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MESIN ARUS BOLAK-BALIK TE 1403

Dr. Dedet C. Riawan, ST., M.Eng Electrical Engineering Department Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

Construction of Synchronous Generator


Stator Armature winding

Shaft

Rotor pole

Field winding
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Construction of Synchronous Generator

Excitation of Field Windings

1. 2.

Static excitation system fed through slip ring and brushes Rotating excitation system mounted on the shaft brushless

Excitation System with Slip Ring & Brushes

Brushless Excitation System

Interaction of Rotor & Stator Magnetic Fileds


No-load operation

Br induces EA at stator V = EA

Interaction of Rotor & Stator Magnetic Fileds


On-load operation

Stator is connected to a load IA flows in stator producing magnetic field BS BS induces ESTAT at its own stator winding EA =V + ESTAT

Armature reaction voltage

Interaction of Rotor & Stator Magnetic Fileds


On-load operation

Br coincide with EA BS coincides with ESTAT Thus Bnet will coincide with Vf

Equivalent Circuit with Armature Reaction

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Armature Reaction & Self-Inductance Voltage

Synchronous Reactance

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Phasor Diagram of Synchronous Generator

Unity power factor

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Phasor Diagram of Synchronous Generator


Lagging power factor

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Phasor Diagram of Synchronous Generator

Leading power factor

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Power & Torque in Synchronous Generator

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Power Angle in Synchronous Generator


If RA << XA RA is ignored

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Parameters of Synchronous Generator

1. 2. 3.

Relationship between field current and flux (and therefore between the field current and EA) The synchronous reactance Armature resistance

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Open-Circuit Test

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Open-Circuit Characteristic

Unsaturated Saturated

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Short-Circuit Test

V = 0

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Short-Circuit Characteristic

Unsaturated

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Determining the Synchronous Reactance


For a given field current IF

From OCC VOC

From SCC IA

Given IF

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Limitation on OCC-SCC method


Note: EA is obtained from OCC IA is obtained from SCC

ranging from unsaturated to saturated region unsaturated region

Accurate up to unsaturated synchronous reactance XS,u

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Example of OCC & SCC test results


Synchronous generator of 10-MVA 13-kV, 3-phase, 50-Hz, Y connected
OCC
If (A) Voc (kV) 50 75 100 125 150 162.5 200 250 300

6.2

8.7

10.5

11.8

12.8

13.2

14.2

15.2

15.9

SCC

Excitation current of If = 100-A is required to obtain rated IA.


ZPF

Excitation current of If = 290-A is required to obtain rated IA at zero pf and rated voltage.
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Example of OCC & SCC test results


If (A) 1000 900 800 700 Isc (A) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 If (A) 300 20 18 16 14 Voc (kV) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 400

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Armature Reaction & Leakage Reactance


Test with Zero Power Factor (ZPF) at IA rated. Bnet = BR + BS

Bnet ~ Er BR ~ Ea Bstat ~ -Ear


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Potiers Method
Procedure:
1.Find P from ZPF test 2.Find P from SCC 3.Draw RP = OP 4.Draw RS parallel to initial of OCC slope (OS) 5.Draw SQ perpendicular to RP

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Potiers Method
SQ = IA xl PQ = BS Voltage drop due to leakage reactance Magnetic flux due to armature reaction = Ifar ~ Ear

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Flux and Induced Voltage in Synchronous Generator

Vt = Er - IAXl where Er = Ea Ear Bnet = BR + BS


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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


Purpose of paralleling generator: 1. Meet the demand on loads 2. Increasing reliability 3. Scheduling and maintenance 4. Load sharing for efficient operation 4-MW 8-MW 8-MW 8-MW 4-MW

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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


Requirements: The rms line voltages of the two generators must be equal. The two generators must have the same phase sequence. The phase angles of the two a phases must be equal. The frequency of the new generator, called the oncoming generator, must be slightly higher than the frequency of the running system.

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Procedure of Paralleling Synchronous Generators


1. 2. 3. 4. Adjust field current until terminal voltage of two generators are equal in magnitude. Checked phase sequence of two generators. They must be equal. Adjust the frequency of oncoming generator slightly higher. Close the tie breaker

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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


If the rms line voltages of the two generators IS NOT equal

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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


If the two generators DO NOT have the same phase sequence

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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


If the phase angles of the two a phases IS NOT equal

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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


If the frequency of the two generators IS NOT equal

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Paralleling Synchronous Generators


If the frequency and phase sequence of the two generators ARE NOT equal

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Speed Governor in Stand-Alone Operation

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Speed Droop Principle

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Speed Droop Principle


Concept of Speed Droop

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Speed Droop in Stand-alone Operation

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Speed Droop in Stand-alone Operation

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Speed Droop in Stand-alone Operation

Summary: Active & reactive power supplied by generator will be the amount demanded by load Governor set point of generator will control the operating frequency (fsys). Field current regulator will control terminal voltage of the system
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Speed Droop in Parallel Operation with Infinite Grid

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Speed Droop in Parallel Operation with Infinite Grid


fnl
Set point increased

P in

us fb

PG

Pload

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Speed Droop in Parallel Operation with Infinite Grid

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Speed Droop in Parallel Operation with Infinite Grid


Summary: Increasing set point of generator will increase generator output power Frequency of the system is set by infinite bus Increasing field current will increase reactive power supplied to the grid

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Two Same Size Generator in Parallel Operation


Second generator takes small amount of load demand during the first moment of synchronization (PG2)

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Two Same Size Generator in Parallel Operation


Speed of the second generator is increased to take more load from other.

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Two Same Size Generator in Parallel Operation

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Power Sharing in Parallel Operation


Power Sharing without shifting system frequency

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Power Sharing in Parallel Operation


Power Sharing without shifting terminal voltage

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Synchronous Motor
Three phase winding of stator produces rotating magnetic field BS If field winding on rotor is excited with current, magnetic field BR is produced. This magnetic field will chase BS. So, rotor will rotate in the same speed as rotating magnetic field generated by stator synchronous

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Synchronous Motor

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Synchronous Motor
From Generating to Motoring Operation

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Synchronous Motor
From Generating to Motoring Operation

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Torque-Speed in Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Load Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor


Under-excited Over-excited

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

Synchronous VAR Compensator when P is kept minimum

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Field Excitation Changes on Synchronous Motor

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Starting Synchronous Motor

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Starting Synchronous Motor


Basic Approach

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Starting Synchronous Motor


Reducing Electrical Frequency

Low frequency accelerate

slow rotating magnetic field

rotor is capable to

Stator frequency is then increased gradually up to nominal value. Requires variable frequency variable voltage source

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Starting Synchronous Motor


External Prime Mover

Prime mover brings rotor up nominal speed field excitation is applied synchronise with grid detach prime mover from rotor shaft

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Starting Synchronous Motor


Armotisseur or Damper Winding Damper winding

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Starting Synchronous Motor


Armotisseur or Damper Winding

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Starting Synchronous Motor


Armotisseur or Damper Winding

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Starting Synchronous Motor


Starting Procedure Using Armotisseur or Damper Winding 1. 2. Disconnect the field windings from their dc power source and short them out. Apply a three-phase voltage to the stator of the motor, and let the rotor accelerate up to near-synchronous speed. The motor should have no load on its shaft , so that its speed can approach nsync as closely as possible. Connect the dc field circuit to its power source. After this is done, the motor will lock into step at synchronous speed, and loads may then be added to its shaft.

3.

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