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GS TEST SERIES MODULE 1

Q1 "In an increasingly competitive global economy, knowledge-driven growth powered by innovation is a critical imperative.Discuss the status of Indian growth in the context of above stated statement? (150 words) Q 2 Our shared neighbourhood should come on the agenda of serious discussions extending to concentric circles of expanding the dialogue to include all the primary parties affected by the situation in the AfPak region.To what extent this approach is relevant for India in the context of current Central Asian developments ? (150 words) Q3 Discuss " Greece economic crisis is a reminder that unregulated fiscal policies is an open invitation to an economic crisis"(150 words) Q4 "Global Warming is a threat to food security "elaborate and suggest the remedial measures (150 words) Q5 Copenhagen summit is a classical case of "one step forward and two step backward " ?Discuss (150 words) Q6 Highlight the importance of DHAANYA RAKHSA MISSION and asses the viability of measures suggested under this mission ?(150 words)

GS TEST SERIES MODULE PART 2


Q1 "Future of India's foreign policy lies in regino- centric approach"Discuss ?(150 words) Q2 "Polluter Pays and Precautionary Principle is anathema to economic development"Discuss ?(150 words) Q3 "There is a need for sub-categorization of backward communities even after the assurance of vertical and horizontal reservation in Indian constitution" Discuss ?(150 words) Q4 "Market based economy ensures social justice to an extent but evades social inclusiveness "Discuss?(150 words)

GS Test Series Answers module -1 Dear students we are providing you the information related to the questions .Students are expected to evolve their own ans using the reference material given below .Thanks and best of luck Reference material for Ans 1.
Securing Indias science future
In 2004, while reviewing the science and technology policy of the Government of India, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam said: In a world where the powers are determined by the share of the worlds knowledge, reflected by patents, papers and so onit is important for India to put all her acts together to become a continuous innovator and creator of science and technology intensive products. That means (statements that can come as questions) The importance of scientific and technological advancement in todays highly globalised environment cannot be overstated. The health of a nation depends, among other factors, on the health of the state of its science and technology, In an increasingly competitive global economy, knowledge-driven growth powered by innovation is a critical imperative. While India is uniquely positioned to use technology for progress, it has in the recent past lagged behind considerably in the quality and spread of science research. This is a critical lacuna that could welldetermine the fate not just of our scientific and developmental future but, more importantly, of our progress as a nation. STATUS Indias research productivity would be on a par with that of most G8 nations within seven to eight years and that it could probably overtake them in 2015-2020. In the last decade, India has seen its annual output of scientific publications grow from roughly 16,500 in 1998 to nearly 30,000 in 2007.. India produces about 400,000 engineering graduates and about 300,000 computer science graduates every year, just about 20,000 masters degree holders and fewer than 1,000 Ph.Ds in engineering graduate each year. AREAS OF CONCERN In 2007-08, India had about 156 researchers per million in the population, compared with 4,700 per million in the United States. In terms of sheer numbers, in 2007 China had 1,423,000 researchers, second internationally to the United States, which had almost 1,571,000. India by comparison had 154,800. Indias spend on R&D in 2007-08 was about US$ 24 billion compared with Chinas investment of about US$ 104 billion back in 2006 and the United States US$ 368 billion.

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3. These comparative allocations, reveal the gross inadequacy in Indias commitment to research, considering our scientists potential and our aspirations as a nation. A survey of 47 universities conducted by the University Grants Commission in 200708 revealed vacancy levels as high as 51 per cent. 1. It is evident that the majority of Indias graduatingengineers, particularly the cream, are going directly into the job market affecting the number and quality of those available for research. 2. This trend is partly because of the widespread notion that remuneration in a research career is below par and partly because of the lack of adequate encouragement and direction for young potential researchers. Not enough Ph.Ds graduate in India be it in number or excellence to meet the growing staff requirements of its universities. 1. As a result, even the quality of faculty has shown a declining trend and this is bound to have serious repercussions on the countrys intellectual edge. Add to this the issues of politicisation of the Indian scientific establishment, particularly in according due recognition, thelack of adequate funding and infrastructure, and the disparity in research funds and facilities available to universities. Further, the long-time policy of target-oriented research in selected thrust areas, as against open-ended research, has often come at the cost of the basic sciences. 1. It is common knowledge that research in basic sciencesis a critical pre-requisite for the success of applied sciences and the bedrock of all technological advancement. STEPS TO BE TAKEN (Quality)The key to continued success for India in a globalised knowledgedriven economy is building a higher education system that is superior in quality and committed encouragement of relevant research in science and technology. 1. What is needed is an environment where thegovernment, universities, companies, venture capitalists, and other stakeholders come together for the enablement of the entire science eco-system with an eye on future sustainability. (Investment)A manifold increase in the countrys investment in scientific research is only the beginning. 1. The government must play a key role by enhancing the number, quality, and management of science schoolsfocussed on science research. Given the present governments direction, this is something that could come to pass over the next few years. 2. The IIT model of success needs to be replicated on a far larger scale. 3. Providing the requisite autonomy to research institutions is an important necessity. Professors, scientists, and institution heads are often the people best informed on the necessary conditions required for the advancement of research goals. They must be enabled with the autonomy to create those conditions.

(Requirements))With industry often being the downstream beneficiary of several research efforts, increased interaction between industry and research establishments is important. 1. There needs to be a sound incentive system for the corporate sector involved in scientific R&D as well, with infrastructure and financial benefits, as is the case with the IT industry. This includes viable incentives such as tax breaks for corporate R&D efforts and special economic zones and technology parks for R&D establishments. (Interaction)In an age where issues of research interest are often global in nature, we must encourage active interactionand exchange with international research institutions. 1. Creating partnerships with relevant peer institutions inIndia and abroad, hosting events and conferences andgetting eminent researchers and scientists to shed light on progress in key research areas and supporting related publications . 2. These measures will go a long way not only in enrichingIndias research eco-system but also in enticing potentialyoung researchers to the cause. For instance, it should be a practice to invite Nobel Prize winners or similar eminent international scientists for seminars with selected young research minds and students inIndia at least annually. This could prove a valuable source of insight and inspiration to young potentials. In this regard, I would suggest the creation of an institution like the National Science Foundation, endowed with a suitable corpus from key public and private stakeholders, conferred with the responsibility of regularly undertaking such initiatives. (Reward & recognition)The importance of rewards and recognition for scientific research cannot be understated as a measure to encourage talented youngsters to consider careers in research. And the private sector could play the role of a patron here. Steps taken by Government 1. The government has avowed goals to reduce poverty and stimulate development. One among the many facilitators for this is a focussed investment in science and technology, which the government has acknowledged by announcing a doubling of related spend in terms of percentage of GDPover the next couple of years. 2. Parliaments approval for the creation of a National Science and Engineering Research Board, responsible for funding and furthering scientific research, is laudable and a significant step in the right direction. 3. The Human Resource Development Ministrys efforts to improve the higher education system and the establishment of five new Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research in the past three years will provide a vital boost to the cause of scientific research in India. Conclusions 1. The need for a strong science eco-system based on a sound research foundation has an integral connect with Indias development as a world power. 2. India needs the best intellect available for government, business, military, or any aspect of society to strive for global excellence.

3. Overall, there is a need for many more integrated, multi-pronged, and multi-institutional interventions to encourage greater participation and strengthening of scientific research inIndia. 4. Our success in ensuring this over the next few years will determine how best we will be able to secure Indias scientific and developmental

Reference material for Ans 2


India and the Central Asian dawn
Three aspects to the emergent Central Asian security are of interest toIndia. Emerging Trends China is venturing out as a provider of regional security and stability in Central Asia Convergence of mutual interests of Russia and China US designs in Central Asia China and its Central Asian Security Interests China is venturing out as a provider of regional security and stability supplementing Russias traditional role Reasons for taking interest Gas Pipeline connecting the energy fields in Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to Xinjiang (1,833-km) Stability in Xinjiang Province Gas Pipeline The opening of the 1,833-km gas pipeline on December 14 connecting the energy fields in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan andKazakhstan to Xinjiang with an annual capacity of 40 billion cubic metres, It resets not only China but also the world communitys terms of engagement with the region. The pipeline becomes part of Chinas 7,000-km long East-West trunk route that feeds its booming centres of production on the eastern seaboard and will provide half of Chinas present gas consumption. Strategic Aspect Such a vital economic lifeline requires security guarantee andChina is going about that task in its usual way by creating win-win situations with its Central Asian partners. China is stepping in with a comprehensive engagement plan based on equity and mutual trust and partnershipthat promises uplift of the Central Asian economies from their postSoviet trough. From Beijings perspective, the security of Central Asia (andAfghanistan) becomes integral to Xinjiangs stability, apart fromChinas overall energy security, which heavily

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depends at present on the extended supply routes via the U.S-controlled Malacca Straits that can prove a choke point. Flush with surplus capital, China, therefore, is showing the will to invest in Central Asias prosperity and stability andthereby create a matrix of mutual dependence. Convergence of mutual interests of Russia and China Two, the West would have ideally liked a clash of interests betweenChina and Russia in Central Asia. But the emerging paradigm is instead pointing in the direction of a convergence of mutual interests. Reasons With the global downturn and the deep economic recessionplus the sharp fall in energy export revenues, Moscow is accepting Chinas investments as the only realistic way out for the development of the vast Russian Far East and Siberia as well as Central Asia. In May, President Dmitry Medvedev openly called for a tandem approach by Moscow and Beijing to The RFE and Siberias development, on the one hand, and The resuscitation of Chinas dilapidated northeastern industrial base, on the other. Russia is pleased that Central Asia has no pressing need for alternative U.S.-backed gas pipelines headed for Europe. Russia and China have a shared interest in keeping the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the U.S. out of Central Asia. Both harbour misgivings about a hidden U.S. agenda of keeping open-ended military presence in Pakistan andAfghanistan and of manipulating Islamist elements asinstruments of geopolitics. Both search for ways to influence a swift Afghanisationof the war that paves the way for the vacation of foreign occupation. US designs in Central Asia Never before has the U.S. Central Asia policy been framed in such priority terms. U.S. attempt to draw the Central Asian states into the AfPak is indeed apparent. The region is at the fulcrum of key U.S. security, economic, and political interests. The Obama administration has begun to establish high-level mechanisms with each country in Central Asia, featuring a structured annual dialogue to strengthen tiesand build practical cooperation. (Gwadar) It doesnt need much ingenuity to estimate that theU.S. surge on Kandahar, which is projected in terms of the Taliban challenge, can be seen in a broader perspective. Kandahar is the key road connection between the new Pakistani port of Gwadar and Afghanistan and, beyondthat, all Central Asia, Europe, and much of the Middle East. Pakistan began the development of Gwadar with aid from China and has now engaged Singapore for the second phase of work. On Gwadar, the interests of the U.S, Afghanistan, andPakistan are aligned

1. With Kandahar now in its eye, the U.S. should plan to build on future success there by making the opening to Gwadar a high priority . 2. Pentagon officials estimate the cost of upgrading this connection at about $1 billion. 3. Obviously, any U.S. contingency plan would need to overcomethe regional powers more specific interests and competitive inclinations that obstruct the U.S. grand design. Lessons for India 1. Clearly, these new templates in regional security(ie three assertions) underscore that Indias normalisation with Chinaincreasingly assumes a regional dimension. This needs to be seriously factored in as the two countries sit down for the next phase of relations. 2. As the distinguished former Indian diplomat and respected Chinascholar, Ambassador C.V. Ranganathan, put it recently, Our shared neighbourhood should come on the agenda of serious discussions extending to concentric circles of expanding the dialogue to include all the primary parties affected by the situation in the AfPak region. Stereotyped thinking should not impede new pathways from being opened in strengthening regional security.

Reference material for Ans 3


Greece Economic Crisis and Lessons for India
1. The crisis first erupted in late 2009, when the incoming socialist government revealed that its predecessor had understated the countrys fiscal deficit. 2. Although it has not been particularly remarked upon, there seems to have been a basic failure of both public and external debt management, one that also seems to have caught the ratings agencies unawares. As a member of the euro area, Greece apparently believed that it was immune from this risk. Probably this view was shared by the ratings agencies also, which continued to classify the countrys debt as investment grade not long before declaring it as junk. 3. Greece suffered the misfortune of needing to roll over large amounts of its sovereign debt at a time when the private markets closed down for it. This is the phenomenon of the so-called sudden stopwhich has been extensively analysed for emergingmarkets. Evaluation of Steps Taken Criticism 1. There has been considerable criticism of the burden-sharing betweenthe official and the private sector envisaged in the programme.

Banks holding Greek debt are not being asked to suffer write-downs; Indeed, Greece is expected to emerge from its three-year programme with the IMF with an even higher ratio of public debt to GDP. 2. There is criticism that the fiscal adjustment being imposed onGreece condemns it to unsustainable economic stagnation, and is merely postponing an unavoidable restructuring of its sovereign debt. 3. There is also criticism of the asymmetry of the adjustment being imposed on Greece, particularly by Germany which is unable or unwilling to alter a growth model that depends on its running substantial export surpluses. Counter Arguments Many of these critiques, however, lack conviction. As has been frequently pointed out, (case of sovereign debt in other countries ) 1. Japan has systematically sustained much higher sovereign debt levels than Greece, with a decade of slow growth. Yet it has not (yet) suffered a sovereign debt crisis. 2. Both Belgium and Italy, which are also countries with chronically high stocks of sovereign debt, too have managed to soldier on for decades. 3. More recently, in response to the global financial crisis, and still within the eurozone, Ireland has voluntarily committed itself to a severe fiscal adjustment with consequent implications for its growth prospects. It was on the way to regaining credibility and being rewarded by the financial markets before it was hit by the contagion spreading from Greece. 4. Outside the eurozone, Latvia chose to impose a punitive deflation upon itself in order to avoid breaking its link with the euro. Points to Remember 1. One needs to remind oneself that the essence of the Bretton Woods arrangements that served the world economy so well in the two decades after the Second World War, was to maintain agreed par values (exchange rates) as far as possible, as an anchor of both domestic and international monetary stability. There is no ideal nominal exchange rate regime. 2. One important reason for Greeces travails is the conviction in the financial markets that its political system does not have the same capacity as Ireland to force through the necessary economic adjustment. Lessons for India The lessons for India of this Greek drama are more prosaic, but nonetheless important. Out of long experience, India has developed multiple instruments and defences to guard against these debt management risks of particular importance given its relatively high stock of public debt. (External debt remains manageable in aggregate, although maturity management requires continued vigilance). These measures include 1. Restricting sovereign market borrowing to rupee instruments; 2. Capping the access of foreign institutional investors to the local debt market;

3. Imposing heavy portfolio requirements on a broad range of financial institutions (banks, provident funds) to ensure a market for government debt; 4. Restrictions on amount and maturity of overseas borrowings by corporate entities and financial institutions via the regulations covering external commercial borrowing (ECB); 5. Regulation of outward capital movements; and 6. Finally the accumulation of a large stock of foreign exchange reserves. Lesson learnt 1. The Greek crisis serves as a salutary reminder of why these controls were instituted and the care that is needed as we exit from them as part of financial liberalisation. 2. It is fervently to be hoped that this body of experience transfersintact when debt management moves from the Reserve Bank ofIndia (RBI) to the Ministry of Finance. A second lesson is the importance of avoiding default. 1. India gained huge credibility in the markets in 1991 when it went to the extreme step of pledging its gold reserves rather than call a moratorium on its debt service. 2. Indias aversion to inflation and its relatively high domestic interest rates have equally meant that domestic holders of government debt have also not been dispossessed. 3. As Ken Rogoff of Harvard has noted (based on extensive research on sovereign defaults jointly with Carmen Reinhart of the University of Maryland), it can take up to a century to establish confidence and credit as a sovereign borrower. Accordingly, I find the calls for debt restructuring glib and short-sighted, even if a serial defaulter likeArgentina appears not to have paid a high price in the short run for its misbehaviour. The third lesson is that, when the chips are down, there seems to be little alternative to austerity. 1. Smarting from the criticisms it encountered at the time of the Asian crisis in 1997, the IMF has attempted to tone down the harshness of its conditionality, particularly on fiscal adjustment. 2. Yet in the Greek case, the judgment seems once again to be that there is no prospect of restoring financial market access without a Draconian fiscal programme. Finally, the crisis does support the caution exercised by the RBI Governor in his April policy statement i.e. the world economy is not out of the woods. External demand is likely to remain sluggish. Concerns about overheating, therefore, remain premature, despite the headline inflation numbers.

Reference material for Ans 4


AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Put agriculture high on agenda
At the world leaders meeting in Copenhagen, it is imperative that governments pledge to adopt up-to-date technologies to boost food production as well as outweigh the negative impacts of climate change.

Alarming signals A clear signal that agriculture urgently needs attention is thatIndia, the second-biggest producer and consumer of rice, may have to import 2 million tonnes to shore up 2010 supplies. 1. If this happens, it would be the first time in over two decades that the country imports the grain. 2. Thanks to a severe drought, the summer-sown crop harvest could fall 18 per cent to 69.45 million tonnes compared with the previous year. 3. The monsoon rainfall this year was 23 per cent below normal(2009) the worst since 1972. Next came floods, which further damaged crops In the same way, recent storms in Philippines destroyed 1.3 million tons of rice and the south-east Asian country may have to buy a record 2.45 million tons before the end of the year. Fresh unrest looms large over developing nations if food costs shoot up Last year food scarcity set off riots from Haiti to Egypt 1. According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO),food prices in 31 poor countries remain stubbornly highand more than one billion people have to go hungry every day. 2. FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf rightly says that the hunger crisis affecting one sixth of all of humanity poses a serious risk for world peace and security. Aggravating Factors Keeping pace with a growing world population is not easy for farmers. As demand for food increases, they struggle to extract more crops from each acre of land. 1. Farmers who practise rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid and dry tropics are especially vulnerable as rains here are erratic, soil fertility is poor and crop pests abound. 2. Despite the high risks, rainfed agriculture is practised on 80 per cent of the worlds farm area, and generates almost 70 per cent of the worlds staple foods. 3. The drylands are home to more than 2 billion people. Of these, 1.5 billion depend on agriculture for a living with670 million comprising the poorest of the poor. 4. Sixty five percent of India is semi-arid. Adding to the conundrum is a progressively warming world. 1. Climate change is expected to expand drylands by 11 per cent and this will increase the frequency and severity of droughts across the globe. Unsurprisingly, crop productivity is expected to decline. A Shift in approach is required Countries in semi-arid tropics need to be in a better position to feed their own people. 1. They need to grow more food for themselves. 2. New policies that push investment into agricultural productivity and increase farmers access to food markets are essential. Reason

1. First, food self-sufficiency would prevent undue pressure on the international grain trade. It would check wild fluctuations in global prices andavert panic buying in an already thin market. 2. Second, do we really want to ignore 670 million poor people who not only earn a living from farming but also have to produce the bulk of food? When agriculture is hit, broader economy-wide impacts may also arise. A case in hand is the Kenyan drought of 1998-1999. 1. According to a recently-launched Met Office report commissioned by Barclays, the Kenyan drought caused an overall loss amounting to 16% of GDP, but around 85% of this was incurred through foregone hydropower and falls in industrial production and only 15% due to agriculture.

Steps to be taken
1. Agriculture and food security should be high on international agenda. The G8 rich countries have promised to increase spending on agricultural development by $20 billion over the next three years. While this is commendable, theamount is still woefully less than the $44 billion that FAO estimates will be needed each year to end malnutrition. Also, rich countries have to match their words with action. 2. Developing countries also need to get their house in order. A paradigm shift from instating makeshift measures duringdroughts and floods to longterm agricultural solutions needs to come about. Governments need to increase spend on agri-science research and rural infrastructure including roads. Our farmers need better facilities to make them less dependent on erratic rains. To be exact they need superior training, technology and marketing opportunities. These will make farming a profitable enterprise for our smallholder farmers. 3. Farming systems resilient to shocks, buffering crucial resources like water and nutrients and adapting crops to warmer temperatures and new pest patterns must be further developed.

Changing crop varieties and efficient irrigation can indeed help mitigate risk in the agriculture sector. 4. Innovations in crop, soil and water management that farmers could quickly deploy in these times of crises. For example, we can help farmers produce more food with less water. Also, ICRISAT-developed pearl millet hybrids can produce seeds even under very hot temperatures and improved sorghum lines are capable of giving good yieldseven in harsh conditions. In the nutrient-starved soils of sub-Saharan Africa, ICRISAT helps increase agricultural productivity with fertilizer microdosing,

1. This ensures that the right quantity of scarce fertilizer is given to the crop at the right time. 5. Yet another powerful tool is the integrated watershed management: building microirrigation structures advantageously located in the trail of runoff rainwater that would otherwise have just gone down the drain. This advanced watershed system, a model of which ICRISAT set up in Kothapally village of Ranga Reddy district in Andhra Pradesh, uses modern science tools, including GIS, satellite data and remote sensing for maximum efficiency. Advanced watershed systems combine training farmers about high-yield seed varieties, different cropping patterns, and other skills including manufacturing green manurewould be essentially required to mitigate the crisis. 6. Agri-entrepreneurs need to be encouraged by helping them tap into a pool of commercial technologies. This would in turn help farmers access innovative and improved farming systems through small and micro enterprises. Policies could help boost local agricultural production by speeding up irrigation investments, and subsidising farm implements and high-yield seeds. At state-sponsored workshops farmers can learn how best to protect crops during droughts. Also, improve the linkages between farmers and markets. 7. To tide over the agrarian crisis, smallholder farmers need to be part of the solution. Access to technology, markets and financial funding will help them not only produce more food but also get profitable returns.

Reference material for Ans 5


Taking stock of Copenhagen
It is evident that the Copenhagen climate summit has failed to produce an equitable and viable plan to combat global warmingthat responds to both the scientific and moral imperative. But without clarifying the import of Copenhagen in a careful evaluation, taking note of both the process and substantive aspects of what transpired at the summit, one would have little purchase on a future strategy and course of action. Valuable Outcomes Nevertheless one of Copenhagens most valuable outcomes has been the guarantee of the continuity of UNFCCC negotiations, which will now continue at least for another year, despite theCopenhagen Accord. The summit plenary also mandated that these extended negotiations would be based on the negotiating texts as they stood prior to the introduction of the accord. The developing countries have thus managed to ensure thatthe primary agenda of the developed countries in the run-up toCopenhagen, that sought to dilute or erase the

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principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities has been pushed back in some measure. The attempts to set aside or replace the Kyoto Protocol and alter significantly the terms of the UNFCCC have not succeeded at the formal level, though the Copenhagen Accord itself is likely to be used for fresh attempts in this direction. The most significant concessions by the developing countries though are in the substance of the Copenhagen Accord. Developed nations are only expected to voluntarily declaretheir emission reduction commitments by 31 January, 2010. It remains to be seen whether these nations will honour their pre-Copenhagen pledges as is expected. The summit proceedings have also made it clear that the pre-Copenhagen emission reduction pledges of the developed nations fall well short of what climate science demands. The accord also devotes disproportionately greater attention to the mitigation actions of developing nations, responding to theUS obsession with `transparency in their reporting and verification. All developing nations too have to declare the mitigation actions they will undertake, with the pre-Copenhagen commitments of the BASIC four likely to be declared by the same cut-off date(already declared). The developing countries position that their voluntary mitigation actions, which are not financially assisted, will bereported only through periodic national communicationsand will be reviewed only domestically has been partially preserved. However, the developing countries have conceded that all their mitigation action will be subject to ``international consultations and analysis under clearly defined guidelines that will ensure that national sovereignty is respected. The ambiguity in this formulation, that postponesthe question of defining the guidelines to the future, is of a piece with the number of other ambiguities that plague the accord. Areas of Concern Undoubtedly the success of the United States in forcing theCopenhagen Accord on to the agenda, with the active collusion of several developed countries, constitutes a serious threat to equitable and transparent global environmental governance under United Nations auspices. Following the personal intervention of President Obamawith select leaders, the drafting of the accord, drawn up in a series of closed-door meetings with select participants setting aside the outcomes of earlier negotiations,completely ignored the norms of equality of all nations and transparency that are at the core of the U.N. process. It was the unanticipated but firm opposition of a few developing countries that ensured that the accord remained an agreement only between those nations that chose to declare their adherence to it, and was merely taken note of under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

2. Despite the strident criticism of sections of climate change activists, it is clear that the BASIC Four (China, India, Braziland South Africa) had little room for manoeuvre atCopenhagen. In retrospect the only way they could have evaded high-level political negotiations, would have been to reject at the outset itself the ``leader-driven process promoted by the Danish Prime Minister on behalf of the United States. But faced with the stalemate in climate negotiations, and unwilling to risk being held responsible for pre-determining the summits failure, the four major developing nations, to varying degrees, were clearly willing to explore the Danish proposals. 1. India went the farthest with its acquiescence in the statement on climate change from the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting that explicitly welcomed the leaderdriven process. 2. At the same time, wary of the demands of the developed nations, all the four major developing nations jointly announced their main negotiating positions. 3. Eventually at Copenhagen, faced with the intransigence of theUnited States that none of the developed nations were able to mediate, the BASIC Four chose to avoid a summit failure, with its not easily calculable and potentially costly consequences. In a positive reading, the strategy of the BASIC Four appears to have provided a temporary reprieve from the danger of a total breakdown of negotiations. They have demonstrated that they recognise their special (though differentiated) responsibilities while deflecting potential criticism of standing in the way of drawing the United States into global climate action. It is unlikely though that they will have the luxury of a compromise of this nature in the future. 4. The summit also exposed the weakness inherent in the developing nations strategy of an undifferentiated unity that so far has not, in any formal way, distinguished between the major developing nations and the rest of the G-77 in climate negotiations. The U.S. Secretary of State Hilary Clintons threat that the U.S. offer of climate finance for the poorest nations would expire by the end of the summit if China did not offer greater transparency in its mitigation efforts showed that that this unity could be turned against thedeveloping nations themselves. The text of the accord demonstrates that the U.S.successfully used justified concerns regarding the emissions of the major developing economies to impose mitigation demands on the entire developing world. The protection of the most vulnerable nations at the frontline of climate change while guaranteeing the development needs of more than half the worlds population cannot be ensured without a more concrete differentiation among Third World nations, while continuing to insist that the developed nations take thelead in mitigation action. Future Dilemma

1. Looking beyond Copenhagen, one can anticipate an eventhornier path for future negotiations. Despite its lack of official status, the Copenhagen Accord will undoubtedly interfere with official UNFCCC negotiations for a legally binding agreement. Resolving this issue will not be easy since at its heart is the key dilemma of dealing with the United States on climate change. 1. Unfortunately for the world, its foremost superpower is trapped domestically in a climate discourse that is short-sighted and parochial and yet seeks to impose this discourse on the entire globe. 2. Engaging the United States for global climate action without allowing it to run away with the global climate agenda is a question that the nations of the world have yet to address adequately. 2. One possibility to partially resolve this dilemma is to look fornew interlocutors on either side with better perspectives who could set the terms of the climate debate. A closer climate dialogue between the European Union, currently smarting from being sidelined in the U.S. end-run at Copenhagen, and the major developing economiescould have much to offer in this regard. 1. But such dialogues need a willingness to rise above current political prejudices and linkagesand a greater expenditure of political capital on the climate question going well beyond thetechnical skirmishes and semantic battles of the global negotiating table.

Reference material for Ans 6


NOTE ON GRAIN SECURITY & DHAANYA RAKHSAMISSION
ISSUE There is a major infrastructure deficit affecting stable farm incomes, price stability and grain security the lack of grain storage in terms of quality and quantity. In a country where the lowest income quintiles of population suffer malnutrition, this deficit we cannot afford. STEPS TAKEN The warehousing system, developed under the public sector(FCI, CWC, and SWCs) and some private sector investment (for example, Adani Grain Logistics, under public guarantees, stores grain procured under minimum support priceoperations and issues it through the public distribution system, using a huge network of shipping, rail and road logistics. In 2000, a High-Powered government committee estimatedthat An additional 12.7 million tonnes of warehousing were required in view of the higher quantum of procurement, owing to high overall productivity and increasing demand in the PDS.

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The estimated investment was about Rs 6000 crore. 2. Warehousing being a commercially feasible operation, The consensus was in favour of facilitating private sector investment, as in airports and highways, on a cost-plus basis. The operational costs of FCI's own warehousingwere considered prohibitive for higher levels of investment. PROBLEM REMAINS Although a series of incentives, such as relaxed FDI norms,income-tax waivers, relaxation in import of technology andviability gap funding, have been offered over the last 10 years,only a fraction of the target has fructified. The National Policy on storage, handling and transportpromised 20-year guarantees on private sector investment, but the schemes formulated by the Food Department on five-, and now, seven-year, guarantees have led to poor response, as the return on investment is restricted. Meanwhile, avoidable storage losses of procured grains continue. 1. Though the FCI estimates a modest 0.4 per cent as storage and 0.2 per cent as transport losses, studies show up to 10 per cent losses between harvest and consumption. 2. The National Institute of Grain Management, Hapur, computed 4.75 per cent losses of wheat in the procurement mandis. The quality of our existing storage infrastructure has also stagnated in terms of technology. 1. The bag storage system involves labour-intensive, time-consuming and qualitycompromising transport methods. 2. Our bag-stocked silos do not have temperature control, or scientifically monitored fumigation. 3. Rodent control looks fine on paper, but the media does bring out stories where rodents emerge as beneficiaries of the procurement system. While our Asian neighbours(Chinese Experience) have marched forward with scientific management of grain storage, our technology has not keep pace. 1. Managerial efficiency, innovative climate control technology, rodent control and logistics intelligence have not been adopted for efficiency gains. CHINESE EXPERIENCE (Just for reading sake ) First, China has moved in favour of public sector-facilitated operations in all the phases of farmgate to home-gate grain movement. 1. It procures and stores in the range of 150-200 million tonnes, but grain selectively bought from high productivity provinces. State prices are only available to provinces which excel in productivity and not as a rule. 1. Due to high demand on account of double-digit growth, Chinese output of 0.52 billion tonnes of wheat and rice and continues to be supplemented by import arrangements. Procured grain is cleaned, packed, and marketed by about 3000 private' sector companies, most of which have state support or party guidance, at market rates.

1. Price control exists at procurement and wholesale points. The Chinese storage capacity has witnessed a quantum jumpunder the SGA, thanks to the state-of-the art, multi-modal (ship-to-track, rail, barge and ship-to-ship), automated grain transmission capable of handling 2,000 tonnes per hour. 1. The highly mechanised provincial granary inGuangzhou, with temperature-controlled and fumigated 100,000-tonne storage, is proof of China's intensive infrastructure upgradations, funded by high taxes, World Bank assistance and trade surplus. The investment ranges from farm-based scientific storage instruction to state-of-the-art standardisation labs in Beijing. 1. China has positioned a 176,000 strong extension workforce in its grain-producing areas to educate farmers on storage practices. 2. Granaries are effectively managed at near full capacity and storage costs are built into cost of grain at the consumers' end. LESSONS FOR INDIA (For Mains , also can be used as note on Dhaanya Raksha Mission) The Chinese experience shows that a dedicated, single-window approach is inevitable in grain storage, as in highways or airport development. It is time we learnt from these impressive achievements and emulated the same. The Food Department must develop a blueprint for augmenting scientific storage with the following pillars. 1. First, a dedicated special purpose vehicle (SPV) is to be floated with private sector participation, project financing capability and marketing skill. 2. All the private sector guarantee schemes have to berepackaged upon consultation with industry and storage policy amended to recognise the fact that built storage has to have some redundancy and this does not become later an object of attack from our intricate audit system. Storage capacity has a lag phase before full utilisation and this has to be factored in as an additional cost. 1. The SPV can showcase international and national investment opportunities and facilitate such projects. It has to prepare an upgradation plan for existing warehousingwith state-of-the-art gadgetry. 1. It should develop a globally competitive grain qualityand standards organisation in the public sphere, if possible by building on the existing infrastructure. Last but not least, it has to develop quality grain storage professionals encompassing a range of skills in IT, agriculture, engineering and management. It is hoped that this new initiative, proposed to be called Dhaanya Raksha Mission', will be a success in the coming years. We simply cannot afford to wait to act on this front.

GS Test Series Answers Module-2


Reference for Answer material 1

Note on Indias Foreign Policy


1. India is following multi vector approach towards NATO, Russia and China India and China can play a major role ensuring the stability in the Central Asia, and in the safe routing of the IPI(Iran Pakistan India) pipelines and its extension to China providing energy security to the South East Asian region. 2. India has had a history of not so smooth relations with China. The emergence of a new world order largely based on an Asian resurgence calls for greater interaction between the two new emerging superpowers .Thus New Delhi has started tenaciously building content into a multidimensional relationship with Beijing. 3. The trade value of India China relations has risen to 5.46 billion. It has risen by a whopping 61% in the last financial year of 2009 itself. 70,000 Chinese tourists visited India last year, a 14 per cent rise year on year. And 460,000 Indian tourists came to China during the same period. It has seen a 48 per cent jump in the last year itself. China has been instrumental in persuading India into sigining a consensus for developing the pan Asian highway. 1. The $44 billion Asian Highway network weaves through 32 countries, connects Asia with Europe, and promises to boost regional economies by facilitating trade and tourism through its linkage of Asian seaports, airports and major tourist destinations. 2. It also fleshes out dreams of a Pan-Asian community with a common socio-political-economic identity analogous to the European Union Now China is looking for a lead role in Indias lucrative infrastructure sector, business in building highways, ports etc .

4. India must redefine non-alignment without fuss, which in turn has a multiplier effect on its foreign policy options Thus, India makes optimal use of its geography, acting as a bridge between new south(IBSA) nations and the north and a negotiator between the developed and under developed worlds As one of the worlds largest energy pipeline passes from Iran Pakistan to China and rest of South Asia the role of India will be greatly enhanced in providing for a smooth routing of the pipeline. It will thus play a major role in giving stability to the energy needs of the South East Asian nations. The expectation in India is that the China-India narrative will transform once India has developed the matrix. 5. India must heavily invest its diplomatic energies in strengthening ties with troublesome neighbors (Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh etc) to recapture its Panchsheel identity, and to explore its SAARC heritage. It shows how a good foreign policy needs to be an extension of national policies. India must follow zero-problem policies towards its neighbours; emulating Turkeys extraordinary success story while dealing with its neighbours. 1. The Kashmir problem continues to elude solution. But India must pushed ahead with the normalization process in Kashmir. 2. The Maoist insurgency has been a festering wound. Leadership must show extraordinary statesmanship to break stereotyped thinking and embark on a political solution. 3. Meanwhile, India must build up strong economic and political ties with Afghanistan, which is used to provide sanctuaries to the terrorist outfits. 4. In effect, the policymakers in Delhi must be determined to make friends of Indias troublesome neighbours through a mixture of political and economic initiatives aimed at making them stakeholders in regional stability.

6. India must not emphasize on uniploar predicament and strive to be a balancer. The recent stand taken by India in the COP summit while standing for the underdeveloped nations was also open with negotiations with the developed nations in finding a solution to the vexed climate issue. India faces a volatile external environment. But it factored in the fact that the best protection from the collateral damage of the U.S. policies in the AfPak region would be by forging regional partnerships. The capacity to move creatively forward into the future by recapturing an understanding of and pride in the achievements of the past, must lie at the core of the Indian experience.

Reference for Answer 2 Note on Enviormental Jurisprudence / the Polluter Pays and Precautionary
Principle Constitutional Provisions related to Environment 1. (FR) One of the vital guarantees in our Constitution is the protection of the Right to Life enshrined in Article 21. Our Supreme Court by creative interpretation (i.e. inferred rights) ruled that the expression life does not connote merely physical existence but embraces the right to live with human dignity and all that goes along with it, namely, the bare necessaries of life such as adequate nutrition, clothing and shelter over the head. Thereafter it further expanded the concept of the right to live with human dignity to encompass within its ambit, the protection and preservation of environment, ecological balance free from pollution of air and water. 2. Our Constitution evinces great concern for environment.

Article 48-A of the Directive Principle mandates that the state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment. One of the fundamental duties prescribed in Article 51-A is, inter alia, to protect and improve the natural environment. Supreme Court Judgments 1. In its landmark judgment in the Oleum Gas Leak case, the Supreme Court laid down certain important principles. A five-judge bench unanimously ruled that An enterprise which is engaged in a hazardous or inherently dangerous industry owes an absolute and non-delegable duty to the community to ensure that no harm results to anyone on account of hazardous or inherently dangerous nature of the activity which it has undertaken. It should be no answer to the enterprise to say that it had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part. The enterprise is strictly and absolutely liable to compensate all those who are affected by the accident (whether consciously or unconsciously) and such liability is not subject to any of the exceptions. 2. In 1996 in the case of Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action Justice Jeevan Reddy speaking for the court pointed out that The rule of absolute liability is premised on the very nature of the activity carried on and it is the enterprise carrying on the hazardous or inherently dangerous activity alone has the resource to discover and guard against hazards or dangers. The court further introduced the Polluter Pays Principle, which according to it requires that the financial costs of preventing or remedying damage caused by pollution should lie with the undertakings that cause the pollution. 1. Under this principle, it is not the role of government to meet the costs involved in either prevention of such damage, or in

carrying out remedial action, because the effect of this would be to shift the financial burden of the pollution incident to the taxpayer. 2. The responsibility for repairing the damage is that of the offending industry. 3. It is noteworthy that the Polluter Pays Principle has been incorporated into the European Community Treaty as part of the new articles on environment that were introduced by the Single European Act of 1986. 3. In its subsequent judgment in Vellore Citizens Forum, Justice Kuldip Singh speaking for the court held that the Precautionary Principle and the Polluter Pays Principle are essential features of Sustainable Development. This is a milestone judgment in our environmental jurisprudence. The court reaffirmed the Polluter Pays Principle laid down in its previous judgments to mean that the absolute liability for harm to the environment extends not only to compensate the victims of pollution but also the cost of restoring the environmental degradation. 1. Remediation of the damaged environment is part of the process of Sustainable Development and as such the polluter is liable to pay the cost to the individual sufferers as well as the cost of reversing the damaged ecology. 2. The seminal significance of this judgment lies in the courts holding that the Precautionary Principle and the Polluter Pays Principle are part of the environmental law of the country and the courts pointed reference to Articles 21, 47, 48-A, and 51-A (g) of the Constitution in this connection. Points to remember 1. The thrust of these Supreme Court judgments is for compensating and protecting the victims of accidents as part of their fundamental right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution. 2. The Polluter Pays Principle that has been embedded in our jurisprudence, the liability and responsibility for compensating the victims of accident and

remedying the environmental damage caused is that of the offending industry alone. No part of the liability can be limited nor passed on to the government.

Reference for Answer 3 Reservation-Test of Constitutionality


1. Is it possible give special reservations to a community as well as to economically weaker sections in the unreserved category ? 2. Will this step stand the test of constitutionality in the light of Justice Jeevan Reddys majority opinion in the landmark Indra Sawhney case (Supreme Court, 1992)? Understanding Social Justice There are three distinct (if interrelated) goals of social justice redistribution, recognition and participation.

1. Redistribution emphasises on material equality, or at least a minimum degree of material wealth that should be accessible to all citizens. The classic example of redistributive justice is progressive taxation. Increasing access to wealth-generating skills to vulnerable sections and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme are other examples of redistributive justice. 2. Recognition, on the other hand, mainly concerns itself with cultural justice. The constitutional guarantee of cultural autonomy to linguistic and religious minorities under Articles 29 and 30 fosters respect for cultural diversity. 3. Participatory justice requires that important public institutions should have adequate (though not proportionate) representation of all social groups. Reservations in legislatures and public bureaucracies seek this kind of justice.

Although these three paradigms are not watertight, identifying the chief objective is useful to determine the content and limits of the affirmative action measure in question. Article 16 and Social Justice 1. The constitution deals with equality as a general principle under Articles 14 and 15; and with equality of opportunity in public employment under Article 16. 2. In Sawhney, the majority emphasised the participatory dimension of Article 16 by holding that its primary goal was to enable them to share the state power. (paragraph 85) 3. Admittedly, reservations redistributive implications. in public employment have incidental

Yet, the separate constitutional treatment of public employment along with its explicit mention of adequate representation makes it clear that the central purpose of Article 16 is to ensure participatory justice. Further Elaboration 1. Discussion on Article 16(1) 2. Discussion on Article 16(4) 3. Sawhney case ruling on 50% limit on reservation Validity of Reservation for Economically weaker section

Article 16(1) Article 16(1) guarantees equality of opportunity in public employment to all citizens.

1. It is now clichd to say that this is a rule of substantive rather than formal equality, and therefore allows the state to take affirmative action to ensure equality of opportunity for a group which will not be able to access it otherwise. Yet, the promise of equality is for everyone affirmative action measures must strike a balance where they encourage participation in public employment of unrepresented groups without seriously undermining the access of those groups who are already wellrepresented. Equality of opportunity is a mandate for affirmative action and at the same time a determination of its limits. 2. Article 16(1) may still be used for affirmative action in favour of those categories of people which are either not backward or do not exhibit characteristics of a cohesive class like women or disabled persons. 3. These horizontal reservations cut across the mutually-exclusive vertical reservations for BCs so, if a disabled person also belongs to a backward class, she would count towards the BC quota as well as the disability quota. Laws Under Scanner Decision taken by Rajasthan government to give reservation to Gujjar community under ST category 1. This demand was rejected by Justice Jas Raj Chopra Committee because they did not satisfy the criteria required to be so qualified. 2. With this option not available any more, the Rajasthan government demanded a constitutional amendment to allow special provisions for Gujjars. 3. The Centre (rightly) rejected this demand. However, in its (non-committal) advice to the Rajasthan government, it cited the Maharashtra State Public Services Act, 2001 to suggest that Rajasthan may create a special category similar to nomadic and denotified tribes under Article 16(1) distinct from SCs, STs and OBCs if making such a provision was necessary in public interest.

While the special facts that will determine the constitutionality of the Maharashtra Act are not being considered here, the situation in Rajasthan is clear. Article 16(4) Article 16(4) allows reservations in appointments in favour of any backward class (BC) which is not adequately represented in public employment. 1. BCs (four classification)include Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and other backward classes (OBCs). 2. Article 16(4) is a particular instance of the manner in which the state can pursue equality of opportunity guaranteed under Article 16(1). 3. It was clearly held by the majority of the Supreme Court in Sawhney that Article 16(4) is exhaustive of any reservations made in favour of a BC (paragraph 57). Decision under scanner 1. The second paragraph of the compromise agreement between Rajasthan government and Gujjar leaders says that for the advancement of the socially and educationally extremely backward Gujjars, Gadia Luhars, Banjaras, and Raikas castes, 2. A distinct category shall be constituted and granted 5 per cent reservation, without affecting the current percentages of reservations available to SCs, STs and OBCs. Corrections 1. (imp)The Sawhney ruling that Article 16(4) is exhaustive of reservations for BCs will become meaningless if a government gives a backward class a new nomenclature to deem it to be non-backward and thereby extends special reservation under Article 16(1). 2. An alternative will be sub-categorisation of the most backward classes within the OBCs so that the former do not have to compete with the relatively more advanced of the remaining OBCs.

Sub-categorisation has been upheld by the Supreme Court in Sawhney (paragraph 92A). If the State could show that Gujjars are indeed the most backward amongst OBCs, this alternative is eminently sensible and constitutional.(Detailed discussion on sub-categorization in the article given below ) Indra Sawhney case (Supreme Court ruling),

Why 50 per cent? In Sawhney, the Supreme Court held that vertical reservations should not ordinarily exceed 50 per cent (paragraph 94A). 1. This rough limit was identified keeping in mind the fact that equality of opportunity is for every citizen, including those who do not belong to a backward class. 2. The principle is reflected in Dr. Ambedkars warning against reservation of such magnitude that the rule regarding equality of opportunity has been destroyed. (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol VII, p 700-3) Laws Under Scanner 1. Even the Maharashtra Act cited above limits the quantum of all vertical reservations to 52 per cent. 2. A Tamil Nadu law which provides 69 per cent vertical reservations is currently under review by the Supreme Court. Unless the Court overrules Sawhney, or finds exceptional circumstances, this is likely to be held unconstitutional. Validity of Reservation for Economically weaker section Sawhney held that under Article 16(4), an OBC must satisfy three criteria (1) Its members must have common traits which distinguish them from others;

(2) It must primarily be socially backward (educational and economical backwardness may be used only as a tool to determine social backwardness); and, It is inadequately represented in public employment. (paragraphs 88A, 89) (3) The Mandal judgment [Indra Sawhney] is very clear that Article16(4) is exhaustive of reservation for Backward Classes. Nomadic communities/tribes and Vimukata Jatis/tribes are also part of the concept of SEBCs. The Supreme Courts reference to Article16 (4) as not exhaustive of the concept of reservation only permits reservation under Article 16(1) for those who cannot come under the categories of S.C., S.T. or B.C. 1. The Supreme Court has distinguished this type of reservation as horizontal while reservation for S.C., S.T. and B.C. is described as vertical. 2. It is only for the latter(i.e. for vertical) that the Supreme Courts ceiling of 50 per cent applies. (4) The majority was clear that backwardness cannot be determined exclusively with reference to economic criteria (paragraph 91). A particular clause of the Office Memorandum issued by the Rao government in September 1991 which reserved 10 per cent of the posts in favour of other economically backward sections not covered by any of the existing schemes of reservations was struck down by the Court. This ruling makes sense if one agrees that the primary purpose of Article 16 is to ensure participatory justice and not redistribution. Decision under scanner The constitutional validity of 14 per cent quota for economically backward classes announced by the Rajasthan government is therefore doubtful.

Issue of sub-categorisation

Developments on this issue 1. In Karnataka, the Nagan Gowda Committee [1960] specifically mentioned that it was aware that among the backward communities, some were more backward than others. If all these were grouped together, the more backward communities would be adversely affected. The committee came to the conclusion that the list of B.Cs should be divided into backward and more backward communities. This was the first post-Independence committee in Karnataka and it recommended sub-categorisation of the B.Cs to ensure equality among the backward classes. 1. Karnataka now has five sub-categories within its B.C. list. Andhra Pradesh and Kerala have five and six subcategories, respectively, within their B.C. lists. 2. This issue came up before the Mandal Commission. One of the members, the late L.R. Naik, proposed that the list of Backward Classes recommended by the commission should be in two parts one, backward classes and the other, depressed backward classes. The Chairman and the other members, while appreciating Naiks feelings, and without disagreeing with him, said that the Supreme Court judgment in the Balaji case [Balaji vs State of Mysore, 1963] prohibited such classification. 3. In the Balaji case, the Supreme Court was perhaps under the impression that the sub-categorisation recommended by Nagan Gowda was a subterfuge to include as backward some communities that were not really so, and so disapproved of such categorisation. 4. The Supreme Court judgment in the Indra Sawhney case [1992] clarified that it was not unconstitutional to sub-categorise B.Cs on the basis of different levels and degrees of backwardness.

Reference material for Answer 4


Critical assessment of inclusiveness
Whether inclusiveness is possible through market Economy Arguments 1. (negative aspect )First and foremost the economy is an open market economy which operates, as Marx famously wrote ,functions essentially on ever more concentration of capital in fewer and fewer hands. There is a need within the market economy to reduce real wages to withstand competition and this leads to the ever more marginalisation of labour. Therefore the critique of market economy as leading to concentration of capital on one hand and systematically excluding the labour force from participating in the economy is well known. 2. (positive aspect) There is however a second aspect to the market economy. This is that as workers participate in the manufacturing, not in agriculture or primary occupations, they are also socialised to come together ever more and therefore market economy that depends on manufactures and factory production socialises labour. Reality Check 1. First, our growth process is not taking place in manufacture but in the service sector. Therefore the participation of manufacturing and agricultural sectors is marginal. The economy operates by excluding vast majority of people as they do not become factory workers nor are modern avenues available. Given the literacy and education rates, wider participation in the service sector-led growth is less.

2. Secondly even in the service sector, the process of socialisation of labour, coming together, acquiring the consciousness of being labourers and forming associations based on that identity do not happen. Therefore the positive dimension of market economy is not possible either. Corporate work cultures in service sectors do not encourage or equip the workers with the consciousness of being part of a common labour force. One can guess: the faster the Indian economy grows, the more exclusionary it becomes. 1. Vast agriculture sector lumbers on the margins as planners and commentators hope and pray for better rains, and less floods, to keep it going and achieving four percent growth target. Is Society becoming inclusive Argument There might be some positive indicators on this aspect modern economy and enhanced urbanisation are supposed to unpack caste and religious identities and create a more secular society. Some social change indeed has come about at least in certain States in India where the rules of social existence in terms of caste prejudices, rituals and more than most the joint family have declined. Counter Argument For specifically citizens of Indian society the question is how much have they become socially inclusive? 1. Have the caste rules changed in inter-marriage, dining and inter-mingling. This can hardly be said even in urban, metropolitan areas. Interestingly, take the example of matrimonial websites: they began saying simply marry and now have ended up saying marry within your community! So much for the urban India; in the vast spans of rural India caste rules the roost.

2. It is wishful thinking that by opening up economy and increasing its economic pace we increase the pace of social change towards some variety of modernity, however defined. Political inclusiveness Arguments 1. Yogendra Yadav and his team from the CSDS (Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi) have been arguing for some time that there has been an incontrovertible increase in the participation of subaltern people in the electoral and democratic processes across the country. The voting rates are increasing, as they say. 2. The present ordinance of the Union government that there should be fifty per cent mandatory reservation for women in local bodies may strengthen the case that we are becoming, in some sense, an inclusive democracy. 3. We can argue that the political enfranchisement of the common person is increasing. Reality Check 1. The point of this article is that, political enfranchisement is taking place in India without sufficient economic enfranchisement. Whether this political enfranchisement results in an inclusive democracy or not, at different levels of the polity, is to be seen. 1. Certainly 50 per cent reservation for women in the Parliament remains elusive. 2. What appears to be happening to the question of inclusiveness is that with the widespread visual and print media, along with increasing awareness of the democratic politics, certain kind of political enfranchisement is happening. 3. This is reflecting in the increased protests and political disturbances as well. But this is happening at the same time, and because of, economic disenfranchisement or lack of economic empowerment.

2. This paradox is not limited to India. It is the paradox of capitalism everywhere; even where the identity based and other politico-sociological factors play less role. If governments and those in power politically enfranchise people but economically keep them disenfranchised the results need not be particularly happy ones. A biased and socially and spatially skewed economic enfranchisement brings forth its own critical political enfranchisement that may be unintended. Neither what we are saying is particularly new nor is this paradox limited to India. There are good reasons to believe in a globalised world that the paradox is universal and those claim forth new inclusive mantra may take note of this.

Part 3 of the Test Series will up updated soon. Keep checking blog for further updates.
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