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Solutions for Chapter 10 1. FIND: Give specific applications for insulators, conductors, and semiconductors in a CD player. SOLUTION: My father gave me a broken CD player yesterday. I opened it up last night to peer into its workings. I saw a GaAlAs laser/sensor (the part that is not working). I saw many sorts of wires conductors - generally covered with various materials (polymers) for insulation. I saw a number of resistors, chips, diodes, which contain insulators, conductors, and semiconductors. Several printed circuit boards were in use. Find: Cross sectional area and applied voltage in a polymer rod Given: s = 3.5x10-8 (W-m)-1 , L = 10 m, R = 0.08 W, I = 3.2 A Data: Equation 10.2-1: V=IR Equation 10.2-2: r=(A/L)R Equation 10.2-3: s=1/r Solution: Combining equations 10.2-2 and 10.2-3 gives (1/s)=(A/L)R Solving for A gives A=(L/sR) Substituting value given in the problem statement A= [(10m)/(3.5x10-8(W-m)-1)(0.08W)] = 3.57x109m2 To find the necessary voltage we use Equation 10.2-1 V=IR=(3.2A)(0.08W)=0.256V In comparison, Example Problem 10.2-1 shows that a metal rod with the same length and resistance would have a diameter of 3.57x10-7m2 (0.357mm2). The sixteen order of magnitude difference in the areas of the metal and polymer rods is a direct consequence of the corresponding values of their electrical conductivities. Comment: This polymer "rod" has a diameter of 67.4 kilometers!

2.

3. FIND: Which class of materials shows the greatest range of electrical conductivity? GIVEN: Data are provided in Table 10.2-1. SOLUTION: Polymers cover the range of 10-18 to 10-11

2 (W-cm)-1. Metals span the narrow range of 104 - 105 and ceramics the wide range of 10-14 to 105 (W-cm)-1. When organic conductors, graphite, or doped polymers are included, then the range of organic materials increases on the high end to about 105 (W-cm)-1. 4. Find: Show that units of Nqm are equivalent with those of s. Given: 1 A = 1 C/s Data: Units for variables are N=m-3, q=C, m=m2/v-s, s=(W-m)-1. Solution: Nqm has units of (m-3)(C)(m2/V-s) = (C/s)/(V-m) = (A/V)/m = 1/(W-m) = (W-m)-1 Find: Relative conductivity of a metal glass and crystal. Given: Electrons transport charge and Nglass=Ncrystal Data: For a metal, s=Neqeme and (dme/drd)<0. Solution: Since N and q are the same for the glass and the crystal, the question reduces to determining which structure has the higher electron mobility. Since the crystalline structure is much more "regular" than that of the glass, the electron mobility will be much higher in the crystal than in the glass. Therefore, we expect the conductivity of the metallic glass to be lower than that of its crystalline counterpart.

5.

6. Find: Proper form of conductivity equation for a material in which charge is transported by electrons and holes. Data: Equation 10.2-5: s=SiNiqimi Solution: For the material described above s = Neqeme+Nhqhmh = q(Neme+Nhmh) 7. Find: Mobility of electrons. Given: Ne=Nh=1x1013cm-3=1x1019m-3 r=3.15x10-1W-m me=3mh Data: Equation 10.2-5: s=SiNiqimi and q=1.6x10-19C Solution: If both electrons and holes transport charge then s = Neqeme+Nhqhmh = Nq(me+mh) = Nq(me+(me/3)) s = (1/r) = Nq(4/3)me me = 3/(4Nqr)

3 = 3/[4(1x1019m-3)(1.6x10-19C)(3.15x10-1W-m)] = 1.49 m2/(V-s) 8. Find: Band diagrams for conductors, semiconductors and insulators Solution: A conductor has a partially filled valence band at all temperatures. Both semiconductors and insulators have filled valence bands and empty conduction bands at O K. The difference between semiconductors and insulators is in the size of their bandgaps. Semiconductors have Eg < 2.5 eV and insulators have Eg > 2.5 eV. 9. FIND: Calculate the resistance of a rod of material 1 m long and 500 mm in radius. GIVEN: The resistance of a sample of the same material 1 m long and 50 mm in radius is 20 W. SOLUTION: We can use equation 10.2-2 to solve the problem. Restating the equation in terms of R: R = r (L / A). The length and resistivity of the sample is the same as that of the standard. Hence, the resistance varies with the radius squared. The sample's cross-sectional area is 100 times that of the standard. Consequently, the resistance is 100 times less or 20 W / 100 = 0.20 W. 10. Find: Show that f(E) increases exponentially with temperature. Given: Eg 0.2 eV Data: Equation 10.2-11 states: f(E)= 1 exp[(E-Ef)/kT] + 1 Solution: In a bandgap material Ef is located in the middle of the bandgap. Therefore, if we want to evaluate the occupation probability at Ec we find (E-Ef)=(Ec-Ef)=Eg/2. So the equation reduces to: f(E)= 1 exp(Eg/2kT) + 1 If exp(Eg/2kT)>>1 then we can neglect the 1 in the denominator and approximate f(E) as: f(E) exp(-Eg/2kT) which shows that f(E) varies exponentially with temperature. Next we must check the validity of our assumption. is exp(Eg/2kT)>>1 ?

4 If we accept >10 in place of >>1 than we require Eg/2kT > 10 or equivalently T < [Eg/(2k ln10)] Substituting the known value for k gives T < Eg (2519 k/eV) if Eg=0.2 eV, our assumption is valid if T < 504 K (231C); if Eg=0.5 eV, our assumption is valid if T < 1230 K (957C); and if Eg=1.0 eV, are assumption is valid if T < 2519 K (2246C). 11. Explanation for different temperature dependence of r in metals and semiconductors Solution: In metals, charge is transported by electrons so that s=Neqeme. Since metals have a partially filled valence band at all temperatures, the Neqe product is not a function of T. Since me decreases with increasing T (due to more frequent "collisions" between electrons and vibrating ion cores) the conductivity of a metal decreases with increasing T. Thus, the resistivity of a metal (rm=1/sm) increases with increasing T. In semiconductors, me+mh deceases with increasing T but N increases exponentially with increasing T. This exponential increase in N overshadows the roughly linear decrease in mobility such that the conductivity of a semiconductor increases with increasing T. The result is that in contrast to metals (and other conductors), the resistivity of a semiconductor decreases with increasing T. 12. FIND: Go to the library and ascertain a value for the electrical conductivity of pyrolytic graphite. Calculate the resistivity of a carbon fiber. GIVEN: The carbon fiber is 10 micrometers in diameter and its use length is 1 m. ASSUMPTIONS: Assume the conductivity of a carbon fiber roughly equals that of pyrolytic graphite. DATA: Diamond has a conductivity of 10-18 (W-cm)-1. Graphite's conductivity depends somewhat on structure, but graphite is a good conductor. Its conductivity is on the order of 105 (W-cm)-1. Find:

5 SOLUTION: The resistance of a carbon fiber is approximated using equation 10.2-2: R = r (L / A) = [10-7 W-m] [1 m / p(5 x 10-6 m)2] = 1300 W. COMMENTS: The current that flows under a potential of 12 V is determined using Ohm's law (equation 10.2-1): I = V / R = 12 V / 1300 W = 9 milliamps. Carbon fibers are sometimes used in composites to prevent charge build-up. 13. Find: Influence of T on R for the various classes of materials. Given: R(metal)=R(semi)=R(insulator) at 20C. [which has highest R at 50C?] Data: R = r(L/A) = (1/s)(L/A) Solution: For an insulator, s is a weak function of T (it is very low at all T). Therefore, resistance of the insulating sample will not change. For a conductor, s decreases with increasing T (see Problem 8) so that the resistance of the metal will be higher at 50C. For a semiconductor, s increases with increasing T, so the resistance of the semiconductor will be lower at 50C. Therefore, the metal will have the highest R at 50C. 14. FIND: How high as 5 x 105 SOLUTION: conductivity of can ReO3, a ceramic, have a conductivity as (W-cm)-1? The basic equation governing electrical materials is given in equation 10.2-4: s = N q m.

To have a high conductivity, there must be a number of charge carriers and they must be mobile. Charge carriers may be ions or electrons, but generally ionic mobility is low. The high conductivity of ReO3 suggests electronic carriers are present. Detailed studies confirm this hypothesis. COMMENTS: Some ceramics structures have channels that act as paths for ions. Such "fast ion conductors" have conductivities in the range of 10-3 to 103 (W-cm)-1. 16. FIND: Calculate the resistivity of Cu at 200C and compare to that at 20C. DATA: See Table 10.2-2. Note the reference temperature for Cu is 20C.

6 SOLUTION: We use equation 10.2-16 to complete the problem: r(T) = ro[1 + ae DT). Proceeding for Cu, r(T) = 1.67 x 10-6 W-cm [1 + (6.8 x 10-3 / C) DT] r(100C) = 1.67 x 10-6 W-cm [1 + (6.8 x 10-3 / C) 80C] = 9.1 x 10-7 W-cm r(20C) = 1.67 x 10-6 W-cm [1 + (6.8 x 10-3 / C) 0C] = 1.67 x 10-6 W-cm. COMMENTS: Resistivity decreases with increasing temperature, which means that losses that cause heating decrease with temperature. A bar carrying a high current will heat up. As it heats up, the resistance decreases, so heat is generated at a decreasing rate. Hence, the bar may reach steady state before it melts. 17. Find: Form of the conductivity equation for a solid with composition m2x. Solution: s = SiNiqimi = Neqeme+Nhqhmh+Ncqcmc+Naqama where the subscripts c and a correspond to cations and anions. If we assume N=Na=(1/2)Nc and Zc and Za are the valences of the ions then s = qe[Neme+Nhmh+N(Zama+2Zcmc)] 18. Find: Influence of grain size on electron/hole conduction. Solution: A reduction in grain size increases the number of grain boundaries in the crystal. This increase in the defect density reduces me and mh but has no significant effect on either N or q. Therefore, a reduction in the grain size decreases the conductivity of most materials in which charge is transported by electrons or holes. 19. Find: Examples of materials to illustrate influence of rd on s. Solution: A. Materials in which an increase in rd results in a decrease in s include all metals and ceramic conductors in which charge is transported via electrons. B. An increase in rd tends to increase s in ionic conductors and, if the "defects" happen to be effective dopants they can increase the conductivity of semiconductors. In addition, some polymers can have their conductivity increased significantly by impurity additions.

7 20. FIND: Plot the electrical conductivity of an epoxy loaded with ionic impurities as a function of extent of cure. SKETCH:
Electrical Conductivity

Cure Time

SOLUTION: The impurities are mobile when the curing begins, as the resin is fluid-like. At the gel point, the ions lose a substantial part of their mobility. Eventually the epoxy becomes a glass, where all long-range motion is lost. COMMENTS: This technique is used to monitor the cure of thermoset resins in thick composites, such as submarine hulls. The sensors are small and thin electronic capacitors. They are used once each. 21. Find: Discuss applications of superconductors. Solution: i) Low voltage power transmissionSuperconducting wires will decrease the energy loss during long distance transmission and permit the use of low voltages to minimize health risks. ii) High speed computers- Superconducting components will permit faster computational operations by providing higher charge carrier mobilities. iii) Fusion- Power generation from a fusion reaction requires the use of extremely high temperature plasmas. These plasmas must be contained within an intense magnetic field. The role of superconductors will be to generate and maintain this field within economic constraints. iv) Battery-powered cars- Superconducting components will reduce the weight and increase the range of these cars to the point where they may be commercially viable. v) Low-friction trains- The Meissner effect is being used to minimize friction (and associated power loss) in high speed commuter trains.

8 22. Find: List applications that favor each of the various types of conductors. Solution: A) Conducting polymers offer better specific conductivity values. Applications include weight critical components in the aerospace industry and in battery powered cars. B) Metals are favored in many routine applications including appliance cords. They are also the materials of choice when high conductivity values are the major design factor. C) Ceramic conductors offer advantages in high temperature applications and in aggressive environments. Compare influence of fine and coarse precipitates on s. Solution: Defects influence s through their effect on the mobility of charge carriers (electrons). This is primarily a function of the number of obstacles and the average distance between obstacles. Since a fine precipitate distribution offers both mere obstacles and a shorter distance between obstacles, such a distribution will result in a larger reduction in the conductivity of the alloy. Comment: Note the similarity with the effect of precipitate size on the strength of the alloy.

23. Find:

24. Find: Why is Ti a conductor while Ge is a semiconductor? Data: From Appendix B, the electron configurations for Ti and Ge are Ti: (1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2) Ge: (1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p2) Solution: Although Ti and Ge both have 4 valence electrons, their electron configurations are very different. Ge is a Group IV element with the characteristic xs2xp2 configuration that results in sp3 hybridization and a corresponding filled valence band. In contrast, in Ti the 3d and 4s bands overlap so that Ti has a partially filled valence band at all temperatures. The result is that Ti is a metal and Ge is a semiconductor (since it has a small bandgap).

9 25. Find: Why is an electron in level Ed not a viable charge carrier? Solution: When an electron accelerates in response to an external field its kinetic energy increases. In order for an electron to accept this extra energy there must be an empty energy level located just above the filled level. This is in fact the case when the electron is located in the conduction band but is not true when the electron is in the donor level. Find: Characteristics of 1-2-3 superconductors. Solution: A. A 1-2-3 superconductor is an oxide with three types of cations an a 1:2:3 ratio. B. An example is YBa2Cu3O7-x C. The term Cooper pair refers to a pair of electrons that move through the crystalline structure of a superconducting material in a synchronized manner. Find: Explain how thermocouples and oxygen sensors work. Solution: A. A thermocouple is a device used to measure temperature. It is composed of two metal wires joined at one end and connected to the two terminals of a voltmeter at the other end. When the joined ends of the wires are heated, electrons are thermally excited to higher energy levels. This produces a voltage gradient across each wire. Since the wires are made of two different metals, they will develop different voltages. The magnitude of this voltage difference is proportional to the temperature at the joined ends. B. Normally we think of an applied voltage as the driving force for charge motion. However, a charge carrier concentration gradient can also induce carrier motion and a corresponding voltage gradient. The magnitude of this voltage can be used to determine the concentration of the charge carriers. In the oxygen sensor in an engine, the charge carriers being monitored are oxygen ions. Examples of ceramics and polymers that are more conductive than metals. Data: Conductivity values in Table 10.2-1 Solution: Stainless steel has a conductivity of

26.

27.

28.

Find:

10 1.4x104(W-cm)-1. Two ceramics with higher conductivities are ReO3 (s= 5x105(W-cm)-1) and CrO2 (s= 3.3x104(W-cm)-1). Although there are no polymers listed in the table with higher s values, the text in Section 10.2.8 states that polyacetylene doped with Arsenic pentafluoride has a conductivity of about 1.5x105(W-cm)-1. 29. Find: Complete the table below. Solution: +---------------------------------------------------------+ | Material class | dN/dt | dN/drd | electron | 0 | 0 | <0 | <0 | | conductors | | | | | +-----------------+---------+----------+---------+--------| | ionic | >0 | >0 | >0 | >0 | | conductors | | | | +-----------------+---------+----------+---------+--------| | semiconductors | >0 | >0 | <0 | <0 | +---------------------------------------------------------+ Comment: The influence of defects on mobility in ionic conductors depends on the defect type. We have assumed that the defects have introduced additional vacancies or interstitials which aid ionic diffusion. 30. Find: Determine the dominant charge carrier in a series of compounds. Data: Transference numbers found in Table 10.2-4. Solution: A. NaCl- charge is transported by the Na+ cations. B. FeO- charge is transported by electrons/holes with a minor contribution from Fe2+ cations. C. CuCl- at low T charge is transported by electrons/holes while at high T it is transported by Cu+ cations. D. ZrO2 + 18% CeO2- 52% of the charge transport is by O2- anions and 48% by electrons/holes. Discuss influence of glass composition on its conductivity. Solution: The glass in a crucible would be composed of pure SiO2 or a combination of glass forming oxides. As such, it would display a strong primary bond network in three

31. Find:

11 dimensions. This type of glass will display limited ionic conductivity and, since it has a filled valence band at O K, its electron/hole conduction will also be limited. In contrast, the glass used in Coke bottles will contain a significant amount of network formers to break up the primary bond network and reduce the processing temperature. This structural modification will result in higher cation concentrations and mobilities and, therefore, higher electrical conductivity. 32. Find: Variation in r for Mg and Ta over temperature range -200C to 200C Data: Equation 10.2-16: r(T)=r [1+aeDT] From Table 10.2-2: r(Mg)=4.45x10-6(W-cm), ae(Mg)=0.0165, T=20C, r(Ta)=1.25x10-5(W-cm), ae(Ta)=0.0038, and T=25C Solution:

T | r(Mg) | r(Ta) -----+---------+-----------25 | 1.15x10-6| 1.01x10-5 0 | 2.98x10-6 | 1.13x10-5 25 | 4.82x10-6 | 1.25x10-5 50 | 6.65x10-6 | 1.37x10-5 75 | 8.49x10-6 | 1.49x10-5 100 | 1.03x10-5 | 1.61x10-5 125 | 1.22x10-5 | 1.73x10-5 150 | 1.40x10-5 | 1.84x10-5 175 | 1.58x10-5 | 1.96x10-5 200 | 1.77x10-5 | 2.08x10-5 Mg has the low resistivity so it has the higher conductivity (over this temperature range). 33. Find: Calculate percentage of charge transported by holes in Ge at room temperature. From Table 10.2-3:

me = 3800 cm2/V-s and mh = 1820 cm2/V-s Solution: Since Ne=Nh and |qe|=|qh| the fraction of charge transported by holes is equal to mh/(me+mh). Therefore the percentage of charge transported by holes is: {[(1820 cm2/V-s)/(3800+1820 cm2/V-s)]x100} = 32.4% Data:

12 34. Find: Calculate the drift velocity of a charge carrier. Given: m= 0.43 m2/(V-s), x=1mm=10-3m, V= 110mV= 0.11V Data: Equation 10.2-8: V=mE Solution: The electric field strength is V/x = (0.11V)/(1x10-3) = 110 V/m Therefore, the drift velocity can be calculated as V = mE = (0.43 m2/(V-s)(110 V/m) = 47.3 m/s Investigate influence of temperature on the conductivity of Cu and Si. Data: For Cu, Equation 10.2-16 states r(T)=r [1+aeDT] and Table 10.2-2 gives r=1.67x10-6(W-cm) at 20C and ae(Mg)=0.0068C-1 For Si, Equation 10.3-4 states s=s exp(-Eg/2kT) and Table 10.2-3 gives Eg= 1.107 eV Solution:

35. Find:

A. A 10% increase in the conductivity of Cu requires that (s(T)/s) = 1.10 and since s=(1/r) this is equivalent to r/r(T) = 1.10 = 1/[1+aeDT] 1+aeDT= 1/1.10 = 0.9091 DT = (0.9091-1)/ae = (0.9091-1)/0.0068C-1 DT = -13.4C This corresponds to a reduction in T of 13.4C. B. A 10% increase in the conductivity of Si requires [s(T)/s(25C)] = 1.1 = [s exp(-Eg/2kT)]/s exp(-Eg/2k(298K)] ln 1.1 = (-Eg/2k)(1/T - 1/298 K) [(-2k ln 1.1)/Eg + 1/298 K]-1 = T [(-2(8.62x10-5eV/K)ln(1.1))/ 1.107 eV + 1/298K]-1 = T T = 299.3 K = 26.3C This represents a temperature increase of 1.3C. C. The semiconductor is more sensitive to changes in T because in these materials the number of charge carriers is exponentially related to temperature. In metals, the

13 only influence of T on s is a linear decrease in the electron mobility. 36. Find: Influence of sample dimensions on resistivity. Given: d1=3d2 and L1=0.5L2 Solution: Since resistivity is an intrinsic property it is not influenced by the dimensions of the sample. Both rods have the same resistivity. Comment: Rod 1, with its larger diameter and shorter length, will have a lower resistance. 37. Find: Influence of temperature, defects and sample dimensions on the electrical conduction process. Solution: A. As T increases: i) Time between collisions decreases due to larger thermal oscillations of the atom cores. ii) Charge carrier mobility in a metal decreases because the time between collisions is decreased. iii) Conductivity of a metal decreases because me decreases while Nq remains constant. iv) Number of charge carriers in a semiconductor increases exponentially due to thermal promotion of electrons into the conduction band. v) Charge carrier mobilty in a semiconductor decreases (just like in a metal). vi) Resistivity of a semiconductor decreases since conductivity increases as a result of the exponential increase in N. B. As the defect density increases: i) Time between collisions decreases. ii) Resistance of a metal increases because its conductivity decreases as a result of decreased electron mobility. C. As cross-sectional area increases: i) Conductivity does not change (it is an intrinsic property). ii) Resistance decreases since R=r(L/A). Influence of T on factors in the Conductivity Equation. Solution: A. Number of charge carriers in a semiconductor increases exponentially due to thermal promotion of electronsinto the conduction band.

38. Find:

14 B. The number of charge carriers in a metal is not significantly affected by T since the valence band is partially filled at all temperatures. C. The number of mobile ions increases with increasing T since there are more point defects to aid in diffusion. D. The mobility of an electron decreases due to increase in thermal oscillations of the atomic cores. E. The ion mobility increases because of the enhanced rate of diffusion. 39. Find: Relationship between T, Eg, and R. Given: s(100C)=2s(50C), R(50)=25W Solution: A. For an intrinsic semiconductor s=s exp(-Eg/2kT) We have s(100C)/s(50C) = 2 = s exp(-Eg/2k(373K))/s exp(-Eg/2k(323K)) ln 2 = -Eg/2k(1/373K - 1/323K) Eg = -2k ln 2/(1/373K - 1/323K) = -2(8.62x10-5eV/k)ln 2 = 0.288 eV (1/373K - 1/323K) B. R=r(L/A) and r=(1/s) so that R(100C) = r(100C)(L/A) = s(50C) = 0.5 R(50C) r(50C)(L/A) s(100C) R(100C) = 0.5(R(50C)) = 0.5(25W) = 12.5W 40. FIND: How can you ascertain when the bandgap goes to 0.0 eV upon doping a semiconductor? SOLUTION: There are a number of way of knowing when the bandgap has decreased to zero and the material has become a conductor. Perhaps the best way is to measure the temperature dependence of conductivity. Metals will behave as in equation 10.2-16 (linear decrease) and semiconductors as in equation 10.2-14 (exponential increase). COMMENTS: Yes, the material will become gray and metallike in appearance, as all incident light is absorbed or reflected and nothing is transmitted. FIND: What is distortion from an audio amplifier? SOLUTION: The electronic components in an amplifier are designed to produce a certain amplification when told to do so by the user changing positions of switches. When the components no longer act in a well defined manner, then the sound may become distorted. The amplification is no longer in the bounds of designed use. Diodes, op amps - virtually any electronic component - will distort sound when operated 41.

15 out of its design limits.. 42. Find: Design an experiment to determine if an unknown semiconductor is composed of Si or Ge. Solution: If the bandgap can be determined then the material can be identified. Since s=s exp(-Eg/2kT), a plot of (ln s) vs. (1/T) will show a slope of (-Eg/2k). Therefore, if the conductivity of the sample is measured at several temperatures, the band gap can be calculated. Comment: The raw data would probably be resistance as a function of T. Compare the slopes of a (ln s) vs (1/T) plot for an n-type material in the intrinsic and extrinsic regions. Solution: In the intrinsic region the equation is s=s exp(-Eg/2kT) and the corresponding slope is (-Eg/2k). In the extrinsic region the equation is s=s exp[-(Eg-Ed)/kT] and the slope is [-(Eg-Ed)/k]. Since (Eg-Ed)<(Eg/2), the slope in the intrinsic region is always steeper. Bandgap of a semiconductor given slopes of (ln s) vs (1/T) plot. Given: Slopes are -3480 K and -6960 K. Solution: As discussed in Problem 40, the steeper slope corresponds to the intrinsic band gap. Therefore, we have (-Eg/2k) = -6960 K Eg = 2(8.62x10-5 eV/K)(6960 K) Eg = 1.2 eV Use a (ln s) vs (1/T) plot to characterize an N-type semiconductor. Given: Slope in extrinsic region is -1200 K. Solution: A. For an n-type semiconductor in the extrinsic region the conductivity equation is s=s exp[-(Eg-Ed)/kT] and the slope is [-(Eg-Ed)/k]. Therefore, we find [-(Eg-Ed)/k] = -1200 K (Eg-Ed) = (8.62x10-5 eV/K)(1200 K) (Eg-Ed) = 0.1 eV B. To determine if the material is intrinsic of extrinsic you would need more conductivity data at higher temperatures. If the

43. Find:

44. Find:

45. Find:

16 slope of the (ln s) vs (1/T) plot is constant over the entire temperature range then the material is an intrinsic semiconductor. If, however, the plot shows a horizontal region flanked by two sloped regions then the material is an extrinsic semiconductor. 47. Find: Sketch band diagram for an N-type semiconductor and find its conductivity at 150C. Given: Eg=1.2 eV, (Eg-Ed)=0.3 eV, s(25C)=5x10-6(W-cm)-1. Assumption: The material exhibits extrinsic conductivity at 150C and the exhaustion region has not been reached at this temperature. Solution: The conductivity at 150C can be found as follows s(150C) = s exp[-(Eg-Ed)/k(423 K)] s(25C) = s exp[-(Eg-Ed)/k(298 K)]

s(150C)= 5x10-6(W-cm)-1{exp[(-0.3eV/8.62x10-5eV/K)(1/423-1/298))]} s(150C)= 1.58x10-4(W-cm)-1 48. Find: Characteristics of Ge doped with a Group V element. Given: Eg=0.66 eV, slope of (ln s) vs. (1/T) in extrinsic region is -1700 K, s=4x103(W-cm)-1. Solution: A. The conductivity equation in the extrinsic region is s=s exp[-(Eg-Ed)/kT] with a corresponding slope of -(Eg-Ed)/k. Therefore, -(Eg-Ed)/k = -1700 K Eg-Ed = (8.62x10-5 eV/K)(1700 K) Eg-Ed = 0.147 eV B.The conductivity at 200C is calculated as s(200C)=s exp[-(Eg-Ed)/kT] =(4x103(W-cm)-1) exp[-0.147eV/(8.62x10-5eV/K)(473K)] s(200C)= 1.09x102(W-cm)-1 49. Find: Electrical characteristics of GaP. Data: From Appendix B, Ga has 3 valence electrons and P has 5 valence electrons.

17 Solution: A. GaP has an average of 4 valence electrons per atom and could be a III-V semiconductor. B. Since the average number of valence electrons is 4 in this compound, we suspect that CN(Ga)=CN(P)=4. Thus, we predict that GaP will have the zinc-blende crystal structure. C. We need to know if GaP can exist as a single phase solid solution when the composition is 50 atomic percent of each element.

50. Find: Characteristics of a recombination center. Solution: A recombination center is a location within the solid, often a defect, that favors an interaction between an electron in the conduction band and a hole in the valence band such that both charge carriers are eliminated. This type of interaction reduces the electrical conductivity of the material. 51. Find: Discuss the meaning of exhaustion and saturation in extrinsic semiconductors. Solution: Both terms refer to the finite number of extrinsic energy levels located within the bandgap of a doped semiconductor. For an N-type material, when all of the "extra" electrons associated with the dopant atoms and originally located in level Ed have been promoted to the conduction band, The (now empty) Ed level is said to be exhausted. For P-type materials, saturation describes the condition when all of the "holes" in the EA level have been filled by electrons from the valence band. 52. Find: Determine the dominant charge carriers in a series of semiconductors. Solution: A. In intrinsic Si (or any other intrinsic semiconductor) the charge carriers are electrons and holes. B. In intrinsic GaAs the charge carriers are electrons and holes. C. Since P is a Group V element, Si Doped with P will be an N-type semiconductor and the charge carriers at low temperatures will be electrons. D. Ge doped with P will also be N-type. At high temperatures, however, the Ed level will be exhausted and intrinsic conduction

18 will dominate. Therefore, the charge carrier in the intrinsic temperature range will be electrons and holes. E. Group II Zn will substitute for Group III Ga to produce a P-type material. Therefore, at low temperatures the charge carriers will be holes. F. At high temperatures CdTe will exhibit intrinsic conduction so that the charge carriers will be electrons and holes (regardless of what the dopant is). 53. Find: Sketch and label a PNP device and show biases applied during normal operation. Sketch/Solution: the base-collector junction is reverse biased

## the emitterbase junction is forward biased Comment:

The PNP device works on the same principles as the NPN device. The base-collector junction has a large reverse bias while the emitter-base junction has a small forward bias. In this condition, the device is an amplifier. Identify a semiconductor for which resistivity does not change over a limited temperature range. Solution: Since resistivity is the inverse of conductivity, we require a material with a conductivity that does not change with T. For semiconductors, this requirement is only satisfied in the saturation (or horizontal) region of the (ln s) vs (1/T) curve for a P-type material or the exhaustion region of the curve for an Ntype material. The doping concentration can be adjusted to determine the lower temperature limit for constant conductivity.

54. Find:

55. Find: Discuss applications for Si, GaAs, SiC. Solution: Each material offers some advantages over the others. Si is the least expensive and most readily available option. It is the workhorse of the industry and the choice for most routine applications. SiC has the

19 largest bandgap of the three and has much better high temperature stability. It is also better suited for use in aggressive environments. GaAs has a bandgap that allows it to serve as a red LED and the highest charge carrier mobilities. The high mobilities make GaAs the preferred material for high frequency applications. 56. Find: Difference between an intrinsic compound semiconductor and an extrinsic elemental Silicon. Solution: Both are composed of two elements. In an intrinsic compound semiconductor the two elements occur in equal atomic fractions while in an extrinsic elemental semiconductor the second element is present in only very small quantities. From an electrical properties perspective, the conductivity for an intrinsic compound semiconductor (or any other intrinsic semiconductor) is described by the equation s=s exp(-Eg/2kT). In contrast, the equations for an extrinsic elemental (or any other extrinsic) semiconductor are s=s exp(-Ea/kT) or s=s [-(Eg-Ed)/kT]. Minimum number of elements to form an extrinsic compound semiconductor. Solution: Three- two to form the intrinsic compound and a third to supply either the extra electrons in the donor level, Ed, of the extra holes in the acceptor level, Ea. Applications requiring large and small Eg materials. Solution: Materials with large bandgaps show a larger change in conductivity for a given temperature change than those with small bandgaps. Large bandgap semiconductors are also favored in high temperature applications. Small Eg semiconductors can respond to lower energy inputs such as detectors for low energy (long wavelength) photon detection. These materials also tend to have higher overall conductivities than the high Eg materials.

57. Find:

58. Find:

59. FIND: Sketch the structure of a blue LED and show the events that produce light. GIVEN: A blue diode may be Al-doped Si.

20 SKETCH: The mechanism is sketched in Fig. 10.3-7b. SOLUTION: Recombination, as shown in Figs. 10.3-7b and 10.3-6, allows the production of a photon with the wavelength of blue light. 60. Find: Advantages of single crystal semiconductors over polycrystals. Solution: One of the material requirements in the microelectronics industry is that the semiconducting properties of the materials must be very predictable and reproducible. Since defects result in unwanted property variations they should be minimized. Therefore, single crystals (which do not contain grain boundaries) behave more predictably. In addition, grain boundaries (and other defects) act as recombination centers and decrease charge carrier mobility. Comment: Polycrystalline semiconductors are generally less expensive and do find some applications. Polycrystalline Silicon solar cells are currently being developed as a renewable energy source.

61. Find: Description of a thermistor. Solution: A thermistor is a semiconducting device used to measure temperature or temperature changes. Its principle of operation is simply that the natural logarithm of the conductivity of a semiconductor is inversely related to temperature. Thus, by monitoring conductivity, one can measure temperature. 62. Find: Advantageous characteristics of SiO2. Solution: SiO2 is a tough, tenacious, naturally occurring oxide that is also an excellent electrical insulator. It can be removed by etching to expose underlying regions for doping. In addition, the diffusivity of many common dopants is substantially lower in SiO2 than in Si. This aids tremendously in the doping process since the oxide is a natural diffusion barrier. Comment: The oxide is often an integrated part of an electronic device such as an MOS capacitor. Find: Data: Find T such that sSi(T)=sGe(T). From Table 10.2-1 sSi(25C)=1x10-4(W-cm)-1 and

63.

21 sGe(25C)=2.3x10-2(W-cm)-1. From Table 10.2-3, EgSi=1.107 eV and EgGe=0.67 eV. Solution: First solve for the value of s for each material. Since s=s exp(-Eg/2kT) s = s exp(Eg/2kT) sSi=(1x10-4(W-cm)-1)exp(1.107eV/2(8.62x105 eV/k)(298K)) sSi=2.28x105(W-cm)-1 Similarly, Ge -2 s =(2.3x10 (W-cm)-1)exp(0.67eV/2(8.62x10-5eV/k)(298K)) sGe=1.06x104(W-cm)-1 Now to find the critical value of T we use Si s exp(-EgSi/2kT) = sGe exp(-EgGe/2kT) (sSi/sGe) = exp[-1/2kT(EgGe-EgSi)] [(ln(sSi/sGe)(-2k))/(EgGe-EgSi)]-1 = T T=[ln(2.28x105/1.06x104)-2(8.62x10-5eV/K)/(0.67-1.107eV)]-1 T = 826 K = 553C 64. Find: For Bi-doped Si, find T such that s(T) = 0.90 s(25C) Data: From Table 10.3-1, Bi-doped Si is n-type with (Eg-Ed)=0.069eV. Solution: For an N-type semiconductor, s=s exp(-(Eg-Ed)/kT) Using a ratio s(T) = 0.90 = s exp(-(Eg-Ed)/kT) s(25C) s exp(-(Eg-Ed)/k(298K) ln(0.90) = -(Eg-Ed)/k[1/T - 1/298K] [-k ln(0.90)/(Eg-Ed) + 1/298K]-1 = T T = [(-(8.62x10-5eV/K)ln(0.90))/0.069eV + 1/298K]-1 T = 286.8 K = 13.8C 65. Find: Is Ge doped with P or B? Given: s(76.4C) = 1.071 s(25C) Data: From Table 10.3-1, for P, Eg-Ed=0.012 eV, and for B, EA=0.01 eV Solution: Let s=s exp(-E*)/kT) where E* represents either EA or (Eg-Ed).

## ln(1.071) = -E*/k(1/349.4K - 1/298K)

22 E
*

E* = -k ln(1.071)/(1/349.4K - 1/298K) = -(8.62x10-5 eV/K) ln(1.071)/(1/349.4K - 1/298K) E* = 0.012 eV Therefore, the sample of Ge is doped with P.

67.

Find: Characteristics of Ge doped with Al. Given: E* = 0.01 eV Assumptions: Material remains extrinsic at T such that s(T) = 3 s(25C) Solution: A. Using the ratio technique s(T) = 3 = s exp(-E*/kT) s(25C) s exp(-E*/k(298 K)) ln(3) = -E*/k(1/T - 1/298K) [-k ln(3)/E* + 1/298K]-1 = T T = [(-(8.62x10-5eV/K)ln(3))/0.01eV + 1/298K]-1 T = -163.6 K [Not possible to have a negative absolute temperature]. Therefore, assumption must be invalid. There is no value of T for which the material exhibits extrinsic conduction and has a conductivity three times its room temperature value. B. -Eg/2k = -0.67eV/2(8.62x10-5 eV/K) = -3886 K -EA/k = -0.01eV/8.62x10-5 eV/K = -116 K SOLUTION: Electrical conductivity in materials is governed by the equation sigma = n x q x mu. As the relative humidity of the air increases, the moisture content in wool increases from 0 wt/o to more than 20 wt/o. The incorporation of the moisture has two effects. First, the mobility of charge carriers, mu, increases. Much more important, however, is that the charge carriers are (positive) ions, and the increase in moisture causes impurity salts to disassociate, thereby substantially increasing n, the number of charge carriers.

68.

FIND: How can AC be rectified? SOLUTION: The simplest means of partial rectification is with a pn diode. As per Fig. 10.3-7, current flows largely in only one direction. The other half of the current is lost. The resulting heat buildup requires the use of a diode that can handle high power dissipation. A multiple diode assembly can be used to obtain full wave rectification. 69.