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Essay Questions (2 x 25 pts) Instructions: Answer two of three questions.

Your answers must have an introduction, four good series of points and observations, and a conclusion. They should also have between 225 and 250 words.

1) Give the significance of the Renaissance as a time when the arts, music, letters, and
science flourished, but also time when strong political, technological, and social changes were occurring. Justify your answer! Introduction

The Renaissance Government: Feudal principalities, Kingdoms, Republics, and city-states. Administration: local administration (counties, noble court, and urban administrations), parliaments, and royal councils Social Classes: Subject, citizens, foreign merchants, foreign residents, slaves, refugees, foreign artisans, students, pilgrims, foreign bankers, and tourists. Economic policies: Mercantilism Warfare: Arquebus, canons, swords, crossbows and pikes. Arts: paintings, sculptures, prints, engravings, and jewelry Literature: Novels, essays, scientific writing, history, geography, philosophy, mathematical writings, medical writings, poetry, and many more Music: Josquin De Pres and Roland de Lassus made religious music, dances, and love songs. Violas and flutes dominates the arrangements Revolutions: Puritan revolution (1640-1654)
Conclusion: 2) During World War I, the Battle of Verdun marks the end of massive offensives using infantry and artillery. Discuss the impact of this battle on the conflict in terms of changes in military tactics and warfare. Introduction:

The Battle of Verdun, largest battle in world history fought between February and December 1916 between the French and the Germans, at a cost of a million men

Documents: Short except of ordinary soldiers letters and notes on the battle, Erich Von Falkenhayns Memorandum to the Emperor of Germany, and Colonel Froeboniuss letter on the end of the Battle, Key Events: Fall of forts Daux and Douaumont, the use of new gas by the German in May, 1916, the three French Counter-Offensives of May, October, and November, and in late November and early December retaking the forts Weapons: grenades, large field artillery, railroad guns, fixed artillery emplacement, use of new gases, flame throwers, mortars, and aerial bombardment, Experiences of contemporary soldiers: numbing effect of the battle, the gas and grenade attacks, the effects of the flame throwers, the arrival of the African and Vietnamese regiments prior to the recapture of the Fort Douaumont, Achievements: New military technologies Famous People: Philippe Ptain and Erich Von Falkenhayn
Conclusion: 3) The French Revolution lasted from 1789 to 1799 and affected all of Europe. Describe the impact of the Committee of Public Safety and the Directory leadership on the outcome of the Revolution internally and externally.

Introduction The French Revolution is a period of history that marked France between 1789 and 1799 and which saw a change in government, land, political, education and social reforms, but which was also marked by violence and wars. Documents: the Declaration of the Rights of Man

Key Political Events: The Calling of the Estates Generals, the taking of the Bastille, the Flight of the King in 1791, the Proclamation of the Republic in 1792, the execution of the King, the Terror, and Proclamation of the Directoration, and Napolons military coup establishing the consulate and Empire through referendum Key military events: the Brunswick Declaration and invasion of France by the 1st coalition, the French victory of Valmy, Rochambeaus victories in Spain, the occupation of Savoy and Nice, the rebellions in Brittany, Poitou, Lyon, Bordeaux, Dordogne, Corsica, and Toulon (1793-1797), French defeats in Belgium during 1793, the French victories of Toulon and Fleurus, putting an end to the rebellions, Napoleons Italian Campaign, Hoches German campaign, Napolons Egyptian Campaign, the victories of the Russians in Italy, French victories at Zurich and Marengo, the peace of Ammiens in 1802 Famous People: Louis XVI, Abb Siys, Maximilien Robespierre, Napolon Bonaparte, Paul de Barras Good and Bad Effect: the six achievements (universal suffrage, introduction of the metric system, land reforms, education reforms, the departments, and the declaration of the Rights of Man) and the bad effects - against terror, poor use of paper money
Conclusion 4) Compare the Medieval World with our own in terms of achievements and government. Introduction:

Similarities with our own time

Practices of the Catholic Church a) Prayers b) Role of priests, monks, and nuns

Differences between the two time periods

Social order based on feudalism serfs, free peasants, artisans, nobles, monks, priest, bishops, and kings and other lay

c) Importance of the Pope and bishops rulers, while ours is simply the poor, the d) Pilgrimages middle classes, and the riches. Culture: Influence of novels and theatre Trade and money Importance of education Importance of the law Visigothic law code, Mosaic law, Salian law, English Common law, Imperial diets, jury trial. Games of chance, team sports, and drinking games Great heroes such as William of Marshall, Godfrey of Bouillon, William de Barres in the Middle Age or Sammy Sosa in Baseball, Michael Jordan in Basketball or famous hockey players in today world Role of marriage, use of rings, late marriages, and importance of common-law marriages
Conclusion: 5) Describe the history of Germany between 1517 and 1914 in terms of achievement and political development.

Role of knights as cavalry or as title is rare in our society unlike theirs. Small armies as compared to our citizen and professional armies Technology in communications and transports Influence of other forms of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam is prevalent in our society, while in the Middle Ages Western Christianity or Catholicism was the norm. Role of Tournaments in the Middle Ages and Modern sports Anonymity of artists in the middle ages with exception of Giotto

Open nature of homosexuality in today world

The evolution of the German States plays an enormous part in the construction of the modern geography of Central Europe and also in the cultural identity of the regions and of Scandinavia. Key Events: the 95 theses, the reformation, the diets of Worms and Augsburg, the Sklamadic wars, the abdication of Charles V, the counter reformation, the siege of Vienna by the Turks, the Thirty Years war, the reforms of Frederick William militarizing Prussia, the Conquest of Federick II, the reforms of Maria Theresa and her sons, the French occupation of much Germany, Creation of the Rhine Confederation ending the existence of the Holy German Empire of three hundred and six states, the conservative reform of Count Metternich following the defeat of Napoleon, the German parliament of the confederation of 30 German States, the postal and tariff union of 1834, industrialization, the revolution of 1848, the Prusso-Danish wars of 1849 and 1864, the Rise of Bismark, the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the creation of Northern Germany, German unification in 1871, the acquisition of Alsace-Lorraine from France, the retirement of Bismark, Germanys efforts to build a colonial empire and a vast fleet, alliance with Austria-Hungury in 1877 and with the Ottoman Empire in 1909, Document: 95 theses

Famous People: Martin Luther, Charles V, Frederick William, Frederic II, Frederick William IV, William I, William II, Otto von Bismark, and admiral Von Spee Consequence division of German culture into that of Germany and that of Austria, the idea of a postal and economical union as model for Europe, symptomatic of the ambitions of countries and the geographical evolution of Europe

6) Compare the 18th century with the 19th century in terms of achievements and political
development. Introduction:

The Eighteenth Century Government: Feudal principalities, Kingdoms, Constitutional Monarchies, Republics, and city-states.democracy Administration: local administration (counties, noble court, and urban administrations), parliaments, royal councils, and elected assemblies Social Classes: Subject, citizens, foreign merchants, foreign residents, slaves, refugees, foreign artisans, students, pilgrims, industrial workers, entrepreneurs, foreign bankers, and tourists. Economic philosophy: Capitalism and Mercantilism Muskets, cannons, swords Arts: paintings, sculptures, prints, engravings, and jewelry Literature: Novels, essays, scientific writing, history, geography, philosophy, mathematical writings, medical writings, poetry, and many more (name examples fro the power point) Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Pachelbel, Johann Sebastian Bach, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart made concertos, sonatas, fugues, operas, and numerous types. Piano and the violin dominates their music. French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, and American Revolution

19th Century Government: the same with more democracies and constitutional monarchies and less of the others Administration: local administration (counties and urban administrations), parliaments, royal councils, and elected assemblies Social Classes: Subject, citizens, foreign merchants, foreign residents, slaves, refugees, foreign artisans, students, pilgrims, industrial workers, entrepreneurs and CEOs, foreign bankers, and tourists. Economic philosophies: Capitalism, Socialism, and Communism Rifles, cannons, swords, repeating rifles, machine-guns, battleships, armored trains, and many more. Arts: paintings, sculptures, prints, engravings, and jewelry Literature: Novels, essays, scientific writing, history, geography, philosophy, mathematical writings, medical writings, poetry, and many more (name examples fro the power point) Ludwig Von Beethoven, Nicolo Paganinni, Johann Strauss, Claude Debussy, and many others made concertos, sonatas, fugues, operas, and numerous types. Piano and the violin dominates their music . The Decembrists in Russia during the year 1825, the revolutions of 1830 in France, Italy, and Belgium, the revolutions of

1848 in France, Prussia, Austria, Poland, Italy, Hungary, and other German states.

7) Describe the historical significance of twelve-century England on the history of the West
in terms of culture and political development. (read the text on William Marshall and passages from the power point on Medieval England on the 12th century)

Case-Study Question (1 x 50 pts) Instructions: Choose one of the questions below. Your answer must have an introduction, four good series of points, and a conclusion. It should also have between 275 and 300 words. 1) Describe the four phases of the industrial revolution in France. For each of the phases, you must discuss the achievements and the impact of the government or important people involved. Introduction:

The Industrial Revolution in France Causes: The Industrial Revolution in the Rest of the World Causes or elements supporting the rise of industrial revolution in France: a) Larsenal de France created by Bureau Bureau(c. 1440) b) Reforms of Colbert i) Manufactures royales ii) Les Chantiers Navales Royaux de Brest et de Toulon iii) Le Mercantilisme c) Private Innovations and Private Entreprise d) Gribeauval System e) Ceramic and Silk industries in the 1760s f) LEncyclopdie de Didrot et Darembert g) Textile, foundries and the Revolution h) Banque de France (1791) i) Ecole des Mines, cole Polytechnique, coles des Arts et des Mtiers (1794) j) Continental Blocus limiting imports help French Industries

Phase 1 (1661-1788) Royal Manufactures

Phase 2 (1789-1815)

Textile Factories, Naval Works, and Iron Foundries run by representatives of the State and private entreprises after 1807

Phase 3 (1827-1859)

Machine Tools and Railroads

Phase 4 (1860-1889)

Chemicals and Newspapers production

Phase 5 (1890-1914)

Car, Airplane, Electrical, and Telephone Production


Between 1824 and 1914 The Industrial Revolution in France based on railroads construction and car productions. State Banks and the Expansion of Railways in the 19th century i) In 1827, the St-tienne-Andrieux Railroad built on a distance of 23 kilometers pour transporter le charbon. ii) St-tienne-Lyon, built in 1831 and 1832, 58 kilometers pour transporter le charbon iii) More railroads in Southern France and Northeastern France for industrial reasons between 1839 and 1848. iv) Paris-St-Germain Railroad in 1837, 18km for local tourism v) Strabourg-Bale, railroad connects France and Prussia on 134 km railroad vi) Paris-Rouen Railroad built between 1840 and 1847 constructed by British workmen using French steel financed by the government vii) Paris-LeHavre Railroad built between 1846 and 1847 constructed in the same circumstances


The plan Freycinet in 1879 proposes to increase the size of the French railroad system from 29.6 thousand kilometers at 38 thousand kilometer. This would be achieved by 1914. More government control on all railroads in 1883 by indirect supervision of the six major companies Textiles, locomotives, food-processing, tractors, communication, cars, chemicals, bicycles, tires, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and newspapers production were encouraged by both private entreprise and the French government.. .

l) French Innovations: i)Apperts Food Preservation Bottles ii) Marguarine iii) Nobels dynamite iv) Daguerotypes v) Lumires Moving Pictures vi) Adlers plane m) Plan Freyzinet n) Le Plan Freyanet First Industrial Plan for a Country o) The automobiles and mass-production (Peugeot, Citron, etc) Conclusion:

2) Compare two movies on World War II (e.g. The Big Red One by Samuel Fuller [1981]
and Rashid Bousharefs Indignes [2006]) on historical accuracy and on the significance of the events portraits. (see handout) 3) In this course, you were required to analyze primary sources on the history of the Western World. Choose and analyze one of the texts below giving the historical context of the passage and its historical significance in terms of culture and political development. a) Whoever reads Martin Luther's books may see how clear and transparent his doctrine is, for he teaches the Holy Gospel. Wherefore his writings are to be held in the greatest honour, and not to be burned; unless, indeed, his opponents, who always fight against the truth, were also cast into the fire with all their opinions, they who would make gods out of men, but then only if there were printed new Lutheran books. Albrech Drer, Records of journeys to Venice and the Low Countries, tr. By Tombo, Rudolf Jr., Madison: The Merrymount Press, 1913 p. 58

b) This one man [Guillaume Franois, Baron de Ternaux (1763-1833)] through his wealth
employs over 20 000 families writes French politician Benjamin Constant in Le courrier franais du 16 mars 1822 [my translation]. http://icon.crl.edu/detail.php? language=French&country=&title=&oclcno=&begindate=&institution=Center+for+Research+Librar ies&sort=begindate&sortOrder=ASC&item=91075&recIndex=71&recCount=1175

This one man through his wealth gives a living to over 20 000 families writes French politician Benjamin Constant in Le Courrier franais du 16 mars 1822.

Introduction: Brief overviews of French Industrial Revolution (1795-1830) Textile Factories, Naval Works, and Iron Foundries run by representatives of the State and private entreprises after 1807 Brief overview of Baron Terneauxs life Guillaume-Louis, baron de Terneaux (1763-1833),

oldest son of a noble family with industrial interests from Sedan in Alsace, studied at the Collge of Toul and became a protg of Necker, Louis XVIs finance minister in 1788. During the French Revolution, he was a respected administrator and politician. As a member of numerous scientific societies, he was kept informed of new processes in Britain, the United States, and other European countries. During the terror, he had to exile himself with his family to Switzerland despite his ties to the Montagnard Club at the end of 1793 for sponsoring the revolt of Sedan against the Committee of Public Safety. Following the death of Robespierre, the Directory put him in charge of the reconstituted council of manufacturing and for his efforts was made in 1810 a member of the order of the Cross of the Lgion dhonneur, a privilege that Bonaparte only granted to his marshals and ministers. During the Restauration of the Bourbon in 1815 until 1833, he owned the largest number of textile factories in France, located in Paris, Rouen, the Havre, Bordeaux, and Bayonne. His product were sold in Italy, Belgium, and the Empire of Russia. His factories made the following textiles: Castorines, Superfine Coatings , Tibetan Cloth, Carmenian Cloth, Calmouck Cloth, and many more for women apparels. He also introduced the use of cachmire and merinos wool to the European textile industry. His largest plant was the Ternaux factory in Paris with 6000 employees. Deeply interest in economy, he helped published the works of Saint-Simon. Terneaux died in 1833. Baron Silvestre, Biographie du Baron Terneaux, dans La France Industrielle. Journal des intrts matriels de la France 2 (1834), 12-14.

Place in society and role of industrial workers Industrialization also led to the formation of a French working class. The industrial labor force expanded from 1.9 million in the period between 1803 and 1812. After 1807, they have the right to unionize. Only about a quarter of these people worked in establishments of more than 50 workers, while the remainder worked in smaller businesses. Many people worked under dangerous conditions, lived in overcrowded housing, and had little employment security. Workers worked 12 hours shifts with three 45 minutes breaks. Wages were low (2 francs and 50 centimes a day), but Terneaux made sure that they were well fed building vast silos for wheat and potatoes at his factories at St-Ouen and Louvier. Ternaux employed over 20,000 spread out in six factories. At Reims, the factory employed around 6000 employees, the largest in Europe in the 1820s. Having so many employees demands from Ternaux the creation of a corporate organization with an headquarter in Paris to run his textile empire. He did not allow his workers to be unionized. However, his workers were classified into three groups: skilled (pattern makers, mechanics, etc), semi-skilled, and unskilled (mostly children). Conclusion

4) Compare two movies (e.g. Windtalkers and The Thin Red Line) on WWII in terms of
accuracy and the significance of the events portrayed. (see course pack, pp. )

5) Describe the French Revolution (1789-1799) in terms of a series of achievements or

series of failures. Justify your answer!.(see page 135-6) The French Revolution at first glance seems like a great thing to anyone. Freedom was finally reached and equality, or so that is what was thought then. When the States General met in 1789 the 3 different states came to an impasse and nothing was settled; However when, later in that year, Louis XIVs palace was raided and eventually his whole family was expelled it was thought that life would be better. Unfortunately, after this great event, a period known as the Reign of Terror began, which was only fuelled by the desire to eliminate potential people who would be seen as an enemy of the state. This lasted for a while, but ended in 1794 and was replaced by a council known as the the Directory, which consisted of a group of made up of 5 people who held the power to decide what would happen in the country. They were elected by a group of citizens who were deemed fit to vote. Again, this was indeed a success; however the power to vote was still restricted. The revolution was almost in its last stage at this point. The latter form of government was replaced by the Consulate, and this is when the failure in my opinion occurred, as Napoleon Bonaparte used this council to set up a government much like the government of the Sun Kings that had fallen just six years ago. While Napoleon did not declare power just yet, it seemed like the much anticipated freedom was just going to slip away. Sadly it was not to be a lasting freedom as in 1799 it is when he declared his power in a Coup Dtat which took the countrys freedom away once more,