDY OF

IMPORT PROCEDU RE
is bona fide work carried out by us, under the

supervision/ guidance of theconcerne d faculty. The same has not been & submitted elsewhere for

anyDegree / Diploma / Certificate . Date: 57

58 Principal Head of the collegeProjec t Guide President & CEO

ACKN OWLE DGEM ENT

It is my great privilege to thanks for M.P.E.S. College of Managem ent having

given us this opportunity to conduct this project work.I also sincerely thank our guide for

having guided us theseoutstan ding work research work without whose help, it could have

beenimpossi ble to complete this research work.I also thank my parents, family

members & friends for theirencoura gement and help.My humble thanks to meritorious

God for giving me encourageme ntand power to complete this research work. 58

Study of International Marketing Project Report


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