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Alternative fuels and vehicles Training manual

Contract number: EIE/04/195/S07.38471

With the support of:


e-Atomium is a training project funded through the STEER programme which is part of the European Commissions Intelligent Energy Europe programme and will be implemented in Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The aim of e-Atomium is to strengthen the knowledge of local / regional managing agencies in the transport field and to accelerate the take up of EU research results in the field of local and regional transport. The beneficiaries of the project are managing (energy) agencies and local actors who want to play a bigger role in the transport field. The following compendium contains results of EU research-projects and complementary results of national research-projects. The authors especially thank the partners and collaborators of the Treatise and Competence projects. A complete list of the studied projects, involved consortia, and cited literature is given at the end of the material. All materials can be downloaded from the project website: www.e-atomium.org Project partners
The project core consortium members are:
Mobiel21 vzw, formely known as Langzaam Verkeer vzw Project co-ordinator Vital Decosterstraat 67a - BE-3000 Leuven Contact: Ms Elke Bossaert & Ms. Sara van Dyck Phone: +32 16 31 77 06 - Fax: +32 16 29 02 10 www.mobiel21.be DTV Consultants b.v. Teteringsedijk 3 - Postbus 3559 - NL-4800 DN Breda Contact: Mr Johan Janse & Mr Allard Visser Phone: +31 76 513 66 31 & +31 76 513 66 21 - Fax: +31 76 513 66 06. www.dtvconsultants.nl Energie-Cits The association of European local authorities promoting a local sustainable energy policy Secretariat: 2, chemin de Palente - FR-25000 Besanon Contact: Mr Jean-Pierre Vallar Phone: +33 3 81 65 36 80 - Fax: +33 3 81 50 73 51 www.energie-cites.org Sustainable Energy Action Ltd - SEA 42 Braganza Street - London GB-SE17 3RJ Contact: Mr Larry Parker Phone: +44 20 7820 3158 - Fax: +44 20 7582 4888 www.sustainable-energy.org.uk Euromobility

The other full partners are:

POLIS Promoting Operational Links with Integrated Services Rue du Trne 98 - BE-1050 Brussels Contact: Ms Karen Vancluysen Phone: + 32 2 500 56 75 - Fax: +32 2 500 56 80 www.polis-online.org Association of the Bulgarian Energy Agencies - ABEA 44 Oborishte str. - BG-1505 Sofia Contact: Mr Ivan Shishkov Phone: +35 929 434 909 - Fax: +35 929 434 401 www.sofena.com Agenzia Napoletana Energia e Ambiente ANEA Via Toledo 317 - IT-80132 Napoli Contact: Mr Michele Macaluso & Mr. Paolo Ficara Phone: +39 081 409 459 - Fax: +39 081 409 957 www.anea.connect.it Fdration Nationale des Agences Locales de Matrise de lEnergie FLAME

Piazza Cola di Rienzo, 80/a - IT-00192 Roma Contact: Ms Karin Fischer Phone: +39 06 68603570 - Fax: +39 06 68603571 www.euromobility.org

Represented by ADUHME 14 rue Buffon - FR-63100 Clermont-Ferrand Contact: Mr Sbastien Contamine Phone: + 33 473 927 822 & +33 437 482 242 - Fax: 33 473 927 821 www.aduhme.org Delfts Energie Agentschap DEA

Mijnbouwplein 11 - NL-2628 RT Delft Contact: Mr Zeno Winkels Phone: +31 15 185 28 60 & +31 76 513 66 21 - Fax: +31 15 185 28 61 www.delftenergy.nl


1. 2. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................1 TRAINING CONTEXT, GOALS AND STRUCTURE...........................................................................2 2.1 Training context.........................................................................................................................2 2.2 Training Goals...........................................................................................................................3 2.3 Training Structure......................................................................................................................4 CONVENTIONALLY FUELLED VEHICLES .......................................................................................5 3.1 Downsizing ................................................................................................................................5 3.2 Additional electrical equipment .................................................................................................5 3.3 Increases in engine efficiency...................................................................................................5 3.4 Recent improvements in diesel engines ...................................................................................6 3.5 Low sulphur fuel ........................................................................................................................6 3.6 Case Study 1: BOC. An improvement in fleet efficiency...........................................................7 EXHAUST AFTER-TREATMENT .......................................................................................................9 4.1 Catalytic converters...................................................................................................................9 ALTERNATIVE FUELS .....................................................................................................................11 5.1 Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) ...............................................................................................11 5.2 Case Study 2: Southwark Councils fleet, London, UK...........................................................12 5.3 Natural Gas .............................................................................................................................13 5.4 Case Study 3: Sainsburys, UK...............................................................................................16 5.5 Biofuels....................................................................................................................................16 5.6 Biodiesel..................................................................................................................................18 5.7 Case Study 4: Biodiesel Bus fleet of the Public Transportation System of Graz, Austria ......19 5.8 Bioethanol ...............................................................................................................................21 5.9 Case Study 5: Introducing bioethanol to the UK - Somerset Biofuel Project..........................24 5.10 Biogas .....................................................................................................................................24 5.11 Case Study 6: Biogas in Linkping, Sweden .........................................................................25 5.12 Hydrogen.................................................................................................................................26 5.13 Case Study 7: Malm CNG/Hydrogen filling station and hythane bus project .......................27 ALTERNATIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES....................................................................................30 6.1 Hybrid Vehicles .......................................................................................................................30 6.2 Case Study 8: Hybrid bus trials- Uppsalabuss, Sweden & Bolzano, Italy ..............................32 6.3 Battery Electric Vehicles .........................................................................................................33 6.4 Types of Battery ......................................................................................................................34 6.5 Environmental performance ....................................................................................................35 6.6 Economics...............................................................................................................................35 6.7 Market Penetration..................................................................................................................35 6.8 Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) .......................................................................................................37 6.9 Case Study 10: London fuel cell buses CUTE........................................................................40 EUROPEAN LEGISLATION..............................................................................................................42 7.1 Air Quality legislation...............................................................................................................42 EXERCISES ......................................................................................................................................45 RECOMMENDATIONS AND RESOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION......................................48 GLOSSARY.......................................................................................................................................49 APPENDIX 1: THE PROS AND CONS OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS...............................................53


4. 5.


7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Most European local authorities are confronted with increasing problems of congestion and pollution due to the steady growth of urban motorised traffic. People moving out of the cities due to bad environmental conditions, increasing car ownership, and faster travel have given rise to dispersed urban structures, leading in turn to greater volumes of motorised traffic. But transport is also a challenge in terms of climate protection: By 2010, transport will be the largest single contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. To turn around these trends, reduce these problems efficiently and thus raise standards of living in our cities, it is necessary to: carry out a true modal shift from private motorised traffic towards more sustainable modes of transport like walking, cycling, public transport; implement urban planning strategies based on principles like urban density, improved mixed use of space and limited new urban developments to areas served by public transport; develop the concept of responsible car use and introduce less polluting and quieter vehicles; At the same time, specific organisation methods and innovative technologies in terms of energy saving and the environment protection must be introduced. It is moreover crucial to raise awareness among citizens about the effect of their choice of transport mode on the quality of urban environment. The training activities within e-Atomium will address all the mentioned goals by explaining the following themes: Mobility Management School Travel Plans Company & Administration Travel Plans Tourism Travel Plans Awareness raising and communication Campaigns Target group dedicated communication Eco-driving Topic related communication Organisation of an awareness raising event Alternative fuels & vehicles Biofuels (incl. pure vegetal oils) Comparative analysis of all alternative fuels & vehicles Environment appraisal of community/municipal vehicle fleets Demand Management Road pricing schemes Access management Car free cities & town planning Vehicle restrictions

This document is mainly addressing the theme Alternative fuels & vehicles.

The big problem that urban authorities will have to resolve, sooner than might be thought, is that of traffic management, and in particular the role of the private car in large urban centres. The lack of an integrated policy approach to town planning and transport is allowing the private car an almost total monopoly. White Paper on European Transport Policy: European transport policy for 2010: time to decide, COM(2001) 370.


2.1 Training context

Transport accounts for about almost a quarter of all EU oil consumption of which the majority is attributable to road vehicles. Modern society is driven by its dependence on oil to fuel its transport needs, in fact it is predicted that by 2020 the EU will depend upon imports for 93% of its oil. The use of oil for road transport also makes it one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Every European country has a legally binding target under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For instance in the UK the target is to reduce the reductions by 12.5% below 1990 levels over the period 20082012. In addition, the UK Governments Climate Change Programme has set a goal to cut UK CO2 emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2010. Tackling the CO2 emissions from road transport will therefore be critical to reducing total transports emissions and hence meeting climate change commitments. In the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency is stated the EU could save 20% of its current energy use in a cost effective manner. Around half of these savings could result from the full application of existing measures. Limiting the fuel consumption of vehicles is one of these measures. Savings of 25% or more in average fuel consumption are seen as realistic. Nevertheless there is still a huge need to invest in the development of electric vehicles, alternative fuels such as natural gas, as well as in advancing longer-term prospects for technologies such as fuel cells and hydrogen. In total the potential savings in the transport field in Europe are between 45 to 90 Mtoe, which is more than the potentials in other areas like buildings and industry. Road transport is also the main source of air pollution. The main air pollutants from road vehicles include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), benzene and particulate matter (PM). The European Commission has set limits for these polluting gasses in several Daughter Directives, which are now in force in the different European countries. All countries have transposed the 1st daughter directive into their national legislation. So has the UK Government published its National Air Quality Strategy for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000, setting objectives for air quality improvements. In the Netherlands the Besluit Luchtkwaliteit came into action leading to a complete revival of environmental issues and even court trials urging the regional and local government to reduce the air pollution from road transport. An overwhelming majority of all passenger trips in Europe are made by car. New car sales have increased over the last twenty years. In the year 2000 14.8 million cars where produced in the EU-15 countries. On average 480 persons per 1000 own a car and 70% of households in the EU have regular use of a car. Together all car users in the EU-15 travel some 3.735 billion kilometres. Despite fuel price protests, the risks to health, road congestion, and road accidents and deaths, few people will sacrifice the convenience and mobility that personal transport affords, in favour of driving less or resorting to public transport. Only a few motorists are willing to use public transport to get to work if travel-to-work costs were halved. More and more freight is moved by road, adding to emission problems, noise nuisance and road congestion.

The management of demand and increasing the efficiency of mobility have major roles to play in this area; however, goods still need to be moved, services carried out and people will still wish to travel by their own private vehicles. To minimise the impact of this continued demand for road transport, alternative fuels and vehicles are needed, where road movements are inevitable. There are several ways of achieving reductions in emissions from a road vehicle: Increasing vehicle efficiency Using exhaust after-treatment Using alternative fuels

All of these possibilities will be explained in this document.

2.2 Training Goals

The aim of this module is to provide Energy Agencies, Energy Efficiency Advice Centres (EEACs) and other local energy actors with the information and knowledge that they will need when giving advice in this area. It will also enable effective decision-making regarding projects that may or may not be of value in terms of reducing the impact of road transport in their area. By the end of the training, the recipient should be able to: 1. Differentiate between the main types of alternative fuels; 2. Understand the benefits and complications of exhaust after-treatment; 3. Be able to advise the public, business and governments as to the appropriateness of various alternative fuels; 4. Be aware of the legislation relating to emissions from road vehicles and alternative fuels; 5. In the case of energy agencies, be able to apply their knowledge in the pursuit of funding for transport projects.

2.3 Training Structure

The training manual for the e-Atomium New Technology module consists of the following sections related to specific types of fuels and vehicles: Conventionally fuelled vehicles Exhaust after-treatment Alternative fuels Alternative vehicle technologies EU legislation The information is complemented by a number of relevant case studies from the European Union. This manual is also accompanied by a spreadsheet that is designed to help compare the various alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, and select appropriate types for a given situation.


Modern petrol vehicles are far cleaner than their counterparts of only a few years ago. In fact, from an air quality perspective, there is now little difference between modern petrol vehicles and their gas powered equivalents. Diesels have also become far cleaner in recent years, although most still produce significant levels of harmful NOx and PM emissions unless they have Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) fitted. Diesels, however, have an inherent CO2 advantage, so in many situations a diesel with a DPF and with an appropriate strategy to reduce NOx is a good solution from an environmental perspective.

3.1 Downsizing
In recent years most European car markets have seen a limited amount of down-sizing, (people choosing smaller cars), but this remains an area where major improvements could be made. Unfortunately, deep seated cultural preferences and associations, such as cars as status symbols and reflections of personalities, lead to many people still choosing cars that are far larger and more powerful, and therefore less efficient, than they require. Manufacturers advertising has traditionally reinforced the situation since large and powerful cars generally sell at a premium and bring greater profit margins. There have, however, been encouraging examples in recent years of some vehicle manufacturers heavily promoting their environmental products and credentials. Encouraging people to choose smaller, less powerful, more efficient cars when appropriate remains an area with the potential for considerable environmental gains. Some manufacturers use aluminium, light-weight alloys or composite materials to reduce vehicle weight but in most cases any weight savings achieved through lighter materials have been more than off-set by additional features, in particular safety features such as air-bags and side-impact reinforcing bars.

3.2 Additional electrical equipment

Additional electrical equipment increases fuel consumption because the alternator that recharges a vehicles battery takes its power from the vehicles engine. Air conditioning also adds significantly to fuel consumption due to the additional mechanical and electrical demand that it imposes. Research published by ADEME in 2003 indicates that using air conditioning on a high setting adds around 25% to a vehicles fuel consumption and that typical mixed use over a year adds around 5%. Some systems with climate control will run their air conditioning compressors all the time on automatic mode and should be set to economy to avoid this.

3.3 Increases in engine efficiency

Conventional fuelled vehicles have also benefited from increases in engine efficiency in recent years. These benefits have accrued particularly to diesel engines and this, along with the relatively low price of diesel in many countries, has contributed to the growing popularity of diesel cars across most of Europe during the last decade.

3.4 Recent improvements in diesel engines

Since the early 1990s almost all diesels have been turbocharged, which greatly improves their efficiency as well as the power output.

Direct injection (DI)

Direct injection has also become increasingly commonplace on diesel vehicles since the late 1990s. With DI the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber, rather than into a pre-chamber. Direct injection engines are more efficient than indirect injection and therefore save fuel and reduce CO2 emissions, but they produce more PM and tend to be noisier. Some direct injection petrol engines have also been introduced in the last 3 years, though these remain relatively unusual.

Common rail
Common rail direct injection refers to engines that have a single very high pressure fuel line supplying all of their cylinders. The high pressure of the line facilitates better fuel atomisation, which leads to more efficient combustion. Solenoids located at each cylinder very accurately control the quantity and timing of fuel injection, further adding to overall engine efficiency.

3.5 Low sulphur fuel

Over the last 7 years the sulphur content of petrol and diesel sold for road use within the EU has been reduced from around 500ppm (parts per million) to an EU wide legislated limit of no more than 50ppm. EC legislation is also in place to reduce the legal maximum level to 10ppm by 2009. Fuels with less than 10ppm are sometimes referred to as sulphur free. This reduction in fuel sulphur content has brought large air quality benefits in reducing SO2 and PM emissions although the process to remove the sulphur does itself use energy and therefore adds slightly to fuel production CO2 emissions. Furthermore, since sulphur in fuel reduces the effectiveness of exhaust after-treatments, the use of low sulphur fuels also reduces emissions of CO, HC and NOx.

3.6 Case Study 1: BOC. An improvement in fleet efficiency

BOC is a global company based in the UK but with many manufacturing facilities in 60 countries around the world where it employs 43,000 people. Its main business is the supply of gases to around 2 million customers in 15 major market sectors, many in the automotive, chemicals, petroleum, electronics and semiconductor manufacturing sectors

With 'state-of-the-art' vehicles and expert drivers, BOC might have thought that its fleet's efficiency could not be improved. However, with the rising price of diesel and its influence on the fleet total running costs, BOC Senior Managers decided to set fuel saving targets for the Bulk Gas Delivery Fleet. The BOC Board set the fleet a target of fuel savings worth 495,000 (340,000), which represented about 3% of their fuel costs. BOC initially planned to establish fuel consumption benchmarks for specific vehicles and routes. The Company calculated each individual vehicle's fuel consumption, using data taken from its onboard engine management system, and compared it with data generated by the BOC fuel dispenser equipment. The data from the fuel dispensers matched that from the onboard engine management systems with a variation of just 0.1 mpg. Once BOC was satisfied that it could monitor fuel consumption accurately, it turned its attention to setting achievable benchmarks for each vehicle and route.

At the start of the project, the only information on fuel consumption that was readily available was that provided by the accounts department based on the fuel suppliers' invoices. Even this basic information highlighted a seasonal effect on fuel efficiency, ranging from 7.5 mpg during the summer months to almost 7 mpg in the winter. The reasons for the seasonal effect on fuel consumption are not always immediately obvious nor within the control of the driver or management. However, seasonal changes in the fuel specification appear to be a significant factor. Petroleum companies tend to commence the delivery of 'winter grade' diesel in late September and to switch to the 'summer grade' in late March. The winter grade fuel has a cold filter plugging point1 of -15C, as opposed to the summer grade's -12C, and this increases the fuel consumption. As a result of reliable and real time fuel consumption measurements, it has become possible to produce a benchmark for specific routes by BOC branch/depot and by time of year.

By managing the fuel consumption data effectively, BOC recognised that there was a tendency for some drivers' fuel efficiency performance to improve after training but then gradually drift back to their former driving pattern. This trend highlighted the potential benefits of regular on-the-job refresher training. Downloaded daily, weekly and monthly reports were a positive aid to the depot managers in identifying which drivers would benefit from training. By publishing a weekly depot league table, BOC introduced an element of friendly competition among depots and a means for depot managers to gauge their team's performance against others. The overall saving for the whole fleet as a result of driver training at the end of the first year was 334,000 litres of diesel worth 350,000 ( 240,000) during the period covered.

The temperature at which a fuel will cause a fuel filter to plug due to fuel components which have begun to crystallize or gel. 7

It was concluded that the best driving practice for fuel efficiency is to keep the Cummins engines' rpm below the 1,700 'sweet spot' limit. The sweet spot is the optimal (minimum) specific fuel consumption for a given engine power and speed. Above this sweet spot, which was at the top of the green band, 'was like turning up the fuel tap'. With the benchmarks in place, one can quickly identify exceptions or changes that could lead to further fuel savings. For example: It was noticed that two new vehicles were struggling to meet their fuel consumption targets. An inspection discovered that they were fitted with wide single tyres on the steer axle. By reverting to standard width tyres, fuel consumption was improved by an average of 0.51 mpg or 3.6%. Both vehicles have now bettered their route targets, and are providing an annual fuel saving of 2,750 (1,900) per year.
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Exhaust after-treatment technologies are designed to reduce tailpipe emissions. There are several types.

4.1 Catalytic converters

The single most important technological development that has contributed to the reductions in vehicle tailpipe emissions over the last 15 years was the introduction of catalytic converters. These were effectively mandated on cars sold in the EU by the introduction of the Euro II standards in 1996. Catalytic converters, or catalysts, are located between vehicle engines and exhausts. They are ceramic honeycomb structures coated with catalysts, usually platinum, rhodium and/or palladium. Their honey-comb structure is designed to have a very high surface area to volume ratio since reactions with the catalysts only take place on the surface.

Petrol engines (spark ignition) have 3-way catalysts, so called because they reduce emissions of 3 pollutants: CO, HC and NOx. A 3-way catalyst in fact consists of two different parts: a reduction catalyst separates harmful NO into benign N2 and O2 [2NO > N2 + O2], an oxidation catalyst then oxidises harmful CO and HC into CO2 and H2O. Reduction catalysts can only operate if an engine is running close to stoichiometric conditions, which is when the ratio of air to fuel entering the cylinders is exactly that required to give full combustion with no surplus air or fuel. To ensure a petrol engines runs stoichiometrically, an oxygen sensor is located immediately downstream (away from the engine) of the catalyst. This sensor feeds in to the electronic control unit which then regulates the amount of fuel injected in to the cylinders. Diesel engines are designed to run lean, which means they run with more air than the stoichiometric ratio. Reduction catalysts cannot operate in lean conditions so diesel engines only have oxidation catalysts. Oxidation catalysts are effective at reducing CO and HC and also reduce some of the particulate matter (PM) but do not reduce NO. This is why diesel engines have much higher NOx emissions than petrol engines.

Exhaust gas recirculation

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique to reduce vehicle NOx emissions. To understand EGR it is important to remember that NOx forms when very high flame temperatures cause the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere to combine and that the higher the temperature the more NOx formation occurs. Engines with EGR divert some of their exhaust gases, which have low oxygen content since most of this has already been burned, back in to their engine intakes. By doing so EGR reduces peak engine temperatures as there is less oxygen present to react with the fuel. This reduction in peak temperature reduces the formation of NOx. EGR was first used in petrol cars in the US in the 70s before the fitting of 3way catalysts made this unnecessary since 3-way catalysts are very effective at removing NOx. In Europe EGR has been fitted to almost all diesel cars and vans sold since the Euro II limits came in to effect in 1996. EGR slightly increases fuel consumption so manufacturers have been reluctant to fit the systems to heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) as HDV operators put a great emphasis on minimising fuel consumption. However, in order to comply with the 2005 Euro IV standard some HDVs will now be fitted with EGR.

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an even more effective technology to reduce diesel NOx emissions. SCR is an after-treatment that removes NOx from exhaust emissions, as opposed to EGR, which reduces the formation of NOx. Ammonia (NH3) or urea is injected in to the exhaust gases upstream of the SCR catalyst. The NH3 then reacts with NO and NO2 to give (benign) N2 and H2O. [4NO + 4NH3 +O2 = 4N2 + 6H2O]. SCR is already a commercial technology for large stationary diesel engines (where size and weight penalties are less important) and has been fitted to some diesel HDVs. SCR is likely to become widespread from 2006 in order to meet the stringent Euro IV and V diesel HDV NOx limits.

Diesel particulate filters (DPFs)

Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) remove particulate matter (PM) from diesel vehicle exhausts by filtration. They are very effective and often remove in excess of 90% of PM. The particles are collected as soot, which is then removed by thermal regeneration to prevent loss of function of the filter i.e. it is burnt-off to prevent the filter blocking up.



5.1 Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is a mixture of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). The proportions of the two gases vary between countries but propane usually comprises 80-95% of the total. LPG is a fossil fuel obtained from two sources: as a crude oil distillate at oil refineries and as a by-product extracted from gas fields along with natural gas. LPG vehicles are similar to their petrol equivalents but with different fuel storage and delivery systems. Most drivers would not even notice the difference between a vehicle running on petrol and on LPG. LPG is a gas at normal atmospheric pressure but liquefies at only modest pressure (approximately 20 bar). It is therefore stored onboard vehicles as a liquid at around 25 bar but is delivered into engine cylinders as a gas.

Bi-fuel and dual fuel

The majority of LPG vehicles in Europe are bi-fuel: they have LPG tanks and petrol tanks and can change from one fuel to the other at the flick of a switch, therefore removing the danger of being stranded without fuel in an area with poor LPG infrastructure. However, many LPG specialists claim that dedicated (monofuel) LPG engines can deliver lower fuel consumption and produce lower emissions. LPG vehicles performance and power are similar to their petrol equivalents and in driving there is little discernible difference between the two. An LPG vehicle will typically use 20-25% more fuel than a petrol equivalent and perhaps 30-40% more than a diesel.

LPG vehicles' performance and power are similar to their petrol equivalents and in driving there is little discernible difference between the two.

Most LPG tanks are cylinder shaped and are located in the boot of a car or in the main body of a van, which has the disadvantage of compromising load space. An alternative is a torroidal (doughnut) shaped tank designed to fit into a cars spare-wheel well, although in this case the spare wheel is usually carried loose in the boot, so boot space is still compromised. In some countries, however, it is legal to carry a selfinflating emergency repair canister instead. Typically tanks fitted to cars are between 15 and 25 litres and those fitted to vans are often up to 40 litres. LPG buses usually have much larger tanks built into their roofs.

Most petrol vehicles can be converted to LPG but it is generally not practical to convert diesels due to the cost and complications of introducing spark plugs, changing compression ratios etc. Each after-market conversion should be supplied with an additional warranty to cover any aspects of the manufacturers original warranty that may be invalidated by the conversion. Whilst all LPG vehicles bought from manufacturers have to meet high standards, the quality and safety of after-market conversions varies greatly. A good LPG vehicle will have many safety features including an LPG tank fitted securely enough to withstand the pressures of a high impact crash; a pressure release valve that releases LPG from the tank in controlled bursts in the event of over-heating; fuel pipes made from appropriate materials and

secured to the vehicle a safe distance from the exhaust; and a gas tight box enclosing tank valves and venting below the vehicle. Customers seeking to have a vehicle converted to LPG in the UK should chose a company approved by the LPG Association2 as this will ensure the company follows appropriate vehicle safety guidelines.

Emissions performance
It is difficult to generalise about the relative emissions benefits of different fuels since it depends on the specific models of vehicle and equipment concerned. However, compared to its petrol equivalent, a clean LPG vehicle will typically produce 5-10% less CO2, and slightly lower HC and NOx. Compared to a diesel equivalent, an LPG vehicle will typically produce approximately the same CO2, but much less particulate matter (PM) and NOx, unless the diesel has a particulate filter fitted. LPG vehicles environmental advantage over petrol and diesel vehicles have decreased in recent years as conventional-fuel vehicles have become much cleaner.

Market Penetration
In 2000 there were 2.6 million registered LPG vehicles in Europe driven mainly by tax incentives, the marketed has now grown to over 3 million with most of these primarily in Italy and the Netherlands where 6% of cars run on LPG.

Good LPG vehicles typically cost around 2,175 (1,500) more than their petrol equivalents and good LPG conversions costs around the same. LPG costs just over half the price of petrol or diesel per litre but LPG vehicles deliver lower fuel efficiency so overall fuel costs are likely to be approximately the same or slightly less than diesel and approximately 20% less than petrol. However, as the environmental advantage of LPG vehicles has decreased and as policies are increasingly focused on CO2 reduction, vehicle policies throughout Europe have begun to change.

5.2 Case Study 2: Southwark Councils fleet, London, UK

Southwark is a borough in South London with a population of 250,000. Southwark Council itself employs around 6,000 people, and is one of the busiest metropolitan authorities in the UK. In order to deliver the required services, the council has around 310 company cars and 300 other fleet vehicles, ranging from small car-derived vans to refuse collection vehicles. The Mayor of Londons Air Quality Strategy notes that Londons air quality is the worst in the UK and among the worst in the European Union. Each year, up to twenty-four thousand people die prematurely in Britain from the effects of air pollution. Reducing local emissions is therefore an essential responsibility of any local authority.

Southwarks green fleet strategy was developed in 1997 and through its implementation the fleet services department were successful in winning the first public sector green fleet award in 1999. The green fleet strategy developed by Southwark has a number of individual elements, each of these are covered in further detail below.



Fuel Policy
The Southwark fuel policy ensures that the best practical environmental option is always chosen. This policy was agreed and adopted by the council in November 2004. Under this policy the councils existing petrol fleet (e.g. car derived vans) is being replaced over time with similar vehicles that have been converted to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This fuel was chosen in order to reduce the impact of vehicle use on local air quality. Through its use of LPG the council has already seen fuel cost savings on account of its lower initial fuel cost and the fact that LPG fuelled vehicles are exempt from the London congestion charge.

Fuel monitoring
Although most of the Southwark petrol fleet is now being run on LPG, it was recognised that some drivers were predominantly refuelling with petrol. Therefore the benefits of switching to LPG were not being fully realised. To rectify this situation, the fleet manager implemented a fuel monitoring and analysis system to allow the effective tracking and management of fuel use. This simple excel spreadsheet, provided through the TransportEnergy BestPractice fleet management tool kit, allowed the fleet manager to undertake a monthly fuel usage review. This improved management of the fuel records, coupled with feedback to the drivers, has resulted in an increased use of LPG of around 65% by the end of 2004/05, with an associated improvement in local air quality. The following graph shows more clearly the predicted fuel use trends.

Southwark Council is ensuring the longevity of its green fleet strategy by insisting that all new tenders for vehicle procurement will include the latest emission control technologies and best practical environmental fuel option.

5.3 Natural Gas

Natural gas is predominantly methane (CH4) and is the same as the mains gas that most people are familiar with for domestic cooking and heating purposes. More accurately it is usually comprised of 7090% methane with ethane, propane and butane forming all but a fraction of the remainder. Natural gas is a fossil fuel extracted from vast underground chambers, such as those in the North Sea or the Caspian Sea. Biogas, which is derived from the anaerobic digestion of organic materials, is also predominantly methane. More information on biogas can be found in the Biofuels section of this report.

Natural gas vehicles (NGVs)

Natural Gas Vehicles have spark-ignition internal combustion engines (apart from dual fuel models see below) and are broadly similar to petrol vehicles but with different fuel storage and delivery mechanisms. Since natural gas does not liquefy under modest compression, it must either be stored onboard vehicles as very high pressure compressed natural gas (CNG), usually at 200 bar, or as cryogenic liquefied natural gas (LNG) below -160C. CNG is the more popular of the two options because of the cost and energy required to produce LNG and because of inherent problems of boil-off during the distribution and use of LNG. CNG fuel tanks have to be strong to withstand very high pressure (in excess of 200 bar), so they are usually made out of thick, heavy steel. LNG tanks are much lighter, acting as large thermos flasks, but have to be bulky to contain sufficient insulation to prevent LNG from warming and boiling. NGV fuel tanks are therefore either large or heavy, which means natural gas is best suited for larger vehicles such as trucks, buses or vans.


NGV fuel tanks are therefore either large or heavy, which means natural gas is best suited for larger vehicles such as trucks, buses or vans.

Natural Gas Systems and Technologies

There are three fuel options for natural gas vehicles: Dedicated NGVs which run only on natural gas; bifuel NGVs which can switch between natural gas and petrol; and dual-fuel NGVs which run on a mixture of natural gas and diesel, with the relative proportions of the two fuels changing according to an engines speed and load. There are advantages and disadvantages in all three options:

Dedicated NGVs can be optimised to run on natural gas by using higher compression ratios, which generally leads to higher engine efficiencies. This is possible because natural gas has a higher octane number than either petrol or diesel, which means the compression ratios can be increased without inducing knocking. Dedicated NGVs can also be fitted with catalytic converters specially designed to capture methane more effectively than normal petrol or diesel catalysts, resulting in lower methane emissions. Most but not all NGVs sold by manufacturers in Europe are dedicated to run on natural gas.

In countries where light duty NGVs are popular, such as Italy and Germany, the vehicles usually have bifuel engines to eliminate the danger of running out of fuel and being unable to find a NG refuelling station. This is more likely to be a problem with light-duty vehicles since they have more varied and less predictable patterns of use than trucks or buses and because cars in particular are not able to accommodate large fuel tanks. However, bi-fuel NGVs cannot be optimised to operate on natural gas and therefore do not show full potential for reducing tailpipe emissions.

These engines take advantage of diesel engines inherently higher efficiencies at low loads, which are attributable largely to the lower throttling losses associated with compression ignition engines. The diesel ignites under compression and acts as a pilot to ignite the natural gas. At low loads (e.g. when an engine is idling) duel fuel engines run predominantly or even entirely on diesel, but at higher loads they use a mixture of the two fuels, perhaps as much as 80-90% natural gas at high load.

Environmental performance
Natural gas vehicles are generally very clean in terms of their local emissions i.e. those that affect human health such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the carcinogenic hydrocarbons (HC). Their near-zero PM emissions is a particular advantage when an NGV displaces a diesel, which is usually the case with heavy-duty NGVs. Methane itself is of course a hydrocarbon, but is usually treated differently from the other HCs since, it is not harmful to human health but it is a powerful greenhouse gas. In relation to emissions from NGVs, therefore, people often refer to non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) rather than simply to HCs. As discussed above, dedicated NGVs usually have methane catalysts designed specifically to capture and remove the relatively high levels of methane that their engines often emit. Methane catalysts cannot be fitted to bi-fuel and dual-fuel NGVs, however, so methane emissions may contribute significantly to these vehicles overall global warming potential. An NGV operating at reasonably high loads will typically produce CO2 savings of perhaps 20% compared to its petrol equivalent and 5-10% compared to a diesel equivalent. In many urban conditions, however, the diesel engines inherent efficiency advantage at low

loads negates this advantage and NGVs and their diesel equivalents generally produce similar levels of CO2. With regard to the relative CO2 emissions of NGVs and diesels there are in fact two countering effects: diesel engines are more efficient but burning natural gas produces less CO2 per unit of energy released due to the lower ratio of carbon to hydrogen within its molecular structure. It is unfortunate that dual-fuel NGVs revert to predominantly diesel operation in urban areas, which is precisely where the air quality advantage of a dedicated NGV would be most important. Care must therefore be taken in assessing a dual fuel vehicles air quality advantage.

With regard to the relative CO2 emissions of NGVs and diesels there are in fact two countering effects: diesel engines are more efficient but burning natural gas produces less CO2 per unit of energy released due to the lower ratio of carbon to hydrogen within its molecular structure.

As with other alternative fuel vehicles, NGVs are characterised by higher capital costs but lower fuel costs. Furthermore NGV refuelling stations are expensive, much more so than LPG stations, and are only commercially viable if they refuel a relatively large number of vehicles. This means the introduction of NGVs suffers from the classic problem that fuel suppliers are reluctant to construct refuelling stations until there are sufficient numbers of NGVs and operators are unwilling to purchase the vehicles until there are sufficient refuelling stations.

Market Penetration
According to the International Association of Natural Gas Vehicles there are nearly 4 million NGVs in use worldwide, of which 1.4 million are in Argentina and 1 million in Brazil. Italys fleet of 420,000 NGV is by far the biggest in Europe, followed by Germany with 27,000 and Ireland with 10,000. More than 500 public sector NGVs operate in Madrid, including buses and refuge collection vehicles. Natural gas vehicles are available from many manufacturers including Cummins, ERF, Ford, General Motors, Iveco, Volkswagen and Volvo.


5.4 Case Study 3: Sainsburys, UK

NB There are more examples on gas powered vehicles under the biogas section.

Sainsburys is a national supermarket chain in the UK. It therefore needs to supply food and other items to all its stores, requiring a large amount of deliveries through the road infrastructure. It also is a fuel retailer in the UK and has service stations on its forecourts.

Sainsburys has recognised the need to reduce their transport impacts on air quality and global warming, focusing on improving the efficiency of the supply chain to reduce emissions such as CO2. They aim to achieve this by reducing the number of kilometres travelled per product sold, increasing the vehicle fill and reducing the emissions per kilometre through engine efficiency, and the introduction of alternative fuels and alternative modes of transport.

In order to address these issues, Sainsburys investigated the use of natural gas-powered vehicles. Aside from the environmental benefits such as reduced NOx, SO2 and CO2 emissions, the fuels could also help the business to be more effective. To minimise the risk of disturbance to neighbours, Sainsburys lorries can currently only make deliveries during specific times of the day. A large number of lorries are therefore transporting goods across the UK to stores during this short window of time. Gas-powered vehicles could help spread out delivery times simply because they are much quieter. Current delivery restrictions could be relaxed enabling Sainsburys to use fewer vehicles over a longer time period. This would be beneficial in a number of ways: reducing emissions, congestion on the roads and disturbance.

Results & Prospects

Unfortunately, Sainsburys found that the CNG vehicles they trialled could not be operated reliably and had too much down-time. Sainsburys have therefore asked manufacturers and fleet providers to meet this reliability challenge.

5.5 Biofuels
Biofuels are fuels made from a variety of biomass sources. They can be made from plant materials, certain types of crops and from recycled or waste vegetable oils. When used as fuels for road vehicles, biofuels offer the prospect of low carbon transport, and to a large extent they are renewable and sustainable. By contrast, the conventional transport fuels petrol and diesel, and the road fuel gases such as liquefied petroleum gas and compressed natural gas, are all fossil fuels and have a finite supply. Transport biofuels have risen to prominence in recent years. The main reasons for promoting biofuels are: To contribute to the security of energy supply To contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions To promote a greater use of renewable energy To diversify agricultural economies into new markets

Based on these considerations, the European Commission issued a Biofuels Directive in 2003, which requires Member States to set indicative targets for biofuels sales in 2005 and 2010. The Directive

included reference values for Member States to take into account in setting their own targets: 2% of all road fuel sales to be biofuel by 2005 and 5.75% by 2010. The main biofuels are biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. Biodiesel is a diesel alternative, whilst bioethanol is a petrol additive or substitute.

The EU Strategy for Biofuels

The EU is supporting biofuels with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, boosting the decarbonisation of transport fuels, diversifying fuel supply sources, offering new income opportunities in rural areas and developing long-term replacements for fossil fuel. Climate change, rising oil prices and a concern for future supplies, have led to a growing interest in the potential of using biomass for energy purposes. In December 2005 the European Commission adopted an Action Plan designed to increase the use of energy from forestry, agriculture and waste materials. The European Commission is now focusing on transport, which is responsible for around 21% of the EU's harmful greenhouse gas emissions. A wide range of actions is already being taken. Vehicle manufacturers are developing new models that are cleaner and more fuel efficient. Efforts are being made to improve public transport and rationalise the transportation of goods. Biofuels can also make a contribution. Processed from biomass, a renewable resource, biofuels are a direct substitute for traditional petrol and diesel and can readily be integrated into fuel supply systems. Biofuels could also help prepare the way for other advanced transport fuel alternatives. Although most biofuels are still more costly to produce than fossil fuels, their use is increasing in countries around the world. Encouraged by policy measures, global production of biofuels is now estimated to be over 35 million litres. In 2003 the Biofuels Directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, set out indicative targets for Member States. To help meet the 2010 target a 5.75% market share for biofuels in the overall transport fuel supply the European Commission has adopted an EU Strategy for Biofuels, along seven policy axes: Stimulating demand for biofuels Capturing environmental benefits Developing the production and distribution of biofuels Expanding feedstock supplies Enhancing trade opportunities Supporting developing countries Supporting research and development

Follow-up work in 2006 will include a review of the Biofuels Directive, and its possible revision; a proposal for the revision of the Fuel Quality Directive; and a review of the implementation of the energy crop premium introduced by the 2003 CAP reform.


5.6 Biodiesel
Production of Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a general name for methyl esters from biomass feedstock. Biodiesel can be made from a wide range of vegetable oils, including rapeseed3, sunflower, palm oil and soy. It can be derived from waste cooking oil, animal fats, grease and tallow, but rapeseed is one of the main oilseed crops grown in Europe, and is the most common feedstock used for biodiesel production. When produced from recycled or waste cooking oils, it provides a useful outlet for these oils that may otherwise have to be disposed in an environmentally acceptable manner. The oil undergoes a chemical process (esterification) with a small quantity of methanol in the presence of a catalyst to make a methyl ester which has similar fuel specifications compared to fossil diesel. The technology to produce biodiesel from vegetable oils is proven and has been commercially available for several years. There is a European biodiesel standard, EN14214, to ensure that biodiesel, regardless of its source, will meet an approved standard making it suitable for use in modern, high-performance diesel engines. Europe is the largest biodiesel producer worldwide. The total European production in 2004 was estimated at over 1.5 million tonnes, with Germany and France being the largest EU producers. Italy, Czech Republic and Austria are also active in the production of biodiesel.

Blends & Engine Warranties

Biodiesel can replace conventional diesel entirely or it can be blended in different proportions for use in compression ignition (diesel) engines. Blending is common in many countries, with 5% blend the most common ie 5% biodiesel to 95% conventional diesel. The physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are very similar to fossil diesel and conventional engines require no modification to use 5% blends. Most modern diesel engines could in fact run on much higher blends however use of blends of more than 5% may invalidate many manufacturers warranties. This must be checked with the individual manufacturer, and can vary depending on country and whether used for private of fleet operations. For any warranty that is approved by the manufacturer, it is essential that the biodiesel is of high enough quality, meeting the EN14214 in order to convince manufacturers that no risk is involved in using the fuel4.

Most modern diesel engines could in fact run on much higher blends, however use of blends of more than 5% may invalidate many manifacturers' warranties.

Economics & Availability

Producing biodiesel from oil seeds currently costs about twice as much as diesel from crude oil. The actual costs depend on the relative costs of the biodiesel feedstock and the crude oil. With full fuel duty, biodiesel is expensive to buy and a reduction in the duty rate is needed to make it competitive at the fuel pumps. Such duty reductions are common in Europe, and are used as a means of encouraging fuel suppliers to develop biofuel products and to stimulate the market. Biodiesel production is now underway in many European countries. Biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil benefits from relatively low feedstock prices and this makes it economic to manufacture with the current duty rate incentives. However, limited supplies of waste vegetable oils and fuel quality issues may limit the contribution that this type of biodiesel can make.

3 4

Biodiesel from rapeseed is also known as rape methyl ester (RME). EN 590, the European standard for fossil diesel allows up to 5% biodiesel.


Environmental Performance
The main advantage of using biodiesel as a transport fuel is that it can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions compared to use of fossil diesel. Use of 100% biodiesel would typically reduce net CO2 emissions from 50% anything up to 100%, depending on the type of feedstock and its the emissions resulting from its production. These calculations are based on the complete life-cycle of the biodiesel, covering the crop cultivation, biofuel production and use of the biodiesel in a vehicle. Although its main advantage is in helping to meet the European targets for alleviating climate change, biodiesel can also reduce tailpipe emissions from road vehicles. The exact performance of biodiesel can vary depending on the type of diesel vehicle and specification of fuel, but generally it is better than diesel for all local emissions except NOx, being particularly good at reducing PM and carcinogens. It is also safely and easily biodegradable, which is of particular benefit for certain uses such as powering boats in ecologically sensitive inland waterways.

5.7 Case Study 4: Biodiesel Bus fleet of the Public Transportation System of Graz, Austria
Graz is the second largest city in Austria with a population of around 250,000, about 120km south of Vienna. In 1994 the public transportation system of the City of Graz, Grazer Verkehrsbetriebe (GVB) was contacted by several research institutions to allow a field test with a fuel, made from used cooking oil, which was to be used in diesel engines within the bus fleet of the GVB.

In November 1994 the first field test started, with 2 public buses running on biodiesel produced from used cooking oil. Before the start of this field-test the engines were retrofitted for the use of biodiesel, replacing the rubber and plastic parts of the engine which are in contact with the fuel, such as the fuel hose, gauge glasses, hose connection, with biodiesel-resistant material. It is essential to ensure that all additional equipment which uses biodiesel, such as an additional heating system and the injection pump system of the diesel engine, are approved for biodiesel use by the manufacturer5.

Modern vehicles are automatically biodiesel proof, but only became the case in the last decade. 19

Depending on the type of bus, each retrofit cost between between ATS 15.000 and ATS 20.000 which was met by the city government of Graz. The 3 year field test was carried out in co-operation with the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodydnamics (University of Technology Graz), the Institute of Organic Chemistry (University of Graz) and the Austrian Biodiesel Institute. The City buses were regularly checked by these institutes, monitoring the exhaust gas emissions, the drive-ability, the effects on engine power and fuel consumption, any changes in the quality of the motor oil, and finally the wear and deposit in the engine.

Before the start of this research programme the engine of a MAN bus was completely checked and overhauled. After a total mileage 270,000 km with biodiesel, the engine was completely dismantled and thoroughly examined. The result was that no additional, abnormal wear in comparison to the use of mineral oil diesel was found. The consistency of the motor oil was examined at designated intervals during the project. In contrary to earlier technical reports, where a dilution of the motor oil was reported when using Biodiesel, these observations could not be verified during this test. The changes of the motor oil were within the normal range, showing that the use of a special and biodiesel-approved motor oil is not needed. Therefore GVB was able to continue using the same motor oil for the whole bus fleet (diesel and biodiesel engines), in addition, the intervals for the change of motor oil were reduced by 25% to every 40,000km in the case of the engines using biodiesel. The only disadvantage observed during the use of biodiesel was a 6% increase in fuel consumption compared to normal diesel6. This is caused by the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to mineral oil diesel, which is a function of the content of 10% oxygen in Biodiesel. The GVB considered this slight disadvantage was by far outweighed by the positive benefits. The positive results of the field test encouraged GVB to continue using biodiesel after the end of the field test. In 1997 eight additional buses were changed to biodiesel. In 1999, after 2 more years of successful, unproblematic running on biodiesel, 10 more city buses were converted. A fleet of Mercedes-Benz CITARO buses equipped with a 353 HP Diesel engine have been purchased, for which Mercedes has given full biodiesel warranties. Six years on, GVB now runs its entire bus fleet on biodiesel. All the biodiesel now used in GVBs bus fleet is made from waste oil. This has the advantage of reducing the demands on the sewage system and the waste water treatment plant, whilst transforming waste into a valuable raw material and renewable fuel. The emissions savings resulting from the use of biodiesel in 2002 were calculated as: 2,500 tonnes of CO2 2.9 tonnes of CO 1.0 t particulate matter 2.7 tonnes of SO2 3.0 tonnes of non methane hydrocarbons

This is not always the general case when using biodiesel.


5.8 Bioethanol
Bioethanol is manufactured by fermentation of sugar, starch or cellulose feedstocks using yeast. The choice of feedstock depends on cost, technical and economic considerations, such as whether the technologies for manufacturing bioethanol are commercially available. Brazil and the USA are currently the worlds largest producers of bioethanol as a transport fuel, with sugarcane and corn as the respective feedstock materials. In Europe, it is mainly produced from sugar beet or wheat. Spain, Poland and France dominate the European sector with a combined production of over 500,000 tonnes in 2004, although Sweden, Austria and Germany are also becoming active in bioethanol production. The feedstocks used for production are normal farm crops which can be grown using conventional farming techniques in many parts of Europe. Cellulosic materials such as agricultural and wood wastes and separated domestic wastes are additional options as future feedstocks. However, these materials have to be hydrolysed before they can be fermented, using more complex processes than for cereals. Cellulosic materials are seen as long-term potential sources of sugars for ethanol production and their use may offer greater CO2 reduction. The technologies for bioethanol manufacture from these materials are immature, however, and will probably take at least 5-10 years to reach commercial production.

Blends & Vehicle Warranties

Bioethanol can be used as a 5% blend with petrol under the European quality standard EN228 and at such a blend no engine modifications are required. Vehicle owners running their cars on bioethanol blends should adhere to the recommendations of the individual car manufacturers. Some vehicle manufacturers specify that the maximum bioethanol blend in petrol should be no more than 5% bioethanol by volume, whilst others specify a maximum bioethanol blend in petrol of 10% by volume. If the stated maximum blend is exceeded a vehicles warranty will be invalidated. The 5% blend of bioethanol in petrol by volume converts into 3.4% by energy content because the energy content of bioethanol is only about two-thirds that of petrol. 100% bioethanol can be used in modified, spark-ignition engines. Ford has recently introduced a FFV Focus, a vehicle which can run on up to 85% ethanol, to several European markets including the UK.

Ford has recently introduced a FFV Focus, a vehicle which can run up to 85% ethanol, to several European markets.

Modifications Required for Blends >5%

The octane number of a petrol fuel is defined as a measure of the resistance of the fuel to abnormal combustion - known as knocking. The higher the fuel octane number, then the less likely it becomes that the engine will be susceptible to knock. The knocking process is caused by the incomplete combustion of the petrol fuel in the engine cylinder, which causes a sudden knock or blow to the piston, which over a period of time will seriously damage the engine. By adding a 10% bioethanol blend to petrol, the octane number of the petrol fuel is increased by two points. Therefore bio-ethanol is termed as an octane enhancer. The air to fuel ratio that is required for petrol in order for complete combustion with no excess air is about 14.6:1. This means that 14.6 kg of air is required for the complete combustion of 1 kg of petrol fuel. A 10% bioethanol blend of fuel will normally have an oxygen content of about 3.5% and the oxygen in the bioethanol affects the air:fuel ratio of engine operation. Therefore, it is usually necessary for engines to


have the air:fuel ratio reduced in order to take into account the oxygen content that is present in the bioethanol blend. The engine management systems that are fitted in most modern motor vehicles will electronically sense and change the air:fuel ratio in order to maintain the correct ratio when bioethanol fuels are added to the engine. For some vehicles, the maximum oxygen content that can be compensated for is 3.5% oxygen (ie a 10% bioethanol fuel blends). Older vehicles are usually not fitted with engine management systems, instead they operate with a normal fuel carburettor system. Thus, the carburettor air fuel mixture must be adjusted manually, in order to compensate for the increased oxygen content that is present in bioethanol blended fuels. It may be necessary to change a vehicles fuel filter more often because bioethanol blends can loosen solid deposits that are present in vehicle fuel tanks and fuel lines. Bioethanol blends have a higher latent heat of evaporation than 100% petrol and thus a poorer cold start ability in winter. Therefore some vehicles have a small petrol tank fitted containing just petrol for starting the vehicle in cold weather.

Fuel Handling
A further issue is the water-attracting properties of bioethanol, which can cause problems with fuel handling, storage and distribution. Bioethanol blended with petrol cannot be stored in conventional floating roof storage tanks, and it is difficult to distribute through the existing pipeline infrastructure due to the potential for contamination of jet fuel. As a consequence, blending tends to be done at the distribution terminals. Problems with meeting fuel vapour pressure specifications when using bioethanol also creates additional costs for the fuel producer.

Economics & Availability

Producing bioethanol costs about 2-3 times as much as petrol from crude oil depending on the relative costs of the bioethanol feedstock and the crude oil. The production costs are also influenced by the high capital cost of the production facilities for hydrolysis and fermentation. With full fuel duty, bioethanol is expensive to buy and a reduction in the duty rate is needed to make it competitive at the fuel pumps. As with biodiesel, such duty reductions are common in Europe, and are intended as a means of encouraging fuel suppliers to develop bioethanol and to stimulate the market. Bioethanol production is now underway in many European countries. Introducing bioethanol into the transport fuels market requires the simultaneous installation of a fuel supply infrastructure and the availability of bioethanol vehicles with local servicing capability. Neither the filling stations nor the car industry can take the first step on their own. A substantial number of bioethanol vehicles are required to generate a commercial rate of return from investments in dedicated ethanol fuel pumps. A joint effort involving car manufacturers, fuel retailers and local stakeholders is required to initiate market penetration. Experience from Sweden suggests that the introduction of fuel bioethanol becomes fully self supporting when a market share of about 5% is achieved.

Environmental Benefits of Bioethanol

The main advantage of bioethanol is that it offers net greenhouse gas emission reductions. For 100% bioethanol the reductions are typically 50-60% on a life-cycle basis compared with conventional fossil fuels. In common with biodiesel, the climate change benefits will depend on the feedstock used for ethanol production. The 50-60% greenhouse gas emissions savings on a life cycle basis are from bioethanol made from both sugar beet and wheat. If cellulosic materials are used, then the net greenhouse gas savings can be greater, perhaps as much as 75-80%. It is the low energy inputs to cellulosic crop production and using more efficient and/or renewable based processes that are the key to

reducing emissions. It is important to recognise that the bioethanol production process is itself energy intensive and requires a significant input of energy. Bioethanol can also reduce emissions of some tailpipe emissions from road vehicles, although the exact performance of bioethanol can vary depending on the type of petrol vehicle and specification of fuel. Generally it can be assumed that the use of oxygenates in petrol reduces the HC emissions by about 5% and the CO tailpipe emissions by up to 10%, and hence reducing the ozone precursors.

Market Penetration
In Sweden, Ford has been selling Focus models powered by bioethanol since 2001, for around 200 more than an equivalent petrol car. Since then, 80% of all Focus sales have been for the flexi-fuel rather than petrol or diesel versions, amounting to 15,000 cars in total. Bioethanol is priced at around two-thirds of the cost of petrol in Sweden, so this compensates for the fact that its 30% less efficient than petrol in terms of kilometres per litre. The Swedish government has also provided further incentives for buyers to switch to bioethanol by introducing 20% cuts in car insurance and company car tax, free parking and exemption from Stockholms congestion charge. Such incentives mean that bioethanol cars cost buyers the same, or less, to run than an equivalent petrol model.


5.9 Case Study 5: Introducing bioethanol to the UK - Somerset Biofuel Project

Context & Objectives

As part of the UK Climate Change Programme, the UK Strategy for Biofuels aims to create a fiscal and legislative framework to stimulate the development of a market for biofuels in the transport sector. Somerset Biofuel Project partners are working with UK government departments to facilitate the development of the Project and to provide a case study for assistance in implementation of the UK Strategy for Biofuels.

The Somerset Biofuel Project developed from a conference of local stakeholders hosted by Somerset County Council and is now a partnership project in the BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport (BEST). The Somerset Biofuels project will establish a local fuel distribution network of 5 forecourt pumps for the supply of E85, an 85% bioethanol to petrol mixture. Blending, storage and distribution of E85 fuel will be managed for the project by Wessex Biofuels, a subsidiary company of Wessex Grain which is developing simultaneous proposals for a bioethanol production plant in Somerset using grain grown in the South West region. Ford Motor Company will make available the Ford Focus Flexible Fuelled Vehicle (FFV), engineered to run on any mixture from pure petrol up to 85% ethanol content. Local stakeholders Somerset County Council, Avon and Somerset Constabulary, Wessex Water and Wessex Grain will kick-start a promotion campaign to introduce the FFV by using the cars in their respective vehicle fleets. A key deliverable from the project will be to establish monitoring and accreditation procedures for the practical determination of carbon emissions offset from production and utilisation of bioethanol. A mechanism will be outlined for fuel price support for a range of low carbon transport fuels based on carbon emissions offset achieved.

5.10 Biogas
Biogas is produced from organic waste decomposed by micro-organisms, as in a heap of compost. But in the case of biogas, decomposition is anaerobic, which means that it takes place in an oxygen-free atmosphere. The digestion process of organic waste produces mainly methane and carbon dioxide. Several types of organic waste can be used to with a satisfactory result provided that the amounts of nitrogen and carbon are sufficient. To be used as fuel in vehicles, upgrading biogas involves removing CO2, which typically constitutes 30-45% of biogas (but less than 1% of natural gas), as well as other trace gases and impurities such as H2S. When these conditions are complied with, one Nm of biogas equals to around one litre of diesel oil or petrol. Biogas is produced at more than 4000 sites in Europe, mainly landfill and sewage plants and is normally used to power gas turbines to produce electricity.


Environmental Performance
Biogas is effectively natural gas so vehicles fuelled by biogas produce similar tailpipe emissions to other NGVs (see Section XXX). However, use of biogas brings additional major benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions because it is a renewable fuel and as such the carbon dioxide released when it is burned would only recently have been removed from the atmosphere. Furthermore, use of biogas ensures that methane (a potent greenhouse gas) produced at landfill sites and sewage plants is captured rather than being allowed to escape to atmosphere.

Market Penetration
Biogas has been used as a vehicle fuel in Sweden, where a national biogas fuel standard dictates that the fuel must constitute a minimum of 95% methane, and more recently in Switzerland. However, numbers remain low, with probably only a few thousand vehicles fuelled by biogas worldwide.

5.11 Case Study 6: Biogas in Linkping, Sweden

Linkping is a city with approximately 132,000 inhabitants within its agglomeration, and is located to the south-east of Stockholm. The converging point of the public transport network is located in the city centre and is now too small for current traffic flow. The high number of buses passing through this area is responsible for the high emissions and noise levels registered. The increase in private motorised traffic and the subsequent rise in air pollution motivated local authority decision-makers to limit traffic flows in the centre of the city and to make the development of public transport a top priority on the municipal agenda. Air quality, however, remained poor in several city districts.


To improve these results, the municipality decided to experiment with biogas fuel on its fleet of urban vehicles. From 1989 to 1993, five Scania buses were tested. As their introduction was successful, a total of 20 units were integrated into the fleet. In 1998, the number of vehicles running on biogas fuel in Linkping amounted to 57 urban buses and 14 cars, including 4 taxis.

As a general rule, a bus can take enough biogas fuel to travel 300-400 kilometres. As for cars running on biogas, they are usually equipped with two tanks (a traditional petrol tank plus a gas tank) and can travel 200 kilometres with each of them. Once cleaned, biogas is conveyed by pipeline at a pressure of 4 bars to the bus depot and then compressed up to 200 bar. Bus refuelling is done automatically at night by means of slow-filling stations. Forty five buses can be filled simultaneously. There is also a quick-filling station.

In Linkping, each bus running on biogas fuel contributes to reducing nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) by 1.2 tonnes and carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) by 90 tonnes per year. The experience carried out in Linkping is economically viable for three reasons: Any person who disposes of waste on a dumping ground or discharges waste water into a sewage plant has to pay a tax The price for biogas is comparable to the price of diesel, which makes it easy to sell Manure produced (100,000 tonnes per annum) is sold

If the demand for biogas fuel rises significantly, there are plans to build a second filling station which will provide fuel for taxis, company vehicles, delivery vehicles and private cars.

5.12 Hydrogen
Hydrogen (H2) can be burned in internal combustion engines (ICE) that are very similar to petrol engines, but which produce zero tailpipe emissions of CO2, CO and HC (except for very small quantities deriving from engine lubricants).

Refuelling Options
Storing hydrogen is not an easy job as it is a gas in normal conditions with a low energy density. There are different options for storing hydrogen onboard a vehicle. It can either be stored as a liquid at very low temperatures (cryogenic), or as a compressed gas. H2 molecules attack materials, such as steel, weakening the structure, so special materials are also required for fuel tanks and refuelling infrastructure, increasing the costs of hydrogen as a fuel.


Environmental Performance
Vehicles fuelled by hydrogen produce no tailpipe emissions other than water vapour, so have the potential to bring great environmental benefits. Initially most of the H2 is likely to be derived from natural gas by a process that produces CO2 at the point of hydrogen production. With the possibility of carbon capture and storage at the point of production, this could present an option for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from transport. In the long-term, H2 might be produced from water by electrolysis using renewably generated electricity and distributed by pipeline to for transport and domestic use. This is a way of storing renewable energy such as wind or solar in the form of hydrogen fuel, for when it is needed. This would herald the arrival of the hydrogen economy with its promise of virtually CO2-free energy. Using hydrogen in internal combustion engines brings some of the advantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (see section on Fuel Cell Vehicles, below) but in a technology that is already well proven and accepted by consumers. Some vehicle manufactures believe using hydrogen in conventional vehicles will help create demand for H2 as a fuel, thereby leading to the development of a H2 refuelling infrastructure that will fuel the more efficient alternatives such as fuel cell vehicles in the longer term. BMW takes this a stage further and believes that the long-term future lies in using H2 in conventional internal combustion engines rather than FCVs.

5.13 Case Study 7: Malm CNG/Hydrogen filling station and hythane bus project

Sydkraft is the largest private utility company in Sweden, with a head office in Malm and a reputation for being at the forefront of technological development. Sydkraft and the Municipality of Malm have been working together since 1985 on the conversion of city buses from diesel to CNG. There are now more than 330 buses, 80 trucks and about 1000 cars running on CNG and biogas in the Skne region. In 1995 both partners implemented use of Electric Vehicles in their fleets as a part of a large EV demonstration project in the region. This quest for testing new alternative fuelled vehicles has continued and the latest step is now to test hydrogen mixed together with natural gas for local city buses.

The aims of the hydrogen and CNG bus project are: To use a locally produced fuel To improve the efficiency and the operation of the engines To decrease CO2 and local emissions

The hydrogen plant and the filling station is situated in Malm and owned and operated by Sydkraft Gas AB. It started operation in September 2003. At the same site there are filling stations for CNG and electrical vehicles. The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water in direct connection to the filling station, while the electricity is produced in a nearby windpower plant and distributed to the hydrogen plant via the electrical grid.


The hydrogen dispenser was manufactured by FTI, Canada. It consists of two hoses, one for pure hydrogen and the other for the mix of hydrogen and CNG. The mixing is prepared in the dispenser directly while fuelling the vehicle fuel. The different fuelling options at the dispenser are: Hydrogen 350 bars The new standard often used for fuel cell vehicles. DaimlerChrysler Evobus has specified 350 bar as onboard storage for the hydrogen fuel on their Citaro buses used in the CUTE and other similar projects. It is also the standard for DaimlerChrysler FCell fuel cell cars and several other modern demonstration vehicles using hydrogen as fuel. Hydrogen 200 bars The classic standard for delivery of bottled industrial hydrogen and several hydrogen demonstration vehicles are using 200 bar as pressure in the fuel tank.

Hythane (CNG with a blend of 8% hydrogen) This lean mixture of hydrogen into the CNG is considered as CNG according to the specification of natural gas. The mixture can be used directly in the current CNG city buses without any modifications of the fuel system or engine set points or hardware. Hythane (CNG with a blend of 20% hydrogen) This heavier mix of hydrogen into the CNG cannot be considered as natural gas. A modification of the engine set points for ignition and fuel injection is required The operation with the mixture of 8% volume hydrogen in the natural gas started in September 2003. Two city buses have used the Hythane fuel with 8% hydrogen. This has been done without any modifications of the engines. The buses could then also use CNG as fuel if needed. The heavier mixture with 20% hydrogen in the CNG has been used since the beginning of year 2005. This has required modifications of the mapping of the engine both for ignition and the air/fuel ratio. Connecting a PC for adjustments of the control system of the bus engine did the necessary modifications. There have not been any hardware modifications done. A comprehensive study of all components regarding safety has been performed by the engine manufacture.

Two buses of the local fleets have tested CNG mixed with 8% of hydrogen as fuel without any modifications of the lean-burn CNG engines, for more than one year. The Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University, Sweden, has confirmed significant improvements in fuel efficiency, more stable operation of the engine and reduction of emissions by performing bench testing of the engines. Measurements of efficiency, emissions, combustion variations, knocking etc have been performed during different conditions. It is reasonable to expect that the brake thermal efficiency could increase with hydrogen mixed into the CNG fuel as compared to pure natural gas since the combustion duration is reduced. With reduced combustion duration the effective expansion ratio increases and more work can be extracted from the gas. This increase in efficiency is likely to be the highest where the combustion duration is long with natural gas, i.e. at lean conditions. The Volvo TG100 engine used in the local city is a lean burning engine and can thus profit from the use of the mixture of hydrogen and CNG as fuel. The increase in efficiency together with the reduction of the carbon content in the fuel decreases the emissions of CO2 substantially when hydrogen is used as a fuel additive.


A mix of hydrogen into the natural gas creates a faster and more efficient combustion. Lower emissions of HC and CO are then achieved, as the combustion is more efficient. The higher combustion temperature can however increase the NOx emissions. This can be avoided by using a higher air/fuel ratio and/or less spark advance. The flame speed of hydrogen is much higher than that of hydrocarbon fuels. Adding hydrogen to natural gas is thus likely to increase the flame speed of the charge. This could be used to extend the lean limit of the natural gas engine to air/fuel rates ratios where pure natural gas provides insufficient burn rate for stable combustion. Below is a summary of the conclusion of laboratory tests of a mixture of 8% into the CNG using a Volvo TG100 engine: Higher efficiency More stable combustion, due to a faster combustion (less cycle to cycle variations) A slight increase in power Lower HC and CO emissions because of higher combustion efficiency Higher or similar NOx emissions (with no changes applied to fuelling or spark) Slightly higher knock tendency

Further tests with a 20% hydrogen mix in the CNG have been performed in the laboratory. These tests show significant improvements. The reduced combustion duration increases the efficiency significantly and enables the reduction of NOx emissions by using a higher air/flow ratio combined with optimised ignition timing. The reduction of CO2 emissions is substantial.

The long term vision is to use a mixture of hydrogen and CNG in all the city buses. An emissions test on the engines on buses in operation will be performed later this year. The test will be made on a certain road where equal conditions can be obtained during the test period. Several passenger cars have tested the low-grade 8% Hythane fuel with good results. There is a future project to test 10 passenger cars including taxis and other service vehicles running on Hythane for a longer test period. A few hydrogen vehicles have visited the filling station but there are not yet any demonstration projects for vehicles running on pure hydrogen.



6.1 Hybrid Vehicles

A hybrid vehicle has both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Hybrids are cleaner and more efficient than conventional vehicles and their running costs are lower, but they cost more to buy. Hybrids are no more difficult to drive than conventional cars: they switch automatically between different modes, they never need to be plugged in, and they have automatic transmission. Toyota introduced the worlds first volume-produced hybrid, the first generation Prius, to the Japanese market in 1997, which was followed by the Honda Insight in 1999. More recently there have been new hybrid models from these two manufacturers as well as from Ford, GM, Lexus and Peugeot-Citroen. Hybrids have received a great deal of attention, initially from the motoring world but more recently from the mainstream media as well. In many countries grants or subsidies are available for hybrids, which has contributed to the vehicles popularity and led to long waiting lists for several hybrid models in the US and Europe. Hybrid vehicles are likely to gain market share over the next few years and to remain an important vehicle technology for many years to come. At present all the hybrid cars available are petrol-electric but it is likely that even more efficient diesel-electric hybrids will soon be introduced, possibly from early 2006. Manufacturers led with petrol-electric models because diesel engines are more expensive and will add to hybrids price premiums.

Hybrid systems vary greatly in cost, complexity and effect and are often categorised as follows:

Stop-start or micro-hybrids
Stop-start hybrids have relatively small electric motors which do not drive their wheels directly but which are powerful enough to restart their engines almost instantaneously. This means that a micro-hybrids petrol engine can turn off automatically when it is stationary (e.g. at traffic lights) and re-start as soon as the driver touches the accelerator, without the driver having to turn the ignition key or even be aware that the engine has stopped. Stop-start systems are not generally thought of as true hybrids since they are not propelled by their electric motors. They typically bring only modest fuel savings of around 10%, but have the advantage of being relatively inexpensive. An example of a stop-start hybrid is the Citroen C3.


Mild hybrids
Mild hybrids have the stop-start functionality described above but usually use their electric motors output for propulsion. Mild hybrids cannot, however, operate solely on electric mode since their motors are not connected directly to their wheels. Instead they provide additional power via their engines during times of high engine load, for example during heavy acceleration. Mild hybrids also benefit from regenerative braking: during braking their motors convert some of the dissipated energy into electricity, which is used to recharge batteries. Hondas Integrated Motor Assist, found on the Insight and Civic (and Accord in some markets), is an example of a mild hybrid, although Hondas system can also shut-down 3 of 4 engine cylinders to enhance efficiency. The Civic hybrid achieves approximately 25% CO2 savings compared to a similar non-hybrid.

Full hybrid
A full hybrid system, including Toyotas Hybrid Synergy Drive as seen on the Prius, is capable of propelling a vehicle with just its engine, just the electric motor or both simultaneously. The Toyota system, much of which is also licensed to Ford for use on the Escape hybrid, uses a continuously variable power split device to send some of the petrol engines power directly to the wheels and some to the generator. The generator then drives the electric motor, which in turn also drives the wheels. The system is complicated but achieves high efficiency by allowing the engine to run at efficient speeds at all times. When its full power is not needed to drive the wheels, the motor can turn the generator to recharge the batteries. The batteries are also recharged by regenerative braking. In stop -go traffic and at low speeds, when a petrol engine is least efficient the engine shuts off entirely and the electric motor, powered by the battery, takes over. The system employed in the 4 wheel-drive Lexus RX400h is similar but has two electric motors, one for the front wheels and one for the rear. Whilst none of the hybrids currently available from vehicle manufacturers can be recharged externally, some plug-in hybrids have been demonstrated and may become popular within a few years. At 80g/km the Honda Insight (1999-2004) had the lowest CO2 emissions of any commercially available internal combustion engine (ICE) car worldwide, and at 104g/km the Prius has the lowest of any volumeproduced ICE car. It is therefore easy to see why hybrids have caused such a stir in the environmental and automotive worlds during the past 8 years. Indeed the Prius low emissions are all the more impressive when you consider that it is a 5-seater family car and still has lower emissions than the small diesels cars such as the Toyota Yaris, Citroen C2 and VW Lupo. Most hybrid models also have local emissions that are well below Europes most recent Euro IV emissions standard. There have been several stories that hybrids in real world use do not achieve their low official fuel consumption and CO2 figures. However this issue is common to all vehicle technologies and it is not yet clear whether there is a particular divergence between hybrid vehicles official and in-use fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

At 80g/km the Honda Insight (1999-2004) had the lowest CO2 emissions of any commercially available internal combustion engine (ICE) car worldwide, and at 140g/km the Prius has the lowest of any volume-produced ICE car.

Hybrids are sold at a premium compared to their non-hybrid equivalents but can bring large fuel cost savings. In most EU countries, as well as many US states and cities, hybrids qualify for purchase grants and/or reduced taxes. For high-mileage users they can make financial sense. From the manufacturers perspective the economics of hybrids are unclear, at least in the short term, since many commentators believe the manufacturers make a loss on each vehicle sold. However, production costs are of course expected to fall as volumes increase.

Market Penetration
Sales of hybrids remain relatively small compared to conventional vehicles and are now limited by supply rather than demand. Consequently there are waiting lists for most hybrid models in the US and European markets. Toyota has sold more than 300,000 Prius since the first generation of the vehicle was launched in Japan in 1997, making it by far the worlds best-selling hybrid. In 2005, Toyota expected to sell 3500 Prius in the UK.

6.2 Case Study 8: Hybrid bus trials- Uppsalabuss, Sweden & Bolzano, Italy

Uppsala is situated just north of Stockholm and has a population of about 190,000 (Swedens fourth largest city). Malm is Swedens third largest city and the commercial centre of southern Sweden, with a population of 255,000 inhabitants. The Province of Bolzano is situated in Northern Italy in the heart of the Alps bordering to Austria in the north and Switzerland in the west. It covers an area of 7,400 km2 and it is divided into 116 municipalities. It has a population amounting to approximately 457,000.

By developing a new style for urban buses, this project aimed to demonstrate how public transport in the 21st century could combine low environmental impact with economic viability. The new designs aimed to: Reduce CO2 emission by 30% from conventional city buses Achieve zero emissions in designated areas Reduce pollution to approximately 50% compared to conventional buses Provide comfortable, quiet, accessible (low floor function) buses Ensure economic viability in mass production

Five hybrid vehicles were completed for the project at the end of 1998, with glass and carbon fibre bodies to avoid corrosion and produce a design 30% lighter than a conventional bus. The Magnet-Motor (MM) drive systems comprised mainly of the MM electric motors mounted directly on individual wheels, thus constituting a compact rear wheel drive unit. The project vehicles were far more energy efficient than conventional designs, with braking energy used to charge the batteries rather than wasted as heat. During braking, the motors run as generators and feed energy into the batteries (Varta NiMH). When the vehicle accelerates, the batteries feed the stored energy back into the drive motors, working with the MM generator to achieve the most efficient use of energy. The specification for the Swedish and Italian buses became relatively different. The bus for Bolzano remained equipped with a diesel engine. In Uppsala the buses were equipped with biogas-powered engines (See the Biogas section of the manual for more information).

The intention from the beginning was that two experimental hybrid buses should be able to replace one standard bus. In Malm only one hybrid bus was available. In Uppsala both hybrid buses were in normal operation, but had downtime of over 50%. The expectation that a hybrid bus could be operational 50% of the time was not the case. All of the buses had several system faults and even normal mechanical faults in the conventional bus components.

From the first test results it was shown that the emissions were unusually high. This was, however, not representative for biogas engines generally but the result of an incorrectly tuned engine. Despite the lack of a catalytic converter (see section 6) and incorrectly tuned engine, the emission figures were not higher than what is normal for a diesel engine. Furthermore, the engine was not completely adjusted to electric hybrid propulsion. The conclusion was that a correctly adjusted engine, optimised for a complete and total electric hybrid system will give considerably better results. In hybrid mode with combined battery and combustion engine drive it is possible to reach large decrease in the emissions from the engine. Measurements have shown: CO2 emissions can be reduced by around 30% CO emissions can be reduced by around 60% NOx emissions can be reduced by around 50%

6.3 Battery Electric Vehicles

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) produce no emissions at the point of use, are near-silent and cheap to run. The first BEVs were produced in the 1830s and the vehicles have been in use in various forms ever since. In the 1990s many manufacturers had major BEV programmes and new models were launched including from Citroen, Ford, Honda, GM, Peugeot, and Toyota. However, even after considerable research effort, modern BEVs have a much reduced range and performance compared to petrol or diesel vehicles and sales of BEVs have remained relatively low. Since the late 1990s much interest and most research funding has been switched from pure BEVs to hybrid vehicles, which combine electric motors with internal combustion engines to give more power and greater ranges. Nevertheless, BEVs are very well suited to some applications and they can deliver major environmental benefits so they should not be overlooked.

Battery Properties
The most important technical difference between BEVs is their battery type. The ideal BEV battery would meet many different performance criteria. It would have: a high specific energy (the amount of energy stored by mass, measured in kWh/kg) a high energy density (the amount of energy stored by volume, measured in kWh/m3) a high specific power (the peak power output available, measured in W/kg) a long cycle-life (i.e. it could be discharged and recharged many times without significant deterioration in its performance) a quick re-charge time and would be deep cycle (i.e. could be regularly discharged to near empty without loss of function) a wide temp range of operation and would be safe, recyclable and cheap

No batteries meet all of the above criteria so for a BEV manufacturer choice of battery always involves a degree of compromise. The most common BEV battery types are summarised below.


6.4 Types of Battery

Lead-acid batteries were used in the first BEVs 170 years ago and are still the most common battery in use on BEVs today. They are inexpensive, easily recyclable, and most lead-acid BEVs can be recharged in approximately 6 hours. Most lead-acid batteries are aqueous (liquid) and have to remain upright to prevent leakage, but there is also a gelled lead acid non-aqueous version that does not have to be mounted upright. However, lead-acid batteries have low specific energy and low energy density so they are large and heavy and only provide a limited range. Lead-acid batteries should not be discharged to more than 80% depth of discharge (DOD) i.e. to less than 20% of their capacity, as doing so shortens their operational life. Lead acid batteries are used on many BEVs including the REVA, GMs EV1 (Mk 1) and several electric mopeds.

Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd or nicad)

Nickel Cadmium batteries have also been in use for many years. They have a higher specific energy (around 55 Wh/kg) and higher energy density than lead acid batteries. Ni-Cds also have long cycle lives and can be discharged to 100% DOD with no negative effects. Although Ni-Cd batteries are recyclable, concerns over the possibility of cadmium (a heavy metal) contaminating landfill sites led to an EC directive in 2002 that bans the sale of Ni-Cd batteries for new BEVs from the end of 2005. Ni-Cd batteries are also expensive.

Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH)

Nickel metal hydride batteries have a high specific energy of approximately 90 Wh/kg and very long cycle lives. They are recyclable and are relatively benign to the environment since the anode is made of an alloy of non-heavy metals, so they do not present particular dangers of land or groundwater contamination. NiMH batteries were used on GMs EV1 to give the vehicle a range of approximately 250km per charge and on the electric Toyota Rav4 which has a range of approximately 200km. Smaller Ni-MH batteries are also used in the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius hybrids and much smaller Ni-MH units are used for applications such as mobile phones and laptops.

Sodium sulphur
Ford briefly used sodium sulphur batteries on its Escort-based Ecostar van in the mid1990s. However these batteries are no longer used for vehicles due to safety concerns, since they operated at 300C and sodium explodes on contact with water.

Lithium ion (Li-ion)

Lithium ion batteries have very high specific energy of approximately 150 Wh/kg and very long cycle lives. Several prototype Li-ion BEVs have been produced including a Ford Ka in 2000 which had a range of 150-200km and a top speed of 130km/h. There was also proto-type Li-ion Mitsubishi Eclipse in 2003 and even an 800bhp 230mph Li-ion prototype called Eliica in 2004. Unfortunately, for the time being Li-ion batteries remain prohibitively expensive for use in production vehicles and none are expected in the near future.


6.5 Environmental performance

Electric vehicles produce zero tailpipe emissions, which makes them a particularly attractive environmental proposition for busy urban areas where poor air quality often leads to health problems. A full analysis of BEVs environmental benefit must, however, also consider the emissions associated with the production and supply of the electricity used to recharge the vehicles. In many countries this is easy to calculate for CO2 since figures are available for the average CO2 produced per kWh of electricity delivered. In the UK, for example, the figure is 430g CO2/kWh delivered. For small electric cars or car derived vans such as the Peugeot 106s and Citroen Berlingos, this translates to approximately 80-90 g CO2/km, which is on a par with the 2-seater Honda Insight hybrid and is considerably better than any conventional petrol or diesel vehicle. In France, where most electricity is generated by nuclear power stations, or in Switzerland where most is from hydro or nuclear the CO2 emissions attributable per km would be far less.

Electric vehicles produce zero tailpipe emissions, which makes them a particularly attractive environmental proposition for busy urban areas.

Batteries can have a high environmental impact due to the energy required to produce them and because of the potential for contaminating land or groundwater upon their disposal. However, the most popular BEV batteries (lead-acid and Ni-MH) are both readily recyclable and the EC End of Life Vehicle Directive (2000/53/EC) dictates that they must be recycled.

6.6 Economics
As with many alternative fuel and vehicle types, the economics of BEVs are characterised by higher capital costs but lower running costs: recharging a BEV is relatively cheap and in most countries BEVs benefit from lower sales and/or annual taxes. There is some uncertainty about battery lifetimes and replacements are expensive, but Ni-MH batteries in particular have very long cycle lives and recent experience suggests they are likely to last as long as the vehicles themselves. The question of the financial viability of BEVs needs to be considered in the wider context of whether the vehicles are practical for a specific use and how they will fit with and complement an operators other vehicles. For example, it is unlikely that a BEV would be appropriate for a family as their only car, but as an urban delivery vehicle, a city-based pool car or a private car to be used for commuting and shopping, a BEV may well be a practical and financially viable option. It is generally accepted that in the foreseeable future BEVs will only be appropriate for specific niche markets.

6.7 Market Penetration

There are more than 28,000 BEVs in Europe but this includes around 16,000 UK milk floats (which comprise the largest number of British registered electric vehicles). Electric commercial vehicles have been widely used in a number of specialist applications such as forklift trucks, airport vehicles and the electric delivery vehicle. Other than milk floats, there are probably less than 100 modern electric vehicles in use in the UK, and a similar pattern is seen across Europe, and it seems that this low market penetration will remain the case, save a huge step-change in technological development.


Case Study 9: Battery Electric Vehicles in Turin

Turin is the capital of the Piedmont region in Italy and is situated at the confluence of the Po and the Dora Riparia. The town has more than a million inhabitants. Several years ago, Turin instigated a system to control and limit the access of private cars into the "old town". There was heavy private traffic in this area with the corresponding burden on parking spaces. This policy was accompanied by the installation of paid parking and this was combined with the introduction of electric vehicle trials.

The Elettra Park system was implemented in Turin in September 1996. It is based on a fleet of 20 electric vehicles (Fiat Panda 2-seater), based in a single station on the Piazza Vittorio Veneto carpark. Parking facilities here are, in fact, "double", which means that a driver can leave his own vehicle there and borrow an Elettra Park electric vehicle. To do this, he must first purchase a prepaid magnetic card, the Ecard. The E-Card is an electronic card protected by a secret PIN number. It carries the user's information (for legal and insurance requirements) and is used to connect to the computer managing Elettra Park. Once he has the card, the user is autonomous. He can go to the carpark on the Piazza Vittorio Veneto, insert the card into one of the terminals, for identification, then borrow a vehicle. Each vehicle is parked in a space equipped with a recharging terminal. This indicates by a signal whether or not the vehicle is available. When there are no vehicles available, the terminal shows a waiting time. When a vehicle is free, the user can disconnect it and get in, the doors being unlocked automatically. If there is any problem with the vehicle during use, the user can call a free phone number and ask for help. Once his trip is over, the user inserts his card into the terminal again and the amount charged for renting the electric vehicle is debited. The vehicles have 50 kilometres range and can reach a speed of 50 km/h or more. They are insured comprehensively for any trip made within the Turin urban area. The vehicles are maintained by Fiat and cleaned by ATM, which subcontracts to a private company. The experiment was also backed financially by the Ministry of the Environment within the context of the 3 year programme Tutela Ambiente 1994-1996 approved by the Piedmont Region.


To subscribe to the Elettra Park system, a deposit is required, with a flat fee for the first hour and the second hour of rental calculated minute by minute. The rental cost includes: rental of the electric vehicle electricity consumption free parking in Turin centre (except in carparks with barriers) insurance parking your own car in the Elettra Park carpark while you are using the electric vehicle

Other points: The service is open 7 days a week between 7:30 and 22:30 The cost of each vehicle provided by Fiat is 17,559.53 Three people (two full-time and one part-time) run the system (reception and assistance for users, managing services such as recharging vehicles, etc.)

In July 1998, Elettra Park had about 2,000 subscribers, some of whom subscribed through curiosity and made only one trip, while others are frequent users of the service. Studies of socio-economic profiles of users have shown that most of them are aged between 18 and 40. All the charts show an excessive representation of students in user categories, probably for two reasons: they usually don't have a private car and they are often very sensitive to the project's environmental objectives. The system was initially designed for car users, the project's designers having thought of the station as an exchange carpark, so that users could leave their internal combustion powered vehicle and borrow an electric urban vehicle which respects the environment. The reality is that the service is used mainly by people who do not own a private car and who reach the station on foot or by public transport. According to a survey performed for users of the Elettra Park service, the level of satisfaction is about 75% (20% did not reply). Various criteria were taken into consideration: vehicle availability, vehicle management system, vehicle accessibility, using the card and ease of recharging, opening hours, rates. Use of the service was judged to be relatively easy and pricing quite reasonable. It was vehicle availability which was considered to be unsatisfactory and the opening hours were too restrictive. As for the vehicles, the main qualities cited are their silence and the fact that they are economical and practical while their main defect was their weight.

The construction of three new stations began at the end of 1998. The eventual aim is to interconnect the system with the urban public transport system. About 50 new electric vehicles were to be brought into service, these being four-seater Fiat Seicento Elettras to cope with the demands of users who want more spacious vehicles, particularly for leisure and shopping trips. These vehicles should also have greater range (90 kilometres instead of the 50 for the current two-seater Fiat Pandas) and speed.

6.8 Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs)

A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines fuel and oxygen without combustion, to produce electricity and heat. While fuel cells can run on other fuels such as methane and methanol, hydrogen (H2)

is currently the preferred option for the future as the only tailpipe emission from its use is water. The fuel cell is a very promising technology that is expected to provide a clean and efficient source of power for many applications, including transport. Almost all vehicle manufacturers are involved with major fuel cell research programmes but most believe fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are unlikely to become commonplace until around 2020 at the earliest.

Workings of a Fuel Cell

A fuel cell consists of an anode and a cathode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them. The electrolyte has the unusual property of allowing (positively charged) ions to pass through it but not (neutral) molecules or (negatively charged) electrons. In a hydrogen fuel cell, H2 molecules are supplied to the anode side of a fuel cell, where a catalyst, usually platinum, splits each molecule into two H+ ions and two electrons. The H+ ions pass freely through the electrolyte to combine with oxygen molecules at the cathode, but the electrons are blocked. The electrons run through an external circuit from the anode to the cathode where they rejoin the H2 ions and oxygen molecules to form water. This movement of electrons through the external circuit is a direct current, which can be used to power the electric motor of a fuel cell vehicle. Each fuel cell produces approximately 0.7 volts but cells can be connected together in series to produce fuel cell stacks of any required voltage. Fuel cells need a continuous supply of hydrogen when they are operating. The oxygen required for the reaction simply comes from the air.

Types of Fuel Cells

There are several different types of fuel cell, distinguished principally by the composition of their electrolyte. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is most suitable for road transport applications because of its high energy density, relatively low operating temperature and short warm-up times.

Refuelling Options
Similar issues need to be overcome with using H2 in FCVs as in internal combustion engines. One option would be to refuel FCVs with a liquid containing a high proportion of hydrogen, for example methanol or a hydrocarbon similar to petrol or diesel. Liquid fuels would be easier to distribute and supply as they are energy dense, do not need to be pressurised and existing vehicle refuelling infrastructure (tankers, service stations etc) is designed for liquid fuels. Onboard storage is also easier with liquid fuels as vehicles dont require pressurised fuel tanks and because high energy density makes high vehicle ranges easy to

achieve. Fuel cells, however, must be supplied with pure gaseous hydrogen, so if a liquid were used FCVs would have to be fitted with onboard reformers to extract the H2 from the liquid. Reformers would add to vehicles weight and cost and would create gaseous by-products forming new categories of vehicle emissions. Use of liquid fuels would also exclude the possibility of moving to a genuine hydrogen economy using renewably produced hydrogen. It therefore seems likely that FCVs will be refuelled with hydrogen and that the hydrogen will be stored onboard as a gas under high pressure.

Environmental Performance
Fuel cell vehicles refuelled with hydrogen produce no tailpipe emissions other than water vapour, so have the potential to bring great environmental benefits. The high efficiency of fuel cells compared to internal combustion engines further enhances the environmental benefits. The issues associated with supplying hydrogen, either from fossil hydrocarbons or water, would be as described in the Hydrogen section, above.

The economic viability of FCVs is dependent on greatly reducing fuel cell production costs and on developing a commercially viable refuelling infrastructure. Fuel cells are currently much more expensive to produce than conventional engines. The manufacturing costs need to fall by 10-20 times to be commercially viable. With the high cost of refuelling infrastructure, it is unsurprising that even the main protagonists suggest that commercialisation of hydrogen fuel cells is at least 30 years away.

Fuel cells are currently much more expensive to produce than conventional engines. The manufacturing costs need to fall by 10-20 times to be commercially viable.

Market Penetration
Several hundred demonstration FCVs operate worldwide. Three fuel cell buses are operating in London as part of the EC funded Clean Urban Transport for Europe project involving 27 fuel cell buses in 9 cities.


6.9 Case Study 10: London fuel cell buses CUTE

London Buses is part of Transport for London, and is responsible for achieving environmental targets and standards for the whole of Londons bus fleet, as required by the Mayors Air Quality Strategy. BP is providing the hydrogen-refuelling facilities for the fuel cell buses. BP is an infrastructure partner in five of the nine CUTE (Clean Urban Transport for Europe) cities and is demonstrating a range of different hydrogen technologies in each location. The Energy Saving Trust is supporting the project through grant funding from its new vehicle technology fund programme. Daimler Chrysler has developed and manufactured the buses and provides technical support during the trial and the European Union has cofinanced the trial, with the support of the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy and Transport.

The aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative, energy efficient, clean urban public transport system. This demonstration encompasses the operation of 27 purpose designed fuel cell powered, low-noise buses in 9 European cities with the establishment of regional hydrogen (H2) production and refuelling infrastructures. The outcome of the project is hoped to be an improved public acceptance of the H2 fuel cell transport system, demonstration of a more secure energy supply for the EU and the realistic application of renewable energy sources.

Route 25 between Oxford Circus and Ilford was chosen as the first fuel cell trial bus route for a number of reasons. Firstly, it is important to test the buses in different inner city areas. Route 25 is a busy route that extends all the way from the centre of London, through the East End and onto suburban Ilford. It is a long route that offers a wide variety of traffic conditions in the largest city taking part in the trial. Fuel cell buses have run alongside conventional double-decker buses on the same route. As a result, the operating and environmental data gathered has played a major part in helping the project to gain experience of how the fuel cell propulsion system actually performs day-by-day. The new Mercedes Citaro buses, which were built by Daimler Chrysler especially for this trial, use the latest fuel cell and hydrogen production technology. Hydrogen can be made in a number of different ways including steam reforming of natural gas and the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen (electrolysis). The hydrogen is then liquefied by cooling it down to a very low temperature. The liquid hydrogen is

delivered to the fuelling site where it is dispensed as a gas into pressurised cylinders. These are the cylinders you can see on top of the bus, along with the fuel cell system, coolers and other components. The only emission from a hydrogen fuel cell bus is water, which forms a vapour cloud as soon as it leaves the exhaust and enters the atmosphere.


The European Commission (EC) has adopted an action plan and two Directives to foster the use of alternative fuels for transport, starting with the regulatory and fiscal promotion of biofuels. The Commission considers that the use of fuels derived from agricultural sources is the technology with the greatest potential in the short to medium term. Air quality is also an issue very high on the ECs agenda and an area where much legislation has been passed.

Action plan
The action plan outlines a strategy to achieve a 20% substitution of diesel and petrol fuels by alternative fuels in the road transport sector by 2020. It concludes that only three options would have the potential to achieve individually more than 5% of total transport fuel consumption over the next 20 years: biofuels which are already available, natural gas in the medium term, and hydrogen and fuel cells in the long term.

Biofuels Directive
In May 2003, the European Parliament and the Council have adopted the 'Directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport'. This Directive requires member states in 2005 to replace 2% of their diesel and petrol with biofuels, although deviations are possible when justified. In 2004 the member states had to report their measures to promote biofuels for transport, their national target for biofuel use in 2005 and their reasons for any deviation of the 2% target. The Commission, the Parliament and the Council have been encouraging the development of renewable energy and particularly of biofuels for a long time. The Communication entitled "A Sustainable Europe for a Better World: A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development" presented to the Gteborg Summit in June 2001 highlighted the important role of biofuels in tackling climate change and in the development of clean energies. The Commission Green Paper "Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply" of November 2000 introduced the objective of substituting 20% of traditional fuels by alternative fuels in the road transport sector by 2020. The recent White Paper on Transport Policy establishes an objective of a 6% market share for biofuels in 2010.

7.1 Air Quality legislation

Air Quality Framework Directive
Air Quality is one of the areas in which Europe has been most active in recent years. The EC aim has been to develop an overall strategy through the setting of long-term air quality objectives. A series of Directives has been introduced to control levels of certain pollutants and to monitor their concentrations in the air. In 1996, the Environment Council adopted Framework Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. This Directive covers the revision of previously existing legislation and the introduction of new air quality standards for previously unregulated air pollutants, setting the timetable for the development of Daughter Directives on a range of pollutants. The list of atmospheric pollutants to be considered includes sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NOx), particulate matter (PM), lead (Pb) and ozone (pollutants governed by already existing ambient air quality objectives), and benzene, carbon monoxide, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium, arsenic, nickel and mercury. Daughter Directives


The Framework Directive was followed by Daughter Directives, which will set the numerical limit values, or in the case of ozone, target values for each of the identified pollutants. Besides setting air quality limit and alert thresholds, the objectives of the Daughter Directives are to harmonise monitoring strategies, measuring methods, and calibration and quality assessment methods to arrive at comparable measurements throughout the EU and to provide for good public information. The first Daughter Directive The first Daughter Directive (1999/30/EC) relating to limit values for NOx, SO2, Pb and PM in ambient air came into force in July 1999. Member States have two years to transpose the Directive and set up their monitoring strategies. Member States have to ensure that up-to-date information on ambient concentrations of SO2, NOx, particulate matter and lead is routinely made available to the public. The limit values for NOx for the protection of vegetation must be met by 2001. The health limit values for SO2 and PM must be met by 2005. The other health limit values for NO2 and Pb must be met by 2010. Member States will have to prepare attainment programmes showing how the limit values will be met on time for those areas where attainments by "business as usual" cannot be presumed. These programmes must be made directly available to the public, and must also be sent to the Commission. To facilitate a harmonised and structured way of reporting, detailed arrangements for Member States to submit the information on plans and programmes are laid down in Commission Decision 2004/224/EC. The second Daughter Directive The second Daughter Directive (2000/69/EC) relating to limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air came into force on the 13th of December 2000. This Directive establishes limit values for concentrations of benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air and requires Member States to assess of concentrations of those pollutants in ambient air on the basis of common methods and criteria, as well as to obtain adequate information on concentrations of benzene and carbon monoxide and ensure that it is made available to the public. The limit value for carbon monoxide must be met by 2005. The limit value for benzene must be met by 2010 unless an extension is granted. As with the first Daughter Directive, Member States will have to prepare attainment programmes for those areas where attainments cannot be assumed without further changes. These programmes must be made directly available to the public and must also be sent to the Commission. Annual reporting under the second Daughter Directives must follow Commission Decision 2004/461/EC. The third Daughter Directive The third Daughter Directive relating to ozone 2002/3/EC was adopted on 12 February 2002. It must be transposed by Member States by 9 September 2003. Directive (92/72/EC) will be repealed by that date. The Directive sets long-term objectives equivalent to the World Health Organisation's new guideline values and target values for ozone in ambient air to be attained where possible by 2010. These targets follow Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings. The fourth Daughter Directive This most recent Directive 2004/107/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2004 relates limiting atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air.


Road Vehicles
Motor vehicle emissions are regulated by Directive 70/220/EEC (light vehicles) and 88/77/EC (heavy vehicles) and amendments to those directives. A whole series of amendments have been issued to stepwise tighten the limit values. Emissions are measurably falling because of this, even though traffic volumes continue to rise. The implementation of the Auto-Oil Programme will result in a notably improved air quality in our cities. The programme focused on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). During the programme stricter limit values will be implemented for light vehicles 2005 (Directive 98/69/EC) and for heavy duty vehicles 2005 and 2008 (Directive 1999/96/EC). In addition legislation has been implemented on the use of on-board diagnostic systems (OBD) which will tell vehicle owners if the emissions of the vehicle is too high, while a light on the instrument panel will indicate that there is a need to repair the vehicle. There is legislation for vehicles in use on periodic inspections at which the vehicle owners maintenance of the vehicle is checked (Directive 96/96/EC). Legislation on durability was introduced through the Auto-Oil Programme, making the manufacturer responsible for the emissions from light vehicles during five years or 80,000 km, whichever occurs first, providing that the vehicle has been properly maintained. A similar legislation is on its way for heavy duty vehicles. To reduce emissions during short trips, when the catalytic converter is less effective, and during wintertime, a separate requirement on "cold start emissions" was introduced. This part of the legislation is of particular importance for city driving where the average trip normally is very short. By amending Directive 1999/24/EC the emissions from motorcycles will be lowered as well. The current legislation will be tightened in 2003 and increased from 2006. This Directive also covers emissions from mopeds.

Reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

The EU's aim is to reach by 2010 at the latest, an average CO2 emission figure of 120 g/km for all new passenger cars marketed in the Union.

The current strategy

The current strategy is based on 3 pillars: Voluntary agreements committing the automobile manufacturers to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars, mainly by means of improved vehicle technology Improvements of consumer information on the fuel-economy of cars Market-orientated measures to influence motorists' choice towards more fuel-efficient cars

Automotive Fuel Quality

Directive 98/70 as amended by Directive 2003/17/EC contains the environmental fuel quality specifications for petrol and diesel fuels in the Community focusing on sulphur, lead and aromatic levels. This legislation has ensured that from 1 January 2002 all petrol sold in the Member States is unleaded. The sulphur content in diesel and petrol is now currently limited to 50ppm and there is the phasing in of diesel and petrol with a sulphur content of 10 ppm.


Exercise 1
1. Diesel vehicles are inherently more efficient than their petrol equivalents? TRUE/FALSE 2. Diesel engines are better on NOx and PM10 than their petrol equivalents TRUE/FALSE 3. Grid-charged electric vehicles are pollution free TRUE/FALSE 4. Hydrogen fuel cells are only a few years away from mass production and high market penetration TRUE/FALSE 5. Hybrid vehicles are only a few years away from mass production and high market penetration TRUE/FALSE 6. LPG is a renewable fuel TRUE/FALSE 7. Natural Gas vehicles have significant local emissions benefits TRUE/FALSE 8. Biodiesel can technically be used at any percentage in existing diesel vehicles TRUE/FALSE 9. Bioethanol can technically be used at any percentage in existing diesel vehicles TRUE/FALSE 10. Biofuels are renewable fuels and offer significant greenhouse gas savings TRUE/FALSE


Exercise 2
1. Diesel vehicles need after-treatment SCR or EGR to reduce: NOx PM10 HC CO CO2

2. Diesel vehicles need particulate filters to reduce: NOx PM10 HC CO CO2

3. Three way catalysts are used in: Petrol vehicles Diesel vehicles

4. Which vehicles can only use oxidisation catalysts? Petrol vehicles Diesel vehicles

5. Particulate filters can be up to what % effective at reducing particulate matter 10% 50% 70% 90%

6. Whats the best measure of a fuels global warming impact tailpipe CO2 well-to-wheel CO2 tailpipe GHG emissions well-to-wheel GHG emissions

7. The Biofuel Directive indicates which targets for biofuel in 2010? 2% 3.5% 5.75% 10%

8. Local emission limits are set by which European legislation? Euro Standards The Biofuels Directive Voluntary agreement None

9. Which of the following fuels/vehicles need a new refuelling infrastructure Biodiesel Bioethanol Natural Gas Hybrids Hydrogen fuel cells

10. Which of the following correctly describes hydrogen Energy source energy carrier


Exercise 3
Scenario 1 You are advising a fleet manager on alternative fuels. He wants to replace a pool car that travels between council buildings, consisting of short journeys of no more than 50 miles, with a lot of stop-start work. What vehicle/fuel would you recommend and why?

Scenario 2 The council wants to green its fleet of large refuse vehicles as cheaply as possible. They wish to reduce emissions both locally and globally from the fleet. What would you recommend and why?

Scenario 3 An individual wants to buy a new car and have tailpipe emissions of around 100g/km or less. What car would you recommend and why?



Green Paper on Energy Efficiency or Doing More With Less, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 22 June 2005 Bio fuels in the Dutch market, a fact-finding study, Novem, Utrecht, the Netherlands, November 2003. Biofuel and bioenergy implementation scenarios, ECN, Petten, the Netherlands, Chalmers Universitiy of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden An EU strategy for biofuels, , Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 2006 White Paper, European Transport Policy for 2010, Time to Decide, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 2001 EMOTIONS Photo CD PORTAL Photo CD www.e-atomium.org http://www.treatise.eu.com/ http://www.transportlearning.net/


1,3 butadiene: Exposure to the gas can irritate the eyes, nose and throat. Breathing very high levels of 1,3-Butadiene for a short time can cause central nervous system damage, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased pulse rate and pressure and unconsciousness. Long term exposures at lower levels have shown increases in heart and lung damage. Air pollutant emissions: Emissions that affect human health, especially CO, HC, NOx and PM. Benzene: Exposure to Benzene can result in symptoms such as skin and eye irritations, drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, and vomiting. Benzene is carcinogenic and long-term exposure at various levels can affect normal blood production and can be harmful to the immune system. It can cause Leukaemia (cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells) and has also been linked with birth defects in animals and humans. Bi-fuel: A vehicle that has 2 separate fuel tanks and can switch between the two fuels. Biodiesel: Methyl ester fuel for diesel engines produced from organic feedstock. Bioethanol: Ethanol produced from agricultural crops. Biofuel: Fuel (including biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas) produced from organic feedstocks. Biogas: A methane based gas produced by anaerobic decomposition of waste products. Catalytic converters: Catalyst-coated honey-comb structures in vehicle exhausts that greatly reduce air pollutant emissions. CNG: Compressed natural gas. CO: Carbon Monoxide (CO) reduces the bloods Oxygen carrying capacity which can reduce availability of Oxygen to key organs. Extreme levels of exposure can be fatal. At lower concentrations CO may pose a health risk, particularly to those suffering from heart disease. CO2: Carbon dioxide (CO2) derives from multiple sources including volcanic outgassing, the combustion of organic matter and respiration processes of living aerobic organisms. It is also produced by various microorganisms from fermentation and cellular respiration. It is present in the Earth's atmosphere at a low concentration and acts as a greenhouse gas. It is a major component of the carbon cycle. Common rail injection: A single high-pressure fuel line delivering fuel to an engines cylinders. Derv: Diesel fuel used for road vehicles Diesel particulate filter (DPF): A filter that removes most PM from a vehicles exhaust. Direct injection: Fuel injected directly into an engines combustion chamber. DME: Dimethyl ether (DME) is also a clean-burning alternative to liquified petroleum gas, liquified natural gas, diesel and gasoline. It can be made from natural gas, coal, or biomass.

Down-sizing: Opting for smaller vehicles: usually refers to cars. Driving cycle: a standard cycle of road vehicle operations (e.g. EU urban type approval cycle for cars, see fig. 2.) reproducing a driving pattern; the measurements from which speed-emission curves are derived are nearly always performed on a chassis dynamometer, where the test vehicle is operated over a certain driving cycle, while its emissions are collected and analysed. Driving pattern: a "driving pattern" represents a typical driving behaviour and can be described with the help of cinematic parameters (typically speed and acceleration profiles). Dual-fuel: An engine that runs on a variable mixture of two different fuels, usually diesel and natural gas. Emission factor: the emission rate per unit of transport activity (g/v*km) Emission matrix: a two-dimensional matrix of emission factors, classified by two operational variables, which usually are the vehicle speed and the product of the speed and acceleration (that give a better indication of the power demand on the engine). Emission model: a mathematical model, typically based on empirical estimations, describing and simulating the emissions from road vehicles or from other transport mode; the input data for the emission models are generally provided by traffic models (micro or macro traffic simulators) Emission-related vehicle categories: vehicle categories based on the level of emission control, according to stages of EU emission control legislation Emissions: the pollutants or everything else (including noise and radiations) emitted from a system, which is an emission source. Engine map: a map that describes the fuel consumption or the emissions, by means of isocurves, as function of the engine speed and the engine torque. EV: Electric vehicle (powered by a battery) Evaporative emissions (losses): hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles, produced by evaporation of their fuel; the evaporative losses, that arise from vehicle fuel system (storage tank, carburettor, or injection system, fuel pipes), can include: filling losses, diurnal breathing losses, hot soak losses, running losses. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR): An engine design that feeds some of the exhaust gasses back to the air intake to lower flame temperature and reduce NOx formation. FCV: Fuel cell vehicle. Fuel cell: A device that produces electricity through an electrochemical process, usually from hydrogen and oxygen. GVW: Gross vehicle weight. Heavy duty vehicle (HDV): Trucks and buses and other vehicles above 3500 tonnes GVW.

HC: Hydrocarbons (HC) contribute to ground level Ozone formation leading to risk of damage to the human respiratory system. In addition, some kinds on HCs are carcinogens and they are also indirect greenhouse gases. HGV: Heavy goods vehicle Hot emissions: the exhaust gases emitted from a road vehicles, when its engine and its pollution control system (e.g. catalyst) have already reached their normal operating temperature. Hybrid vehicle: A vehicle with an electric motor and an ICE. Hydrogen: Hydrogen (H) is the most abundant element in the universe but it is generally bonded to another element. Hydrogen gas (H2) is a diatomic gas composed of hydrogen atoms and is colourless and odourless. Hydrogen is flammable when mixed with oxygen over a wide range of concentrations. ICE: Internal combustion engine. LDV: Light duty vehicle LEV: Low emission vehicle LNG: Liquefied natural gas. Low sulphur fuels: Fuels with sulphur content no greater than 50 parts per million. LPG: Liquefied petroleum gas N2: Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic non-metal gas, nitrogen constitutes 78% of the Earth's atmosphere and is a constituent of all living tissues. Natural gas (NG): A mixture of gases but predominantly (70-90%) methane. NGV: Natural gas vehicle. NMVOC: Non-methane hydrocarbons NOX: Nitrogen oxides, Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere to form Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) which can have adverse effects on health, particularly among people with respiratory problems, while long term exposure may affect lung function and increase the response to allergens in sensitive. NOx also contributes to smog formation, acid rain, can damage vegetation and contributes to ground level Ozone formation. OBD: On-Board Diagnostics. A unit that monitors the Electric Control Unit and system responses for errors during normal vehicle operations. When the vehicle is serviced, this information on the errors can be down loaded and displayed to the service personnel which will facilitate the trouble shooting process. Ozone: Ozone (O3) is a gaseous form of oxygen with three atoms per molecule. Ozone is a bluish gas that is harmful to breathe. Ozone is not directly emitted by car engines or by industrial operations themselves. These sources emit hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that react with sunlight to form ozone

directly at the source of the pollution being emitted and in the atmosphere's boundary layer (1 to 3 km altitude). The mix of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and ozone are the major components of smog that frequently occurs in urban and suburban areas. Nearly 90% of the Earth's ozone is in the stratosphere and is referred to as the ozone layer. Ozone absorbs a band of ultraviolet radiation called UVB that is particularly harmful to living organisms. The ozone layer prevents most UVB from reaching the ground. PAH: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds that consist of fused aromatic rings and do not contain heteroatoms or carry substituents. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. They are formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels such as wood, coal, diesel, fat, or tobacco Particulate matter (PM): Particles suspended in the air; the large particles decrease visibility and increase fouling while the fine particles (PM10), as they are small enough to be inhaled into the lungs, can contribute to the chronic and acute respiratory disease and premature mortality. Pb: Lead is a soft metal that is found in air in the form of very small particles. Large amounts of lead in the body can cause pain in joints and muscles. Other symptoms of lead exposure include anaemia, nausea, gastric problems, sleep problems, concentration problems, headaches, and high blood pressure. In children, the symptoms of lead exposure can be poor development of motor abilities and memory, reduced attention span, and colic and gastric problems. Rape methyl ester (RME): Biodiesel made from oilseed rape. Regulated tailpipe emissions: CO, HC, NOx and PM. Start (related) emissions: the extra emissions produced by road vehicles when the engine and the emission control system are not fully warmed up (below the normal operating temperature). SCR: Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an after-treatment that removes NOx from exhaust emissions. SO2 (Sulphur dioxide): The gas is irritating to the lungs. Poor quality coal and petroleum contain sulphur compounds, and generate sulphur dioxide when burned: the gas reacts with water and atmospheric oxygen to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and thus acid rain. Traffic composition: the average composition of road traffic resulting from both the number of vehicles in each of the emission-related categories and their average annual mileage. Traffic situation: the term traffic situation has been introduced in the Swiss/German Handbuch der Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs, as a second variable, in addition to the average speed, to take into account the influence on the road vehicle emissions of the dynamic driving behaviour. Vehicle emissions: any kind of pollutant (including noise and radiation) emitted from a vehicle. VOCs: Volatile organic compound (VOCs) are released in vehicle exhaust gases either as unburned fuels or as combustion products, and are also emitted by the evaporation of solvents and motor fuels. Benzene and 1,3-butadiene are both VOCs. Well-to-wheel: the total life-cycle emissions from cradle to grave including production of the raw material, extraction, processing and combustion. ZEV: Zero emission vehicle


Comparative Costs Fuel (inc tax) Distributio n Storage Fitness-for-Purpose Environmental Performance Tailpipe Emissions (compared to ULSD GHG emissions (wellViability for general public Euro III) to-wheel)



Viability for fleets

Water/Diesel Medium emulsion




May requires vehicle modification and there are torque problems associated with the fuel. At least requires very special storage to ensure the maintenance of the emulsion.

May requires vehicle modification and there are torque problems associated with the fuel. At least requires very special storage to ensure the maintenance of the emulsion.

May requires vehicle modification and there are torque problems associated with the fuel. At least requires very special storage to ensure the maintenance of the emulsion.

May requires vehicle modification and there are torque problems associated with the fuel. At least requires very special storage to ensure the maintenance of the emulsion. Generally financially feasible to set up local production, otherwise can be purchased from existing producers. Existing diesel distribution infrastructure and vehicles can be used with minimal adaptation. Existing diesel infrastructure can be used with minimal adaptation. Supply limited at present but growing very rapidly.

May requires vehicle modification and there are torque problems associated with the fuel. At least requires very special storage to ensure the maintenance of the emulsion. Generally financially feasible to set up local production, otherwise can be purchased from existing producers. Existing diesel distribution infrastructure and vehicles can be used with minimal adaptation. Existing diesel infrastructure can be used with minimal adaptation. Supply limited at present but growing very rapidly.

Biodiesel (made from waste cooking oil)





Generally financially feasible to set up local production, otherwise can be purchased from existing producers. Existing diesel distribution infrastructure and vehicles can be used with minimal adaptation.

Generally financially feasible to set up local production, otherwise can be purchased from existing producers. Existing diesel distribution infrastructure and vehicles can be used with minimal adaptation.

Generally financially feasible to set up local production, otherwise can be purchased from existing producers. Existing diesel distribution infrastructure and vehicles can be used with minimal adaptation.

Biodiesel (outsourced from virgin crops)





Existing diesel infrastructure can be used with minimal adaptation. Supply limited at present but growing very rapidly.

Existing diesel infrastructure can be used with minimal adaptation. Supply limited at present but growing very rapidly.

Existing diesel infrastructure can be used with minimal adaptation. Supply limited at present but growing very rapidly.






National infrastructure for production and distribution not yet available, although tax incentive to take effect from 2004 may change this. Conversion/specific vehicle necessary in blends over 10%. No Powershift grants currently available. Low calorific value gives less miles per litre.

National infrastructure for production and distribution not yet available, although tax incentive to take effect from 2004 may change this. Conversion/specific vehicle necessary in blends over 10%. No Powershift grants currently available. Low calorific value gives less miles per litre.

National infrastructure for production and distribution not yet available, although tax incentive to take effect from 2004 may change this. Conversion/specific vehicle necessary in blends over 10%. No Powershift grants currently available. Low calorific value gives less miles per litre.

National infrastructure for production and distribution not yet available, although tax incentive to take effect from 2004 may change this. Conversion/specific vehicle necessary in blends over 10%. No Powershift grants currently available. Low calorific value gives less miles per litre. Limited national infrastructure at present. Needs expensive local infrastructure. Requires costly conversions although eligible for Powershift grants. Infrastructure exists.

National infrastructure for production and distribution not yet available, although tax incentive to take effect from 2004 may change this. Conversion/specific vehicle necessary in blends over 10%. No Powershift grants currently available. Low calorific value gives less miles per litre. Limited national infrastructure at present. Needs expensive local infrastructure. Requires costly conversions although eligible for Powershift grants. Infrastructure exists.






Limited national infrastructure at present. Needs expensive local infrastructure. Requires costly conversions although eligible for Powershift grants.

Limited national infrastructure at present. Needs expensive local infrastructure. Requires costly conversions although eligible for Powershift grants.

Limited national infrastructure at present. Needs expensive local infrastructure. Requires costly conversions although eligible for Powershift grants.






Infrastructure exists.

Infrastructure exists.

Infrastructure exists.