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Abstract
Everyone has secrets; some have more than others. When it becomes necessary to transmit those secrets from one point to another, it's important to protect the information while it's in transit. There are many aspects to security and many applications, ranging from secure commerce and payments to private communications and protecting passwords. One essential aspect for secure communications is that of cryptography. In the past, cryptography is heavily used for military applications to keep sensitive information secret from enemies. Cryptography presents various methods for taking legible, readable data, and transforming it into unreadable data for the purpose of secure transmission, and then using a key to transform it back into readable data when it reaches its destination. The most secure techniques use a mathematical algorithm and a variable value known as a 'key'. Cryptography uses a single key to encrypt i.e. changing data so that it is unrecognizable and useless to an unauthorized person and decrypt a message i.e. changing it back to its original form. There are several ways of classifying cryptographic algorithms Secret Key Cryptography, which uses a single key for both encryption and decryption. Public Key Cryptography, which uses one key for encryption and another for decryption. Hash Functions uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information. The goal of cryptography extends beyond merely making data unreadable; it also extends into user authentication, Privacy/confidentiality, Integrity, Non-repudiation.

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Cryptography
Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security. Information security deals with several different "trust" aspects of information. Another common term is information assurance. Information security is not confined to computer systems, nor to information in an electronic or machine-readable form. It applies to all aspects of safeguarding or protecting information or data, in whatever form. Cryptography can also be defined as the science and art of manipulating massege to make them secure.In this the original message to be transformed is called the plaintext and resulting message after transformation is called the ciphertext.

Cryptography plays an essential role in, Authentication: The process of proving ones identity. Privacy/confidentiality: Ensuring that no one can read the message except the intended receiver. Integrity: Assuring the receiver that the received message has not been altered in any way from the original. Non-repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender really sent this message. www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com 2

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Types Of Cryptographic Algorithms: There are several ways of classifying cryptographic algorithms. They will be categorized based on the number of keys that are employed for encryption and decryption, and further defined by their application and use. The three types of algorithms that will be discussed are: Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information

Fig.1 Secret key (symmetric) cryptography

Fig.2 Public key (Asymmetric) cryptography

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www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com Fig.3 Hash function (one way cryptography)

Secret Key Cryptography:


With secret key cryptography, a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. As shown in figure below, the sender uses the key to encrypt the plaintext and sends the cipher text to the receiver. The receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. Because a single key is used for both functions, secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption

Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block ciphers. Block Ciphers A block cipher transforms a fixed-length block of plaintext into a block of cipher text of the same length, using a secret key. To decrypt, the reverse process is applied to the cipher text block using the same secret key. www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com 4

www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com Stream Ciphers Stream ciphers are typically much faster than block ciphers. A stream cipher generates a key stream (a sequence of bits or bytes used as a key). The plaintext is combined with the key stream, usually with the XOR operation.

Secret key cryptography algorithms:


Data Encryption Standard (DES): Data encryption standard adopted in 1977 by the National Bureau of standards. DES is a block-cipher employing a 56-bit key that operates on 64-bit blocks. Processing of plaintext proceeds in three stages. First, the plaintext passes through an initial permutation that rearranges the bits to produce the permuted input. There are total 16 iteration of the same function. The output of the last iteration consists of 6 bits that are function of plaintext input and the key. The left and the right halves of the output are swapped to produce the preoutput.This preoutput is passed through a permutation that is the inverse of the initial permutation function, in order to produce the 64 bit cipher text. The 56 bit key is used .the key is passed through a permutation function. Then,for each of
e y the 16 iterations, a sub keykis produced by the combination of the left shift, circular shift

and a permutation.
C 0

PC1

D 0

LH S

LH S PC2 D 1 LH S PC2 K6 1 K 1

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LH S

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DES Algorithm

Public-key cryptography:

Public-key cryptography is based on the notion that encryption keys are related pairs, private and public. The private key remains concealed by the key owner; the public key is freely disseminated to various partners. Data encrypted using the public key can be decrypted only by using the associated private key and vice versa. Because the key used to encrypt plaintext is different from the key used to decrypt the corresponding cipher text, public-key cryptography is also known as asymmetric cryptography.

Receivers public key

Receiver

Receiver

Advantages: www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com

www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com Only the private key must be kept secret Relatively long life time of the key Relatively efficient digital signature mechanisms Smaller verification key Low data throughput Much larger key sizes

Disadvantages:

Public-key cryptography algorithms:


RSA Algorithm The RSA algorithm developed in 1977 by Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA) at MPT. RSA algorithm is public key encryption type algorithm. In this algorithm one user uses a public key and another user uses a secret key. In the RSA algorithm each station independently and randomly chooses two large primes p and q numbers and multiplies then to produce n=pq which is a modulus used in the arithmetic calculation of the Key Generation: algorithm. The process of RSA algorithm is as follows: Find two large primes p and q. Let n = p q. Let m = ( p-1) ( q-1 ). Find d and e such that d e = 1 (mod m); Publish ( e; n) as the public key. Keep ( d; n) as the private key.

Encryption: If a is the plaintext, the cipher text c is c = a ^e(mod n) 7

Decryption: www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com If c is the cipher www.chetanasprojects.com text, the decoding a* is a* = c^d(mod n)a*

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Application of cryptography:
Secure Communication: Secure communication is the most straightforward use of cryptography. Two people may communicate securely by encrypting the messages sent between them. This can be done in such a way that a third party eavesdropping may never be able to decipher the messages Identification and Authentication:

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www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com Identification capable of password-based identification with more (secure) methods powerful techniques. is replacing

Authentication is similar to identification, in that both allow an entity access to resources but authentication is broader because it does not necessarily involve identifying a person or entity. E-commerce: E-commerce carry out the secure transaction over an insecure channel like internet

Digital Signatures: sDigital Signatures allows electronically sign (personalize) the electronic

documents, messages and transactions

Summary
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www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com Cryptography is the gold standard for security. It is used to protect the transmission and storage of data between two parties by encrypting it into an unreadable format. Cryptography has enabled the first wave of secure transmissions, which has helped fuel the growth of transactions like shopping, banking, and finance over the world's biggest public network, the Internet. The study of cryptography is advancing steadily, and scientists are rapidly creating mechanisms that are more difficult to break. The most secure type of cryptography yet may be quantum cryptography, a method that has not yet been perfected, which instead of using a key, relies on the basic laws of physics, and the movement and orientation of photons to establish a connection that is absolutely secure and unbreakable.

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Contents

1. Abstract..1 2. Cryptography.2 3. Types Of Cryptographic Algorithms4 4. Secret key cryptography ...5 5. Secret key cryptography algorithms (DES).6 6. Public-key cryptography7 7. Public-key cryptography algorithms (RSA).8 8. Application of cryptography..10 9. Summery...12

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References: 1. www.juniper.net 2. www.1millionpapers.com 3. www.wisegeek.com 4. www.iconlockit.com 5. www.bestinfo.com www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com 12

www.1000projects.com www.fullinterview.com www.chetanasprojects.com 6. www.bkpsecurity.com

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