Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 84

# MESIN ARUS BOLAK-BALIK TE 1403

Dr. Dedet C. Riawan, ST., M.Eng Electrical Engineering Department Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

## Construction of Synchronous Generator

Stator Armature winding

Shaft

Rotor pole

Field winding
2

## Excitation of Field Windings

1. 2.

Static excitation system fed through slip ring and brushes Rotating excitation system mounted on the shaft brushless

## Interaction of Rotor & Stator Magnetic Fileds

Br induces EA at stator V = EA

## Interaction of Rotor & Stator Magnetic Fileds

Stator is connected to a load IA flows in stator producing magnetic field BS BS induces ESTAT at its own stator winding EA =V + ESTAT

## Interaction of Rotor & Stator Magnetic Fileds

Br coincide with EA BS coincides with ESTAT Thus Bnet will coincide with Vf

10

## Armature Reaction & Self-Inductance Voltage

Synchronous Reactance

11

12

## Phasor Diagram of Synchronous Generator

Lagging power factor

13

14

15

## Power Angle in Synchronous Generator

If RA << XA RA is ignored

16

## Parameters of Synchronous Generator

1. 2. 3.

Relationship between field current and flux (and therefore between the field current and EA) The synchronous reactance Armature resistance

17

Open-Circuit Test

18

Open-Circuit Characteristic

Unsaturated Saturated

19

Short-Circuit Test

V = 0

20

Short-Circuit Characteristic

Unsaturated

21

## Determining the Synchronous Reactance

For a given field current IF

From SCC IA

Given IF

22

## Limitation on OCC-SCC method

Note: EA is obtained from OCC IA is obtained from SCC

23

## Example of OCC & SCC test results

Synchronous generator of 10-MVA 13-kV, 3-phase, 50-Hz, Y connected
OCC
If (A) Voc (kV) 50 75 100 125 150 162.5 200 250 300

6.2

8.7

10.5

11.8

12.8

13.2

14.2

15.2

15.9

SCC

## Excitation current of If = 100-A is required to obtain rated IA.

ZPF

Excitation current of If = 290-A is required to obtain rated IA at zero pf and rated voltage.
24

## Example of OCC & SCC test results

If (A) 1000 900 800 700 Isc (A) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 If (A) 300 20 18 16 14 Voc (kV) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 400

25

26

## Armature Reaction & Leakage Reactance

Test with Zero Power Factor (ZPF) at IA rated. Bnet = BR + BS

## Bnet ~ Er BR ~ Ea Bstat ~ -Ear

27

Potiers Method
Procedure:
1.Find P from ZPF test 2.Find P from SCC 3.Draw RP = OP 4.Draw RS parallel to initial of OCC slope (OS) 5.Draw SQ perpendicular to RP

28

Potiers Method
SQ = IA xl PQ = BS Voltage drop due to leakage reactance Magnetic flux due to armature reaction = Ifar ~ Ear

29

30

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

Purpose of paralleling generator: 1. Meet the demand on loads 2. Increasing reliability 3. Scheduling and maintenance 4. Load sharing for efficient operation 4-MW 8-MW 8-MW 8-MW 4-MW

31

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

Requirements: The rms line voltages of the two generators must be equal. The two generators must have the same phase sequence. The phase angles of the two a phases must be equal. The frequency of the new generator, called the oncoming generator, must be slightly higher than the frequency of the running system.

32

## Procedure of Paralleling Synchronous Generators

1. 2. 3. 4. Adjust field current until terminal voltage of two generators are equal in magnitude. Checked phase sequence of two generators. They must be equal. Adjust the frequency of oncoming generator slightly higher. Close the tie breaker

33

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

If the rms line voltages of the two generators IS NOT equal

34

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

If the two generators DO NOT have the same phase sequence

35

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

If the phase angles of the two a phases IS NOT equal

36

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

If the frequency of the two generators IS NOT equal

37

## Paralleling Synchronous Generators

If the frequency and phase sequence of the two generators ARE NOT equal

38

39

40

## Speed Droop Principle

Concept of Speed Droop

41

42

43

## Speed Droop in Stand-alone Operation

Summary: Active & reactive power supplied by generator will be the amount demanded by load Governor set point of generator will control the operating frequency (fsys). Field current regulator will control terminal voltage of the system
44

45

## Speed Droop in Parallel Operation with Infinite Grid

fnl
Set point increased

P in

us fb

PG

46

47

## Speed Droop in Parallel Operation with Infinite Grid

Summary: Increasing set point of generator will increase generator output power Frequency of the system is set by infinite bus Increasing field current will increase reactive power supplied to the grid

48

## Two Same Size Generator in Parallel Operation

Second generator takes small amount of load demand during the first moment of synchronization (PG2)

49

## Two Same Size Generator in Parallel Operation

Speed of the second generator is increased to take more load from other.

50

51

52

53

54

## Power Sharing in Parallel Operation

Power Sharing without shifting system frequency

55

## Power Sharing in Parallel Operation

Power Sharing without shifting terminal voltage

56

Synchronous Motor
Three phase winding of stator produces rotating magnetic field BS If field winding on rotor is excited with current, magnetic field BR is produced. This magnetic field will chase BS. So, rotor will rotate in the same speed as rotating magnetic field generated by stator synchronous

57

Synchronous Motor

58

Synchronous Motor
From Generating to Motoring Operation

59

Synchronous Motor
From Generating to Motoring Operation

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

## Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

Under-excited Over-excited

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

Basic Approach

78

## Starting Synchronous Motor

Reducing Electrical Frequency

## slow rotating magnetic field

rotor is capable to

Stator frequency is then increased gradually up to nominal value. Requires variable frequency variable voltage source

79

## Starting Synchronous Motor

External Prime Mover

Prime mover brings rotor up nominal speed field excitation is applied synchronise with grid detach prime mover from rotor shaft

80

## Starting Synchronous Motor

Armotisseur or Damper Winding Damper winding

81

## Starting Synchronous Motor

Armotisseur or Damper Winding

82

## Starting Synchronous Motor

Armotisseur or Damper Winding

83

## Starting Synchronous Motor

Starting Procedure Using Armotisseur or Damper Winding 1. 2. Disconnect the field windings from their dc power source and short them out. Apply a three-phase voltage to the stator of the motor, and let the rotor accelerate up to near-synchronous speed. The motor should have no load on its shaft , so that its speed can approach nsync as closely as possible. Connect the dc field circuit to its power source. After this is done, the motor will lock into step at synchronous speed, and loads may then be added to its shaft.

3.

84