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2011-12

WROCLAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

[POWER SYSTEM FAULT


PROJECT NO-2 (FAULT DIRECTION DISCRIMINATION).
Prof. Dr. Hab. In Jan Iykowski

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD SHIVANANDA PUKHREM JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELES

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

INDEX:
1. Introduction.. 3 2. Variables used in the line code program.. 4 3. Program code. 5 4. Graphics results.. 7 Fig 1: Task IIIA. Incremental positive resistance..................................... Fig 2: Task IIIA. Incremental positive reactance and resistance.............. Fig 3: Task IIIB. Incremental positive resistance...................................... Fig 4: Task IIIB. Incremental positive reactance and resistance.............. Fig 5: Task IIIB. Zoomed Incremental positive reactance &resistance.... 7 8 9 10 11

5. Conclusion 12

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

1. INTRODUCTION:
With this report we will try to familiarize with some code lines of Matlab Program. Since we detected the fault in the system in the 1st project. so in this Project our task is to find the direction of the fault by understanding the position of the impedance from incremental positive reactance and resistance graphs with respect to time axis. Here, In order to obtain the exact direction of the fault we define an A operator which is a complex no. with unit magnitude and 120 phase angle that is the operator which operates by 120 deg. anti clock wise direction. During fault, With the help of this A operator the unsymmetrical current and voltage components can be made symmetrical components . Therefore, We define positive sequence component of sending end current and voltage through A operator.

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

2. VARIABLES USED IN LINE CODE PROGRAM:


3.1 Information about the nomenclature of the simulation code. Time interval: from tSTART=0 to tEND=119 ms Fundamental frequency: f1=50 Hz Sampling frequency: fs=1000 Hz. (Ts=0.001 s) n: 20. Number of number of samples in a single fundamental frequency period. theta_i: 1500; CT ratio

theta_v: 3636.36; VT ratio Simulation Time: 0-119 ms (120 samples ) Fault time: 60 ms Pre fault: 60 ms

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

3. PROGRAM CODE:
clear all; theta_i=1; % CT ratio theta_v=1; % VT ratio n=20; % number of samples in a single fundamental frequency period %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% dT=2*pi/n; for k=1:n, alfa=dT/2+(k-1)*dT; FF(k)=cos(alfa)+sqrt(-1)*sin(alfa); end; FF=-2*FF/n; %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% x=readpl452; size(x), y=x'; size(y), iS_af(1,:)=theta_i*filter(FF,1,y(2,:)); % Side S - phase 'a' current after filtration iS_bf(1,:)=theta_i*filter(FF,1,y(3,:)); % Side S - phase 'b' current after filtration iS_cf(1,:)=theta_i*filter(FF,1,y(4,:)); % Side S - phase 'c' current after filtration %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% vS_af(1,:)=theta_i*filter(FF,1,y(5,:)); % Side S - phase 'a' voltage after filtration vS_bf(1,:)=theta_i*filter(FF,1,y(6,:)); % Side S - phase 'b' voltage after filtration vS_cf(1,:)=theta_i*filter(FF,1,y(7,:)); % Side S - phase 'c' voltage after filtration

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% a = -0.5 + 0.5*sqrt(3)*i; IS1 = (iS_af + a*iS_bf + a*a*iS_cf)/3; VS1 = (vS_af + a*vS_bf + a*a*vS_cf)/3; INC_VS1=VS1(61:120)-VS1(1:60); INC_IS1=IS1(61:120)-IS1(1:60); DEL_Z1 = (VS1(61:120)-VS1(1:60))./(IS1(61:120)-IS1(1:60)); figure(1) plot (real(DEL_Z1),imag(DEL_Z1),'ro'); grid on; Hold on; plot (real(DEL_Z1),imag(DEL_Z1),'r-'); plot (real(DEL_Z1(1)),imag(DEL_Z1(1)),'bx'); title('Incremental positive Resistance and Reactance'); xlabel('Time [ms]'); ylabel('Ohm'); figure(2) plot (real(DEL_Z1(1:60)),'r-'); grid on; Hold on; plot (imag(DEL_Z1(1:60)),'go'); plot (real(DEL_Z1(1:60)),'ro'); plot (imag(DEL_Z1(1:60)),'g-'); title('Incremental positive Resistance and Reactance'); xlabel('Time [ms]'); ylabel('Ohm'); end. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

4. GRAPHICS RESULTS:
The different graphics obtained from the program are showed down: Fig 1: Task IIIA. Incremental positive resistance. Fig 2: Task IIIA. Incremental positive reactance and resistance. Fig 3: Task IIIB. Incremental positive resistance. Fig 4: Task IIIB. Incremental positive reactance and resistance. Fig 5: Task IIIB. Zoomed Incremental positive reactance and resistance. Fig 1: Task IIIA. Incremental positive resistance. Figure 1 Depicts the resistance or the real part of the impedance during fault in Incremental positive reactance and resistance graph with respect to time.

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

Fig 2: Task IIIA. Incremental positive reactance and resistance. Figure 2 Depicts both the real and imaginary part of the impedance during fault in Incremental positive reactance and resistance graph with respect to time. Here we can see at 20 ms both the reactance and the resistance tends to negative.

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

Fig 3: Task IIIB. Incremental positive resistance. Figure 3 Depicts the resistance or the real part of the impedance during fault in Incremental positive reactance and resistance graph .

Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

Fig 4: Task IIIB. Incremental positive reactance and resistance. Figure 4 Depicts both the real and imaginary part of the impedance during fault in Incremental positive reactance and resistance graph with respect to time. Here we can see that the reactance oscillate for certain period of time during fault and it tends to negative along with the resistance.

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Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

Fig 5: Task IIIB. Zoomed Incremental positive reactance and resistance.

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Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE

POWER SYSTEM FAULT

PROJECT NO-2

6.CONCLUSION:
From the above figures, after certain period of fault time the impedance which consists of real (resistance) and imaginary (reactance) tends to fall to negative on ohm vs. time plane. It means that the fault is a forward fault. Because for negative impedance (that is both reactance and resistance are negative), It shows that the Impedance lies on third quadrant of real and imaginary axis of impedance. Hence we can conclude with the given task (IIIA, IIIB) that the given fault is a FORWARD FAULT with respect to the fault point.

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Presented by: INDRAJEET PRASAD, SHIVANANDA PUKHREM, JOAN JIMIENEZ ANGELE