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Air Emission, Global Warming Potential and Climate Change, Riding Waves of Technological change
for Ships

Ab. Saman Abd. Kader1, Mohd Zamani Ahmad 2 Omar Yaakob3, Oladokun Sulaiman4, Shamila Azman5

Machineries – main and auxiliaries that moved the ship are considered as heart of the ship, Climate change
and Global Warming which has been recognized as the greatest threat of our generation is linked to ship
machineries and this in reciprocal manner driving the wave of technological change for new built and
existing ship. This paper will discuss air emission and its inherent consequence of powered shipping,
chemical behavior of Green House Gases and evolving mitigation option for retrofitting system for existing
ship and new energy technology for new built.

Key words: Vessel, Channel, Maintenance, Port Tanjung Pelepas (PTP), Sustainability, Dredging

Professor, Ir, Dr., Director of Training ad Education, Malaysian Maritime Academy
Associate Professor, University Technology Malaysia
Associate Professor, Head of Department - University Technology Malaysia
Lecturer , PhD Researcher – Malaysian Maritime Academy
Lecturer– University Technology Malaysia
1.0 Introduction

The search for a better managed human society and what brought human today threshold of civilization is
as whole as man himself. The triple bottom factors of quest for knowledge, the need for production
exchange, organizing power of social community – these factors have equally become interrelated and self
reinforcing with each advanced technology and organization, scale, trio of energy, economy and
environment and matter remaining keys to human civilization; followed by invention of language or ability
to communicate, and facilitation of his mobility. All of which went through their course slowly through
building stones out of stumbling blocks and some actually amazingly came out through extraordinary
revolution. Likewise, all this dynamic changes through differential approach and methods which can be
categorized as conventional methods of idea, hypothesis, experimentation and observation.
Over the years, time needs, growth, speed, and knowledge and of course scarcity and competition have
created demand that necessitated man to build complex institution- all of which require energy to move
them. Likewise vast range human development has flown precise measurement of energy and manipulation
of delineated discrete object all which has no doubt reduce the crushing boarding of physical work and
freed man for other pursuit.

Today pollution from energy carry a very large percentage and as the carbon release has exhaust the little
oxygen we are sharing and the ozone later that is protecting us from mother due to lack of cogent risk
assessment on systems we have been building. More so, because conventional assessment focus more on
economics while environment and its associated cycle is put in oblivion, probably because of difficulties
associated with uncertainties. For years many think that everything that run air is infinite, the atmosphere
and the ocean is providing us source of freshening, winds and current are far more vulnerable to polluting
activities that have run off into them too many poisons that the air and the ocean may cease to serve more
purpose if care is not taking to prevent pollution. To this end the challenge of air emission is recognized to:

• Be main inherent consequence of powered shipping

• Have link to fuel oil burning as main source

• Have links with continuous combustion machineries - boilers, gas turbines and incinerators

This paper will discuss how the challenge climate change, ozone depletion , global warming touched
engineering including engineering requirement of ship operation and the impacts of emission from ship,
rising egalitarian techno economic and environmental sustainable abatement method to reduce and control
emission. As well as matching development and improvement necessary for energy efficiency and
performance of new propulsion system ( all electric ship for short sea shipping and hybrid gas electric
system for high sea shipping) through comparison and simulation of extreme conditions.

2.0 Emission Ride on Ship Technology

This issue of environment become so sensitive recently with respect to infrastructure development and
most especially in everything we use energy for because most of the past polluting activities has turned into
poison through point form effect and are presently having advert effect on our in quality of air and water.
In a nutshell, the three worlds we live are currently are out of balance and in potential conflict and man is in
the middle. Historical records of number of calamity that has resulted to heavy lost and pollution are calling
for news and philosophy of doing things through assessment of economics and environmental issue relating
to energy, without compromising to the later has a lot of case have been based. This is already equally
calling for a number of regulations, that will subsequently affect, policies change and procedures relating to
the above and their effect to design of new systems and modification of existing one.
In regards to energy, It all started with environment natural source of energy,-animal, windmill, watermill,
then steam, electricity and nuclear, with so much water and wind and even the sun all of which are the
primary source of energy that goes through natural circle to support human life and the planet, the remain
the leanest inherited resources, new technology has not turn this vast potential income into usable supplies-
for years the


10000 Cox
4000 HFC-227ea
2000 HFC-c-23a

0 CF
GWP (100 Year ITH)

Figure 1. - Global warming potential

Cleanest and the safest are among the inexhaustible, the use of energy is likened to reckless try and error,
experimentation, and age that discover the big gap between renewable and non renewable energy, and how
human have adventurism has lead to replacing renewable natural given of nature by non renewable and
associated backlash has called for new ways to do things and importance of using advantage of nature and
its given. Renewable source of energy range from energy from the sun, hydrogen and biomass- as for the
later, using waste to produce biomass is very. reasonable than growing crops that suppose to be used for
food to produce energy or else we end up breaking the food chain and when scarcity of products involve
come we all have to pay for it anyway. I am not going to discuss much about renewable source of energy or
green house gas today. Land based technology will required to be transfer sympathetically to the marine
industry via availability of engines, systems and technical assistance. Marine craft operation in inland water
operation requires fuel supplied in bulk rendering the NG distribution viable. The use of an alternative fuel
for vessel propulsion will leads to a design review of Power plant, associated fuel system and propulsion
train; effectively reshaping areas such as Machinery Arrangement, Hull Form, Compartmentation, Cargo
Deck, Payloads, Superstructure, Interior Layouts, Escape & Safety, Route Options, etc.

Recent environmental revolt from critical like issue of sea level rise, flooding, has brought awareness
regarding system failure and reality of uncertainty and point form environmental degradation, which further
show that the two world are currently out of balance and in potential conflict and human is in the middle.
This call for new philosophy to design system based on risk and goal based holistic sensitivity. Since, it has
become obvious that, everything we use on land end their way to the rivers through ground water which
then end up to the sea, this make management of water quality, maintaining balance of its purity and
preventing substance running into it is a crucial point in protecting the total environment as a result of this
International environmental get serious and encourage and call for Galvanize the scientific community by
set up panel's /collaborating scientists and technical bodies and encourage use existing scientific bodies and
research centers for global observation systems that include taping informal sources of information related
to early warning and dealing with problem of sharing sensitive data among countries as well using human
capacity and rapid spread of Internet as a tool for information compilation, discussion, and dissemination.
Some of the land base regulation that are passed are :

• (Oil Spills Protocol) - Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW
• Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol)
• Agenda 21
• To address greenhouse gas emissions from ships- Adoption of control and prevention measures in
2003, as well as problems associated with the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms in ships'
ballast water – adoption convention in 2004 to support the International Convention on the
Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems in Ships 2001; and the diplomatic conference also
address implementation of the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response
and Co-operation 1990.
• IMO also get serious and passed MARPOL annex six under a diplomatic confernec and bypassing
the usual taxcit procedure . MARPOL cover: Annex I- Oil ,Annex II- Noxious liquid chemicals
,Annex III- Harmful Goods (package), Annex IV- Sewage, Annex V – Ballast water whereby
Annex VI- emission and air pollution (SOx, NOx and green house gas, emission of ozone
depletion gas (ODG))

Figure 2 – Emission from marine engine - ABS

New annex VI to MARPOL focus on :

• Control and management of Ballast water to minimize transfer of harmful foreign species
• Global prohibition of TBT in antifouling Coating - phase out scheduled for 2008
• International convention on oil pollution, Response and cooperation (OPRC) - 1990
• Policy to combating major incidents or threats , control to prevent, mitigates or eliminates danger
of marine pollution through port to its coastline from a maritime casualty
• Annex protocol under this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and
noxious substances (HNS)

Chapter III of Annex VI on the requirements for the control of emission from ships include:
Regulation 12- Ozone depletion substances
Regulation 13 – NOx
Regulation 14 -SOx
Regulation 15- Volatile Organic Compounds
Regulation 16 – Shipboard Incinerator
Regulation 17 – Reception facilities
Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Requirement
Regulation 19 – Requirement for platform and drilling rigs
Response to air emission from ships:

• Technical code for prevention of air emissions from ships

• Diesel engine test
• Survey
• Certification of compliance (IAPPC)
• NOx compliance limit -30% reduction
• Review of 5 years interval
• Restriction on use of fluorocarbons on board
• Carbon dioxide emission from ship
• Fuel quality
• SOx Emission Control Areas (SECA)

Requirement for control of emission from ship - Other requirement and standards :

• Fuel grade - ISO 8217

• Emission test - ISO 8178
• One common limits for all engine - International harmonization of regulation and equipment

Thus IMO and the shipping industry got the greatest credit today regarding the way we design and operate ,
but nonetheless, the value of water and the environment will operate will always require vivid demand for
near zero intolerance to discharge or emission Regulation of maritime business and operations has for many
year centralized focused philosophy of safer sea and cleaner ocean, however since the protection of marine
environment became important international issues pollution of the world ocean augmented to linchpin of
international legislation and this is calling all areas of human endeavor to move towards sustainable
development. Thus, pollution from shipping only contribute10% of all discharge. Years of marine operation
paid little attention to air pollution, IMO declaration for duction under new annex IV MARPOL change
this. NOx is given limit of 30% reduction , and sulfur capping of 0.5-5.0% limit, Emissions from ocean-
going are forecast to increase 9% to 13% by 2010 and 20% to 29% by 2020, above levels in 2002. Bulk
carrier, container and tanker vessels are the three largest contributors.
(Fleisher, 1996).

Overall energy efficiency should ideally be defined as useful work done in relation to the energy
consumption. Thus the efficiency is highly dependent upon the type, size and speed of the ship. Those
considerations are generally outside of the scope for this study, although mention will be made when
discussing machinery systems that are especially suited for certain types of ship. The interaction of
propeller, underwater hull and rudder is important when propulsion efficiency is defined as efficiency in
conversion from shaft power to thrust power, this is outside of our scope, consequently under power
transmission the study will refer to free running (open water) efficiency of propellers when necessary.

.Study conducted by ABS concluded on the following configuration propulsion configurations as best
practice hybrid option for large LNG carrier is given below:

Table1 – current propulsion configuration- source ABS

Slow Speed Engine Direct drive

Medium Speed Engine Reduction Gear

Electric Propulsion

High Speed Engine and Reduction Gear

Gas Turbines Electric Propulsion
Understanding the basis on which these fuel efficiencies are obtained makes it apparent that the efficiency
gained over a conventionally powered vessel will vary according to environmental conditions and vessel
use. Prof. Frankel paper on propulsion of LNG also supported this further comparation under emision
concluded on the following data:

Table 2- Environmental comparison – Source – Prof Frankel

NOx 2 15 2
SOx 0 6 0.3
CO 0.1 0.3 0.3
CO2/100 5 4.6 4.7

Presently there is need to strengthen efficiency and effectiveness of short sea service towards sustainable
distribution and intermodal link from Inland Waterways where is there is potential for future development
at places where Inland Traffic originates and terminates from the waterfront.( Frankel, 2006). At a time
when the pollution caused by the vehicular traffic is playing havoc with the environment, the ecofriendly
mode of transport can be of some help.

Hybrid of gas turbine or Diesel with electric couple with dual fuelling that include natural gas, is explorable
option for existing trans ocean vessels, while all electric ship using natural gas and microturbine generator
are explorable for costal ships. While interesting development for new ship need exploration on
technologies to improve integrated full electric propulsion with advanced power management systems:

- Improved converter and power electronics technology

- Improved generators and motors

3.0 Best Practice Generic Technology

Recent time have seen rapid general augmentation of awareness of environmental issues which is creating
pressure of need for deeper understanding of engine propulsions system and treatment options, engine
modification and new propulsion plant options. Emission restriction have long been imposed on land based
power plant by authority, but the advent of green house gas has resulted to extension to marine diesel
engine, especially in port and coastal traffic because ship has proved to be a significant contributors of
NOx. Sequel to this IMO has passed the long standing resolution Annex IV under MEPC, for new limit to
prevent air pollution at sea and coastal water. The research require urgent attention in order to be part of
solution to states of the degrading ozone layers, acid rain and smog formation, water quality, detrimental
effects on vegetation green house gas global warming and consequential catastrophe issues. Research
conducted by Norwegian University of Technology and British Maritime Technology ltd deduced the
Table 3 – Emission and reduction measures
category components sources Current of method of
Emission COx Machineries/incinerator/boiler
from air
SOx Machineries/incinerator/boiler Low sulfur fuel exhaust
NOx Machineries/incinerator/boiler Exhaust cleaning, engine
modification, or input media
HC Machineries/incinerator/boiler
Noise Machineries/cargo operations insulation
Particles Machineries/incinerator/boiler
HFC/Halon Fire extinguisher / refrigeration Sequential loading , vapor
system return, recovery plant
VOC Cargo operation

Table 4 – reduction potentials

category components Current reduction potentials
Emission COx 1-40% operational planning and speed selection
from air 3-7 % efficiency improvement of machineries
70-80 % ( figure uncertain) by limiting the sulfur content in the fuel
and / or means of sea water washing
NOx 80-90 % by selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
10-30 % by engine turning / injection retarded
20-30 % by engine modification
Fuel or injected in cylinder, several alternative methods available
with varying reduction potential
30-60 %by sequential loading gas transfer
VOC 70-90% by recovery plant

The research concluded with recommendation for need to conduct research on technical abatement related
to technological energy efficiency and fuel use in fleet.(Morrall 2000)

3.1 Mitigation and Reduction Measures

There are 3 ways by which pollution can be controlled

• Cleaning fuel prior to combustion (fuel preparation such as fractionation , catalytic cracking ,
desulphurization )
• Reducing the production of pollutants during combustion ( state combustion, exhaust gas
recirculation and reduced temperature level )
• Cleaning exhaust gas

All these methods attracts major design modification that heat economic of energy balance
Figure 3- Mitigation and Measures – Source – ABS

Primary Secondary Operationally Retrofitting for For new engines

measures: measures: existing engines:

-Exhaust gas -On board -Use of NOx Engine

Use of low sulfur cleaning system or Catalytic system injectors certification
fuel – ( less than technology like : Converter, -Retarding -Pre-certification,
6g/kwh) -Sox for SECA water injection injection timing -Technical file
(Emission Control Emulsion -Temperature clarification on
HFO sulfur Area) & Fuel -speed reduction control of the engine family and
content - Need for change over (10-20% ) charge air group,
oil company to -Nitrogen -Use of shore -Exhaust Gas -Final certification
change their reduction - through power connection Recirculation
equipment for low choice of (EGR) Alfa Lubricator
sulfur oil propulsion system Dual fuel option -Fuel / water system - Reduction
production-> ship- for low sulfur emulsion in cylinder oil
owner will face -Sulfur reduction restricted areas -Water injection consumption->
high cost, additive -in bunker fuel ( 1.5-4.5)– need -Humid Air Motor reduction in
solution has been for additional (HAM) particulate
expensive so far -Reliquification tanks. The content Technique- emission
-Reduction of plants for of hydrocarbons in addition of wet -Electronic control
NOx, Sox, + cost LNG/LPG the exhaust gas steam to the engine engine
saving through carriers-> from large diesel 50% reduction Programmed fuel
boiled off gas - Use of Turbo engines depends -Selective injection for
reuse. generator plant –> on the type of fuel, Catalytic exhaust valve-
--PM - SAC the engine Reduction (SCR) Emission reduction
volume is the void adjustment and - Use of high
space in the fuel design. efficiency air flow
valve downstream for power take off
of the closing face reduce fuel +
reduction of

3.2 NOx Technology -

• Minimizing the NOx emissions from diesel engines is a pressing international problem
• In response to this, engine manufacturers are exploring all means of reducing NOx emissions
• The graph shows the international regulation standards adopted by the IMO in September 1997

Figure 4 – NOx Compliance limit – Source Yanmar

Low-NOx type marine diesel engine for new series engines use the following methods to reduce NOx
emissions: NOx depends on : Fuel efficiency, Large bore, Low speed, therefore most mitigation technology
when after the above characters to :

• NOx is generated when combustion gas is held at high temperature.

• To reduce NOx generation, the following steps are required:
1. Lower the combustion temperature.
2. Shorten the combustion time.
• Improvements aimed at NOx reduction are:
1. Delay of fuel injection time
2. Use of SCR

The IMO NOx emission limit will reduce the average NOx emission factors for ocean-going vessels by
4.1% for main engines and 8.3% for auxiliary engines. The model could help reduced emission from MISC
ship further and make MISC ship meet future local and international emission regulation. NOx reduction
by means of SCR can only take place in the mentioned temperature window, because if the temperature is
too high, NH3 will burn rather than react with the NO/NO2. At too low a temperature, the reaction rate
would be too low, and condensation of ammonium sulfates would destroy the catalyst, To reduce the NOx
level by up to 98%, it is necessary to make use of the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technique.
With this method, the exhaust gas is mixed with ammonia NH3 or UREA (as NH3 carrier) before passing
through a layer of a special catalyst at a temperature between 300 and 400C, whereby NOx is reduced to
N2 and H2O, the reactions are, in principle, the following:

• 4NO + 4NH3 + O2 → 4N2 + 6H2O

• 6NO2 + 8NH3 → 7N2 + 12H2O

The amount of NH3 injected into the exhaust gas is controlled by a process computer dosing the NH3 in
proportion to the NOx produced by the engine as a function of the engine load. The flexibility of the
electronically controlled engine can improve the emission control and operation of NOX reduction by
means of water emulsion. When operating with an SCR catalyst, it is difficult to maintain the engine
dynamics and the turbocharger stability at transient engine loads. With the electronically controlled engine,
a faster load-up by early exhaust valve opening and late injection timing is possible; also, modulated
exhaust valve timing stabilizes the turbocharger.

EGR system has two water injection stages, with a simple water separator unit after both. The first water
injection stage involves humidification with salt water in order to ensure that there is no freshwater
consumption in the second freshwater injection stage. The outlet temperature of the first stage is
approximately 100oC, this stage has a single multi-nozzle injector. This system is connected to the exhaust
system in the same way as the simple EGR system, but the EGR line is routed to a .bubble-bath. scrubber
from the which cleans and cools the exhaust gas. the water loop in the scrubber system is cooled and
monitored in a Water Treatment Skid with a filter and settling system, cleaning the used sea water.

Figure 5 – SCR Technology

The NOx production only takes place at very high temperatures (2,200°K and above), and it increases
exponentially with the temperature. The EGR method is based on a reduction of the oxygen content in the
cylinder charge, and the HAM method is partly based on reducing the oxygen content of the cylinder
charge and partly on increasing the heat capacity of the cylinder charge by the addition of water vapor. The
addition of water to the HFO by homogenization increases the viscosity, to keep the viscosity at the engine
inlet at 10-15 cSt, max. 20 cSt, It is necessary to raise the temperature to more than the 150oC which is
standard today (max. 170oC at 50% water) raise the fuel oil loop. 10% NOx reduction for each 10% water
added, the water amounts refer to the injected amount of fuel oil
Figure 6 – NOx reduction performance
At increased recirculation amounts; the HC and PM emissions are reduced corresponding to the reduction
of the exhaust gas flow from the engine.
Figure 7 - Typical Pressurized Fuel Oil System with Homogenizer

3.3 Sox technology

Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 limits the sulfur content of MFO to 1.5% per mass and will apply in
designated SECAs. The first SECA is the Baltic Sea ->enters into force on 19 May 2006. The North Sea
Area and the English Channel SECA will enter into force 22 November 2007. The geographical boundaries
for these two SECAs are defined in MARPOL 73/78. EU directive 2005/33/EC, requires ships to burn fuel
oil with less than 1.5% sulfur in the North Sea SECA from 11 August 2007.) . New SECAs are expected to
be adopted in the future based on certain criteria and procedures for designation of SECAs. MARPOL.
Annex VI, Regulation 14 (4b) also gives the option of using an exhaust gas cleaning system (EGCS) which
reduces the total SOX emissions to 6.0 g/kWh.

3.4 Particulate Matter Technology

Reduced sac volume in the fuel valves has greatly reduced PM emissions. Advantage brought by SAC is
shown below

Figure 8 – SAC valve for injection performance

Alpha lubricator -This involve technology application of high-pressure electronically controlled lubricator
that injects the cylinder lube oil into the cylinder at the exact position and time that optimize conventional
lubrication lubricators. A parallel line is followed by the SIP (Swirl Injection Principle) lubricator, where
the oil is injected prior to piston passage, thereby having the oil distributed by the air swirl. Use for marine
engines and engines for power generation purposes, very low feed rates have been demonstrated, with oil
consumption down to 0.5 g/bhph. By applying low oil dosage -> emission is lowered + less cylinder oil is
wasted in the engine- where it could end up in the system oil, resulting in increased TBN and viscosity.
Figure 9- Alpha Lubricator – Source ABS
Figure 10 –Particulate Matter Measure Performance - ABS

The picture above show the use of alpha lubricator reduces lub. Oil consumption and PM. also the filters
used for dilution tunnel PM. measurements taken before and after the scrubber at 75% load and 15%

3.5 Impact of using new fuel

• That technology will transfer sympathetically to the marine industry via availability of engines,
systems and technical assistance.
• Marine craft operation in inland water operation as well as deep sea will require fuel supplied in
bulk rendering the NG distribution viable
• The use of an alternative fuel for vessel propulsion will leads to a design review of:
- Power plant
- associated fuel system
- propulsion train;
• Effectively reshaping areas such as Machinery Arrangement, Hull Form, Compartment, Cargo
Deck, Payloads, Superstructure, Interior Layouts, Escape & Safety, Route Options, etc.

Figure 11 – Fuel efficiency – Source - RINA

3.6 Technology for new built

• Alternative energy
• Alternative fuel and dual fuel engines
• Infusion of water mist with fuel and subsequent gas scrubbing units for slow speed engines
• Additional firing chamber
• Potential for gas turbine complex cycle
• Potential for turbocharger diesel engine
• Compound cycle with : gasified fuel, external
compressor, combustion with pure oxygen
• Exhaust after treatment for medium speed engines
• Azipod
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Measure performance

Best Practice to meet compliance

• Lloyd performed a research on exhaust gas emission assessment

• Roll-Royce built Allen 5000 Series engine with electronics fuel injectors that control NOx
• Mak engine has developed a new MDS engine with reduction in NOX without fuel penalty

Electric Propulsion Technology

The overall power train efficiency with DEP is around 87-90%. Use of permanent magnets in electric
generators and motors as well as general advances in semiconductor technology may improve this figure to
around 92-95% in the near future. Electrical transmission will consist of three basic energy conversions:

- From (rotating) mechanical energy into electrical energy: E-generator

- From electrical energy into (rotating) mechanical energy: E-motor
- Some form of fixed or controlled electrical conversion in between: power converter
- Simulation, risk assessment and emission quantification are other remain supporting
method for decision and selection of new systems.

Electric propulsion system require development of the following technological areas:E-generator -

The following tree gives a systematic overview of existing types whose improvement will be sought:
Mechanical ==> Electrical: E-Generators
DC Generators
AC Generators

E-Motors - The following tree gives a systematic overview of existing types whose improvement will
be sough: Electrical ==> Mechanical: E-motors
Driving motors
Synchronous Motor
Positioning motors
Power converters - The following tree gives a systematic overview of existing types: Electrical
==> Electrical: power conversion or transformation
Fixed transformers
Controlled converters
Static converters


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