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Shunt-Wound Motor

I. Introduction to DC Motor
What is a DC Motor? Direct Current (DC) motor is a fairly simple electric motor that uses electricity and a magnetic field to produce torque, which turns the motor.

Electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current, e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle.

II.

Shunt-Wound Motor
Shunt motor the field winding is connected in parallel or in shunt with the armature winding. Shunt-motor speed varies only slightly with changes in load, and the starting torque is less than that of other types of dc motors.

III.

Important Terms to Know

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A. Motor Principle of Operation


The speed-torque relationship for a typical shunt-wound motor is shown. A shunt-wound DC motor has a decreasing torque when speed increases. The decreasing torquevs-speed is caused by the armature resistance voltage drop and armature reaction. At a value of speed near 2.5 times the rated speed, armature reaction becomes excessive, causing a rapid decrease in field flux and a rapid decline in torque until a stall condition is reached. The characteristics of a shunt-wound motor give it very good speed regulation, and it is classified as a constant speed motor, even though the speed does slightly decrease as load is increased. Shunt-wound motors are used in industrial and automotive applications where precise control of speed and torque are required. The resistance in the field winding is high. Since the field winding is connected directly across the power supply, the current through the field is constant. The field current does not vary with motor speed, therefore, the torque of the shunt motor will vary only with the current through the armature. Once you adjust the speed of a dc shunt motor, the speed remains relatively constant even under changing load conditions. One reason for this is that the field flux remains constant. A constant voltage across the field makes the field independent of variations in the armature circuit. If the load on the motor is increased, the motor tends to slow down. When this happens, the counter emf (electromotive force) generated in the armature decreases. This causes a corresponding decrease in the opposition to battery current flow through the armature. Armature current increases, causing the motor to speed up. The conditions that established the original speed are reestablished, and the original speed is maintained. Conversely, if the motor load is decreased, the motor tends to increase speed; counter emf increases, armature current decreases, and the speed decreases. In each case, all of this happens so rapidly that any actual change in speed is slight. There is instantaneous tendency to change rather than a large fluctuation in speed. It is the type generally used in commercial practice and is usually recommended where starting conditions are not usually severs.

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B. Winding Diagram A wave winding on a drum-type armature. Notice that the two ends of each coil are connected to commutator segments separated by the distance between poles. This configuration allowsthe series addition of the voltages in all the windings between brushes. This type of winding only requiresone

pair of brushes.

The field winding is connected in parallel with the armature winding so that terminal voltage of the generator is applied across it The shunt field winding has many turns of fine wire having high resistance

Therefore, only a small part of armature current flows through shunt field winding and the rest flows through the load.

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A. Circuit Diagram A shunt motor is a DC motor that has the field wiring connected in parallel with the armature. A parallel circuit is often called a shunt. In a shunt motor, the field wiring is a shunt. DC shunt motors are used where constant or adjustable speed is required and starting conditions are moderate. The field terminal wires extending from the shunt field of a DC shunt motor are marked F1 and F2. The armature windings are marked A1 and A2. B. Reversing the Rotation

The direction of rotation of a DC shunt motor can be reversed by changing the polarity of either the armature coil or the field coil. The illustration shows the electrical diagram of a DC shunt motor connected to a forward and reversing motor starter. You should notice that the F1 and F2 terminals of the shunt field are connected directly to the power supply, and the A1 and A2 terminals of the armature winding are connected to the reversing starter. When the FMS (forward motor starter) is energized, its contacts connect the A1 lead to the positive power supply terminal and the A2 lead to the negative power supply terminal. The F1 motor lead is connected directly to the positive terminal of the power supply and the F2 lead is connected to the negative terminal. When the motor is wired in this configuration, it will begin to run in the forward direction. When the RMS (reverse motor starter) is energized, its contacts reverse the armature wires so that the Al lead is connected to the negative power supply terminal and the A2 lead is connected to the positive power supply terminal. The 4 |Page

field leads are connected directly to the power supply, so their polarity is not changed. Since the field's polarity has remained the same and the armature's polarity has reversed, the motor will begin to rotate in the reverse direction. The control part of the diagram shows that when the FMS coil is energized, the RMS coil is locked out.

I.

Field
The outer part that doesnt move is called the Field. There are pairs of static magnetic poles in the field. These poles can be permanent magnets or electromagnets made from coils wound around each pole. The motor case or frame (also called a yoke) closes the backside of magnetic path between neighboring poles. A field frame is the stationary part in a DC motor or generator. The stationary part is called a stator in an AC motor, but is called a field frame in a DC motor. The field poles are metal pieces mounted to the field frame that are used as field windings. The field poles are constructed of thin sheets of steel laminated together, similar to the construction of AC motors. The field windings are magnets or stationary windings used to produce the magnetic field in an alternator or motor. In most cases, the field windings are made by coiling wire around the field poles.

Interpoles are auxiliary poles placed between the main field poles of the motor. The interpoles are connected in series with the armature windings, with one terminal of the interpole connected to the brushes and one brought out to connect to the DC power supply. The interpoles are made with larger size wire than the main field poles, in order to carry armature current. They are smaller in overall size than the main field poles because they require fewer windings. Interpoles are also known as commutating field poles. No Field Condition In order for a DC motor to turn, there must be the magnetic lines of force from the armature and the magnetic lines of force from the field poles. As shunt motors age and corrosion becomes a problem, a runaway condition may present itself. When the shunt field is opened and current is available only to the armature, the motor speed will increase dangerously. It would seem that without the shunt field the motor would stop. However, the large metal pole shoes of the DC machine support a substantial residual magnetic field. This residual magnetism is just enough to ensure that the magnetic principles that sustain the armature movement are present. 5 |Page

The residual magnetic field is not, however, substantial enough to develop a suitable CEMF in the armature. Without the proper proportion of CEMF, current flow to the armature increases. The more current to the armature, the greater the torque and the faster the damaged shunt motor rotates. A no field release is employed by shunt motors to prevent such a casualty. When the shunt field is de-energized, the no field release disconnects the motor from the circuit. Runaway In a shunt-wound motor, decreasing the strength of the field decreases the induced voltage, increasing the effective voltage applied to the armature windings. This increases armature current, resulting in greater torque and acceleration. Shunt-wound motors run away when the field fails because the spinning armature field induces enough current in the field coils to keep the field "live".

II.

Armature
Drum-Wound Armature The armature windings are placed in slots cut in a drum-shaped iron core. Each winding surrounds the core so that the entire length of the conductor cuts the main magnetic field.The reason why shuntwound motors use drum-type armature because, the Gramme-ring armature is seldom used in modem dc motors. The windings on the inside of the ring are shielded from magnetic flux, which causes Gramme-ring type of armature to be inefficient. The direction of current flow is marked in each conductor in the figure (view A) as though the armature were turning in a magnetic field. The dots show that current is flowing toward you on the left side, and the crosses show that the current is flowing away from you on the right side. ARMATURE REACTION There are individual magnetic lines of force from the field poles and the armature. Magnetic fields tend to combine. Additionally, the magnetic lines of force are distorted (or concentrated) by an iron core. It shows the field flux (view A) and the armature flux (view B) individually. View C shows the distortion caused by the interaction of the two fields and the armature core movement. This distortion is known as armature reaction.

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The armature current in a motor is forced to flow in the opposite direction to that of the CEMF. In a motor, the main field flux is always distorted in the opposite direction to armature rotation (view C); The resultant field in the motor (view C) is strengthened at the leading pole tips and weakened at the trailing pole tips. This action causes the neutral plane to shift to A'B'. The armature reaction is overcome in a motor; that is, by the use of laminated pole tips with slotted ends, interposes, and compensating windings. To further ensure successful commutation, small slots on the brush rigging permit a slight brush position adjustment. By placing a tachometer on the motor shaft, an indication of motor efficiency may be obtained. Adjust the brush position for the fastest armature rotation in the absence of sparking.

III.

Back EMF, Induced EMF, or Counter EMF(electromotive force)


Resistance of the armature widings has only a minor effect on armature current. Current is mostly determined by the voltage induced in the windings by their movement through the field. This induced voltage, also called "back-emf" is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage, and serves to decrease the effective value of that voltage, and thereby decreases the current in the armature. Counter e.m.f. opposes the current, which causes the armature to rotate. The current flowing through the armature, therefore, decreases as the counter e.m.f. increases. The faster the armature rotates, the greater the counter e.m.f. For this reason, a motor connected to a battery may draw a fairly high current on starting, but as the armature speed increases, the current flowing through the armature decreases. At rated speed, the counter e.m.f. may be only a few volts less than the battery voltage. Then, if the load on the motor is increased, the motor will slow down, less counter e.m.f. will be generated, and the current drawn from the external source will increase. In a shunt motor, the counter e.m.f. affects only the current in the armature, since the field is connected in parallel across the power source. As the motor slows down and the counter e.m.f. decreases, more current flows through the armature, but the magnetism in the field is unchanged. Compared when the series motor slows down, the counter e.m.f. decreases and more current flows through the field and the armature, thereby strengthening their magnetic fields. Because of these characteristics, it is more difficult to stall a series motor than a shunt motor.

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IV.

Terminal or Source Voltage

The armature circuit and the shunt field circuit are connected across a dc source of fixed voltage Vt.

V.

Motor Speed
A motor whose speed can be controlled is called a variable-speed motor; dc motors are variable speed motors. The speed of a dc motor is changed by changing the current in the field or by changing thecurrent in the armature. When the field current is decreased, the field flux is reduced, and the counter emf decreases. This permits more armature current. Therefore, the motor speeds up. When the field current is increased, the field flux is increased. More counter emf is developed, which opposes the armature current. The armature current then decreases and the motor slows down. When the voltage applied to the armature is decreased, the armature current is decreased, and themotor again slows down. When the armature voltage and current are both increased, the motor speeds up. In a shunt motor, speed is usually controlled by a rheostat connected in series with the fieldwindings, as shown in figure. When the resistance of the rheostat is increased, the current through thefield winding is decreased. The decreased flux momentarily decreases the counter emf. The motor then speeds up, and the increase in counter emf keeps the armature current the same. In a similar manner, a decrease in rheostat resistance

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increases the current flow through the field windings and causes the motor to slow down.

VI.

Speed Regulation

This type of motor runs practically constant speed, regardless of the load. It is the type generally used in commercial practice and is usually recommended where starting conditions are not usually severs. Speed of the shunt-wound motors may be regulated in two ways: first, by inserting resistance in series with the armature, thus decreasing speed: and second, by inserting resistance in the field circuit, the speed will vary with each change in load: in the latter, the speeds is practically constant for any setting of the controller. This latter is the most generally used for adjustablespeed service, as in the case of machine tools. The shunt wound motor is used where constant speed is required regardless of load; for instance, with fans or pumps. The starting of a d.c. motor requires a circuit arrangement to limit armature current. This is achieved by the use of a starter. A number of resistances are provided in the armature and progressively removed as the motor speeds up and back e.m.f. is developed. An arm, as part of the armature circuit, moves over resistance contacts such that a number of resistances are first put into the armature circuit and then progressively removed. The arm must be moved slowly to enable the motor speed and thus the back e.m.f. to build up. At the final contact no resistance is in the armature circuit. A 'hold on' or 'no volts' coil holds the starter arm in place while there is current in the armature circuit. If a loss of supply occurs the arm will be released and returned to the 'off position by a spring. The motor must then be started again in the normal way. An overload trip is also provided which prevents excess current by shorting out the 'hold on* coil and releasing the starter arm. The overload coil has a soft iron core which, when magnetized sufficiently by an excess current, attracts the trip bar which shorts out the hold on coil. This type of starter is known as a 'face plate'; other types make use of contacts without the starting handle but introduce resistance into the armature circuit in much the same way.

VII.

Power

Power flow diagram of a DC motor is shown in figure 40.1. A portion of the input power is consumed by the field circuit as field copper loss. The remaining power is the power which goes to the armature; a portion of which is lost as field 9 |Page

copper loss (Pfl), armature loss(Pal), core loss (Pcore) and mechanical loss (Pmech loss). Remaining power is the gross mechanical power developed of which a portion will be lost as friction and remaining power will be the net mechanical power developed.

DC Shunt Motor Power Flow A separately excited DC motor has two input power sources, to the armature circuit and the field circuit. Shunt and series motors only have one power source, the armature circuit terminals. The power to the armature terminal is:

Considering the losses in the circuit, there are losses in the field and armature winding resistances. For shunt and separate excitation, the armature losses are:

All of the field power is converted to field copper losses,

The power converted to the mechanical system is calculated the same way for both separate, shunt and series excitation.

If there are no mechanical losses, then the output power will equal the power converted. If there are mechanical losses, they are deducted from Pconv to give the final output power. No load rotational losses = Core loss - friction and windage No load rotational losses: Input power with machine operating at normal speed and excited to produce the calculated internal voltage under full load condition (subtract voltage drops across brushes and series fields). Friction and windage: Power input at normal speed with machine unexcited

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I.

Losses
Losses occur when electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy (in the motor). For the machine to be efficient, these losses must be kept to a minimum. Some losses are electrical, others are mechanical. A. Electrical Electrical losses are classified as copper losses and iron losses: Copper losses occur when electrons are forced through the copper windings of the armature and the field. These losses are proportional to the square of the current. They are sometimes called I2R losses, since they are due to the power dissipated in the form of heat in the resistance of the field and armature windings. Heat is generated any time current flows in a conductor. Copper loss is an I2R loss, which increases as current increases. The amount of heat generated is also proportional to the resistance of the conductor. The resistance of the conductor varies directly with its length and inversely with its cross-sectional area. Copper loss is minimized in armature windings by

using large diameter wire.


While Iron losses are subdivided in hysteresis and eddy current losses. As the armature rotates in the magnetic field, the iron parts of the armature as well as the conductors cut the magnetic flux. Since iron is a good conductor of electricity, the EMF s induced in the iron parts courses to flow through these parts. B. Rotational Mechanical losses occur in overcoming the friction of various parts of the machine. Rotational losses consist of: bearing friction loss friction of the rushes riding on the commutator windage losses Windage losses are those associated with overcoming air friction in setting up circulation currents of air inside the machine for cooling purposes. These losses are usually very small. When there is no load on a shunt motor, the only torque necessary is that which is required to overcome friction and windage. (Windage is a mechanical loss due to the friction between the moving armature and the surrounding air.) The rotation of the armature coils through the field pole flux develops a CEMF. The CEMF limits the armature current to the relatively small value required to maintain the necessary torque to run the motor at no load. A. Hysteresis Hysteresis loss is a heat loss caused by the magnetic properties of the armature. When an armature core is in a magnetic field, the magnetic particles of the core tend to line up with the magnetic field. When the armature core is rotating, its magnetic field keeps changing direction. The continuous movement ofthe magnetic particles, as they try to align 11 | P a g e

themselves with the magnetic field, which produces molecular friction. This, in turn, produces heat. This heat is transmitted to the armature windings. The heat causes armature resistances to increase.To compensate for hysteresis losses, heat-treated silicon steel laminations are used in most dc motor armatures. After the steel has been formed to the proper shape, the laminations are heated and allowed to cool. This annealing process reduces the hysteresis loss to a low value. B. Eddy Current The core of a motor armature is made from soft iron, which is a conducting material with desirable magnetic characteristics. Any conductor will have currents induced in it when it is rotated in amagnetic field. The currents that are induced in the motor armature core are called EDDYCURRENTS. The power dissipated in the form of heat, as a result of the eddy currents, is considered a loss.

I.

Efficiency
A. Common efficiency
To calculate a motor's efficiency, the mechanical output power is divided by the electrical input

power: , where is energy conversion efficiency, Pe is electrical input power, and Pm is mechanical output power. In simplest case Pe = VI, and Pm = T, where V is input voltage, I is input current, T is output torque, and is output angular velocity.

B. Electrical efficiency Efficiency calculation of motor, first calculate the input power and then subtract the losses to get the output mechanical power as shown below,

=
Where:

Pout Pin losses = Pin Pin

Pout = Pin Losses


2 Losses = I a Ra + Vt I f + rotationallosses

Pin = Vt ( I a + I f

Vt = Terminal DC voltage

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