Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

DISCOURS DIRECT/ DISCOURS INDIRECT

Lorsqu'on veut rapporter les paroles de quelqu'un on peut s'y prendre de deux manires : a) entre guillemets He says, Stop it! Il dit : Arrtez a ! She said, I'm hungry. Elle a dit : J'ai faim. b) en incluant ces propos dans une phrase : He's asking you to stop it. Il vous dit d'arrter a. She said she was hungry. Elle a dit qu'elle avait faim. La premire solution (discours direct) est la plus simple et ne demande aucune modification des propos cits. Par contre, lorsqu'on cite indirectement, il faut procder un certain nombre de changements : c'est le discours indirect. La phrase qui contient une citation est une phrase complexe. Elle se dcompose en deux parties : la citation (ou proposition subordonne) est coiffe par une introduction (ou proposition principale) qui permet d'identifier la personne dont on rapporte les propos et de donner quelques informations sur les conditions dans lesquelles elle les a tenus. He protested that I'm asking you if She declared loudly that They admit that We'd like to know when a) Transformations de VOCABULAIRE Les expressions temporelles DIRECT today tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week (month, year) yesterday the day before yesterday last month (week, year) two days ago INDIRECT (on) that day the following/ next day the day after two days after/later the following week the day before, the previous day two days before/ previously the week before, the previous week two days before

les marqueurs de personnes Attention, pensez tous les marqueurs de personnes, en particulier faire le choix entre his/her ou him/her. Remarquez que l'anglais ne procde pas au rejet du marqueur de personne aprs le verbe introductif. What are you doing ?, he asked. Que faites-vous ? demanda-t-il. YOU peut avoir un sens impersonnel (quivalent du on franais). Dans ce cas, il disparat la forme indirecte, le verbe est l'infinitif prcd de TO : How do you switch it on ? She asked me how to switch it on.

Autre transformation : La transposition de THIS en THAT implique aussi un certain loignement par rapport celui qui parle. This du discours direct deviendra ainsi that dans le discours indirect. He said, I can't do this exercise. He said that he couldn't do that exercise. b) Transformations TEMPORELLES Lorsque le verbe qui introduit les propos est au pass, il faut dcaler le temps des verbes de la citation. Il suffit d'ajouter alors un degr de plus dans le pass lorsque c'est possible : He said : I want to go to the hairdresser. He said that he wanted to go to the hairdresser. Mais : I could go to Sicily, he said. Je pourrais aller en Sicile, dit-il. He said he could go to Sicily. Il a dit qu'il pourrait aller en Sicile. Le porteur du temps, le modal could est satur, et doit tre suivi d'un infinitif. could have gone aurait une signification diffrente : aurait pu aller. Attention, si les propos rapports sont toujours vrais maintenant, pas de changement dans la subordonne : She says, I hate driving. She says that she hates driving. She said (this morning) that she hates driving. DISCOURS DIRECT Prsent I hate driving Prtrit Tom went back to the States Present perfect 'I've never liked poetry. Will +verbe They will meet at 8 p.m. Impratif Don't write on the tables ! DISCOURS INDIRECT Prtrit He said that he hated driving. Past perfect (had + participe pass) She said that Tm had gone back to the States. Past perfect She said (that) she had never liked poetry. Would + verbe He said (that) they would meet at 8 p.m. To + verbe She told them not to write on the tables.

Lorsqu'on rapporte des propos juste aprs qu'ils ont t prononcs, il est plus courant d'utiliser le prsent avec -ING pour le verbe introductif : Why are you here ? ] He's asking you why you are here. Le prsent peut renvoyer l'avenir : What time do you leave ? Il faudra alors garder une trace explicite de ce renvoi l'avenir dans la transposition au pass, en utilisant une forme avec -ING : ]They asked me what time I was leaving. Ils m'ont demand quelle heure je partais / partirais. Notez que have got repouss d'un cran dans le pass donne soit had got

(language parl) soit had (language plus soutenu). He said he'd got a new car. / He said he had a new car. c) Transformations gnrales Les oprateurs THAT ou O constituent le lien entre la proposition principale (ou introduction de la citation) et la citation. Dans la langue parle, on emploie plus facilement O TELL et SAY : SAY + quelque chose : He said (that) he was ready. TELL + quelqu'un + quelque chose : He told me (that) he was ready. La construction say to + quelqu'un + quelque chose est rarement employe dans l'introduction, elle s'emploie plutt en fin de phrase : That's what he said to me. AUTRES VERBES INTRODUCTEURS : DIRE QUESTION, ORDRE, DEMANDE, admit : admettre ask : demander CONSEIL answer : rpondre enquire : se renseigner advise : conseiller declare : dclarer want to know : vouloir ask : demander mention : mentionner savoir forbid : interdire wonder : se demander order : ordonner point out : signaler state : affirmer warn : avertir tell : dire / ordonner command : ordonner insist : insister request : demander beg : prier implore : implorer encourage : encourager suggest : suggrer

d) Transformations de L'ORDRE DES MOTS QUESTIONS yes/ no questions (=questions fermes) : oprateur de liaison : IF ou WHETHER ordre des mots : celui d'une phrase affirmative Are you working hard ? she asked. She asked us if we were working hard. do/did disparaissent : Do you want to play ? he asked. He asked (me) if I wanted to play. Mais don't/ didn't restent : Why don't the banks open on Sundays ? she asked. She asked why the banks didn't open on Sunday. WH- questions (= questions ouvertes) oprateur de liaison : mot interrogatif ordre des mots : celui d'une phrase affirmative What are you doing ? he asked. He asked us what we were doing. When will you be free ? He's asking (you) when you will be free. Where is the dog ? He asked where the dog was. ORDRES, DEMANDES ET CONSEILS oprateur de liaison : TO / NOT TO le verbe cit reste l'infinitif

l'ordre des mots est conserv Open your mouth. He ordered me to open my mouth. Don't ask me ! She told me not to ask her. introduits par LET'S Let's go away in August! He suggests going away in August. He suggests (that) we should go away in August. He suggests (that) we go away in August. A la forme ngative, not se place devant le verbe en -ING : He suggests not going away in August. EXCLAMATIONS introduites par HOW ou WHAT La citation est introduite par EXCLAIM ou SAY THAT opre la liaison He exclaimed that it was awful.

DISCOURS DIRECT/ DISCOURS INDIRECT EXERCISES


Exercise 1 : SAY or TELL ? 1. I called him and ......... him I would be glad to see him whenever he wanted. 2. Patrick?she ............., May I come in ? 3. That is our dream,she ............... To ............ you the truth, if he were just working here, that dream would never come true. 4. He ............ that he was going back to New York and that he could wait a week for her answer. 5. What are you ................. ? You mean you dream about getting away ? Well, let's ............it is a dream. So ........... me. Exercise 2 : Complete the sentences with the following verbs. Use the past tense (the preterite) remark enquire want to know suggest confirm ask advise forbid encourage 1. He ................... when the train would arrive. 2. She ................... there was little she could do about it. 3. Her parents were very strict : they ................. her to speak to him. 4. Linda ....................... that we should rent a car for the weekend. 5. She was perplexed and .................... if it would be easy to reach a compromise. 6. They ........................... that they were dead certain they had never seen that man. 7. After reading my application letter carefully she ...................... me to shorten the last paragraph. 8. The teacher ....................... the students to look on the bright side of things and to keep going. 9. We looked a bit lost, so they kindly ......................... what we wanted. Exercise 2 : Change these sentences into reported speech. 1. Do you know I'm getting married ? He asked 2. How often do you go to the museum ? She wanted to know 3. Do you think he'll sign the letter? They asked ... 4. Do I have to go to school this morning? He asked 5. What is she like ? He wondered ... 6. How much do you make ? They wanted to know 7. Why did you kill him? She wondered 8. Where did you get it ? You asked 9. When is he coming ? They asked 10. How old are you ? She wanted to know ... Exercise 3 : Report these orders using a introductory verb in the past tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Take my advice. Don't answer. Call the manager. Don't get worked up Leave me alone. Keep your fingers crossed.

7. Don't panic ! 8. Let's stop beating about the bush. 9. Why don't we go to the concert .? 10. Don't worry, you'll manage. Exercise 4 : Change these sentences into reported speech. 1. I'll go along with that. He said ... 2. I've left my job. Yesterday he told me that 3. You had good reasons to react. They pointed out that 4. If you don't help us, I'll send those letters. He mentioned that 5. I was awarded a scholarship to study at Oxford. He explained that 6. Personally, I won't buy this idea. She declared that 7. I've never liked action-packed movies. She replied that 8. It's bound to happen. You stated that Exercise 4 : Change these speech.Be careful with the prompt sentences into reported given.

WRITING
Rendez compte au discours indirect des prvisions pour l'an 2020 faites durant une mission de tlvision. Choisissez parmi les verbes suivants : say predict foresee know insist state think presume forecast advise believe suppose 1. A new electric car will be put on the market. 2. Global temperature will rise by 3 C in general. 3. A cure will be found for AIDS. 4. An anti-ageing drug will be found. 5. The first tickets to visit a Space Station will go on sale. Make up your own predictions (two). WRITTEN EXPRESSION dialogue

Vous aimerez peut-être aussi