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Expert Group Meeting Developing Eco-Efficient and Sustainable Urban Infrastructure in Asia and Latin America Bangkok 10 to 12 February,


Innovative Practices in Solid Waste Management

UNESCAP assisted

Decentralized Solid Waste Management Project

Matale Municipal Council, Sri Lanka.

K.A.Jayaratne, President, Sevanatha. <jaya_kananke@yahoo.com>

Overview of Solid Waste Management in Sri Lanka

Amount of waste generated per day in municipalities in Sri Lanka.

Municipal Councils Population (2001) Amount of waste generated per day Metric tones 675 272 150 125 110 50 20 80 32 20 20 NA 30 50 20

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Colombo Dehiwala / Mt. Lavinia Moratuwa Kotte Negombo Galle Gampaha Kandy Matale Nuwara Eliya Badulla Jaffna Ratnapura Kalmunai Kurunagala

642,163 209,787 177,190 115,826 121,933 90,934 9,438 110,049 36,352 25,049 40,920 N.A. 46,309 105,000 28,337

Urban waste collection and disposal methods

Door to door to collection

common waste bins at roadside

Collect at central points in wards as transfer stations

open dump or to a landfill site as the final disposal

Nature of Urban Waste Issue

Disposal of solid waste haphazardly No proper strategy for urban SWM Lack of public awareness on SWM Lack of resources at local authority level Poor waste handling methods in local authorities Lack of recognition for community based options Lack of citizens cooperation Poor law enforcement

National Strategy of Solid Waste Management

Strategy components (3Rs) Reduce Reuse Recycling Final Disposal Establish Collection Centres General Public / Community Groups Strengthening Solid Waste Management Systems by Local Authorities Sorting of Waste at Source Contributors Government NGOs Local Authorities

Establish Collecting Systems

Encourage for Reuse and Recycling

Final Disposal

Initiatives at Local Level

Waste Minimization at Household Level
Separation at Source Home composting

Recyclable Material Collection Centres Decentralized Community based SWM Energy from market waste

Strategic action - 1
School children Community Trade association Households

Face to face Meetings Workshops Bill boards Leaflets Video

Strategic action - 2
Waste separation @ source
Targets Households Traders Schools children Waste pickers Methods Organic materials Two baskets at source H/H compost bin for organic Bio gas from market waste Non-organic materials Collection centers Reuse and repair

Strategic Action - 3 Home Compost Bin for Household Waste Disposal

Strategic Action 4 Community Managed Recyclable Material Collection Centres

Strategic Action 5 Energy from Market Waste

Strategic action - 6
UNESCAP assisted

Decentralized Solid Waste Management Project ,

Matale Municipal Council, Sri Lanka.

Matale Municipal Council

Located in the middle of hill country region an elevation of 2147 ft MSL Area : 8.6 sq.km Land use 61% Residential, 19% agriculture Population: 40,331 Mixed population: Ethnic wise Annual growth: 1.5% Density : 41.55 per hec Urban poor: 16%

SWM by Matale Municipal Council

Total responsibility is with Municipality Collection, transport, disposal, cleaning of public parks, streets, markets, drains 30 tons per day 80% collected daily Open dump method 19.7% total municipal budget Cost per ton 16.7 US$. Public Health Dept. 132 worker for SWM 29% of Municipal workforce

Challenges in SWM
No proper citywide collection and disposal system shortage of experienced manpower 15% of workers absent daily Lack of funds for SWM No community/NGO involvement in SWM No payment from service receivers Lack of lands for waste disposal Haphazard waste disposal in the city health and aesthetic problems

Key actors in the new project

Matale Municipal Council UNESCAP WASTE CONCERN, Consultant, Bangladesh Community Sevanatha - Urban Resource Center/ Matale Enriched Compost (Pvt) limited Co.

Project site layout

Compost Plant

Name board at the entrance

Composting facility

Maturing boxes

Leachate collecting tank

Composting boxes

Project Area

Figure 2 - Map of the Project Area

Plant Operation
Sorting at source
Organic & recyclables Households -582 Street hawkers 90 Offices - 06 Fruits/vegetable stalls, restaurants & business premises -180

Collection door to door

The tractor is going to collect the waste

The waste being collected from the households

Sorting and mixing at Plant

Weighting and filling boxes

Measuring Temperature

Measuring moisture and turning


Final Product and packaging

Selling product by workers

Collection of Non-degradable

Waste being collected by a worker

The bag that is used to collect non degradable waste

Non degradable waste is transported by hand carts

Sorting at the Plant

Separation of Non-degradable waste

Box board


Glass bottles

Large Plastics

Plastic bottles


No. 1 2 3 4

Cost Item
Start up Cost of land Plant construction Tools & equipments Initial Capital cost

Amount US$
1,500 2,500 26,000 2,300 32,000 450 52 140 642 550

Operational cost per month

a. b. c.

Salaries Water, electricity, tele Overheads, fuel, others Monthly operational cost Monthly Income

Quality of Product
(test report by ITI, Sri Lanka.)
Test Test Method Test Value Limit of determinatio n mg/kg

Total Cadmium (as Cd) mg/kg Total Chromium (as Cr) Total Copper (asCu) Total Lead (as Pb) Total Mercury (as Hg) Total Nickel (as Ni) Total Zinc (as ZN)

AAS/Flame AAS/Flame AAS/Flame AAS/Flame AAS/VGA AAS/Flame AAS/Flame

Not detected 30 42 10 Not dected 11 113

Partnership between Municipality, NGO and Community Waste separation at source Collection and sorting centers Extensive use of sawdust (timber waste) as moisture control material Handing over of operations to a small company Community based decentralized SWM system at city scale is possible.

Lessons learnt
Partnership approach is possible Waste separation at source is the key for success. SWM is not technical issue, it is a human issue, (Behavior change) People would like to pay for better services Small and decentralized plants work. Political commitment is essential. Community based is not an alternative, it is an empowerment process.

Sustaining the community support Sustaining the political support Maintaining the economic sustainability (Eco-efficiency) Implementation at city level/scale High production cost and competitive market

Thank you !