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History of Basketball

Basketball is one of the worlds most unusual sports in that it was invented by a single person, Dr. James Naismith. Naismith was asked by his boss in1891 at a Springfield, Massachusetts college to develop a game that could be played indoors during the cold New England weather. He had two weeks to respond. His solution was to borrow from a number of outdoor games soccer and lacrosse included but adapt their features to an indoor environment. He was even inspired by a childhood precision aiming game. His 13 original rules of basketball, though adapted in the years since, largely define oneof todays most popular games. The game caught on very quickly the first contest was played in the closing days of 1891, and it spread to Europe in the 1930s. But Dr. Naismith did not benefit from it in the same way as a modern inventor of such a popular game might. His fame as basketballs inventor grew more after his death in 1939. Since then basketball has become a true world sport, popular in many more corners of the globe than it was at the icy New England campus where itwas first invented. Few people can claim to have developed an activity that has given people so much pleasure and so inspired human competition as Naismiths invention. Basketball became an Olympic sport at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In 1949 the American National Basketball Association, or NBA, was founded. The NBA is considered the premier basketball-players association in the world. Some of Basketballs greatest names Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, and Larry Bird were on the USA Dream Team that won the Olympics gold medal in 1992. James Naismith devised a set of rules for these early games as follows: The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. A player cannot run with the ball, but instead the player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it. The ball must be held in or between the hands, not any other body parts. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent is permitted. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is scored. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive in these rules means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul of their own). A goal is scored when the ball is thrown from the ground into the basket and stays there. If the ball rests on the edge of the basket and the opponents move the basket, it shall also count as a goal. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. The umpire shall be judge and have the power to disqualify or foul players as required. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between. The side scoring the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners.

Today basketball has grown to become one of the world's most popular sports, all thanks to Dr Naismith. Dr. James Naismith, Inventor of Basketball KU Basketball Program Founder Dr. James Naismith is known worldwide as the inventor of basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born from Naismith's school days in the area where he played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse. The game involved attempting to knock a "duck" off the top of a large rock by tossing another rock at it. Naismith went on to attend McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. After serving as McGill's Athletic Director, James Naismith moved on to the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA in 1891, where the sport of basketball was born. In Springfield, Naismith was faced with the problem of finding a sport that was suitable for play inside during the Massachusetts winter for the students at the School for Christian Workers. Naismith wanted to create a game of skill for the students instead of one that relied solely on strength. He needed a game that could be played indoors in a relatively small space. The first game was played with a soccer ball and two peach baskets used as goals. Naismith joined the University of Kansas faculty in 1898, teaching physical education and being a chaplain. James Naismith devised a set of thirteen rules of basketball: 1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. 2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist. 3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed. 4. The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it. 5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed. 6. A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and 4 and such as described in Rule 5.

7. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul). 8. Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket, it shall count as a goal. 9. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them. 10. The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have the power to disqualify men according to Rule 5. 11. The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee. 12. The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between. 13. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners. In addition to the creation of the basketball, James Naismith graduated as a medical doctor, primarily interested in sports physiology and what we would today call sports science and as Presbyterian minister, with a keen interest in philosophy and clean living. Naismith watched his sport, basketball, introduced in many nations by the YMCA movement as early as 1893. Basketball was introduced at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. Naismith was flown to Berlin to watch the games. He died in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1939. The Origin of Basketball The challenge that inspired the invention of basketball came from Dr. Luther Halsey Gulick, Jr., the superintendent of physical education at the international YMCA Training School. During the summer session of 1891, Gulick introduced a new course in the psychology of play, and Naismith was one of his students. In class discussions, Gulick brought up an issue that was weighing on his mind: the need for new indoor game "that would be interesting, easy to learn, and easy to play in the winter and by artificial light." Though the class didn't follow up on Gulick's challenge to invent such a game, Naismith found himself revisiting the issue a few months later when the physical education faculty met to discuss what was becoming a persistent problem. With the end of the fall sports season, the school once again confronted the distaste many students felt for the gymnasium work that was mandatory during the winter months. One class was particularly incorrigible, and two instructors had already tried and failed to devise activities that would interest them. During the meeting, Naismith later wrote, he expressed his opinion that, "The trouble is not with the men, but with the system that we are using. The kind of work for this particular class should be of a recreative nature, something that would appeal to their play instincts." Though there was general agreement with Naismith, the group nevertheless found itself stymied. In fact, they knew of no indoor game that would inspire the excitement of football or baseball. Before the meeting ended, Gulick placed the problem squarely on Naismith's lap. "Naismith," he said, "I want you to take that class and see what you can do with it." As they walked down the hall together after the meeting, he added, "Now would be a good time for you to work on that new game you said could be invented."

Naismith tried several different approaches in an effort to improve the attitude of his difficult class. He had his students play simple games, such as various types of tag. He introduced a few games others had developed, including one called "battleball." He attempted to modify outdoor games like rugby and soccer so they could be played in a gym. However, as his first two weeks with the class neared an end, he had to admit that his efforts, thus far, had failed. Still not wanting to give up, Naismith tried to deduce the cause of his failure. He saw, once again, the need to offer a totally different kind of game, and he was quite clear about what its characteristics should be. It should be easy to learn, but complex enough to be interesting. It must be playable indoors or on any kind of ground, and by a large number of players all at once. It should provide plenty of exercise, yet without the roughness of football or soccer, since those would threaten bruises and broken bones if played in a confined space. <="" p=""> American rugby (football) was the game Naismith considered most interesting, but tackling made it too rough for an indoor sport. Tackling, however, could be eliminated if players were forbidden to run with the ball, but could move it only by passing or batting it to another player, with the use of the fist prohibited. The game of lacrosse suggested the type of goal to be used, but the goal would be horizontal so players would have to throw the ball in an arc, thus limiting the force with which it was hurled. That idea came to Naismith from his memories of a childhood game he had played with his friends in Bennie's Corners, Ontario. "I recalled from my boyhood in the lumbering camps of Canada," he recalled, "that when we played a game called 'Duck on a Rock,' the goal should be one that could not be rushed, and that the ball could not be slammed through. This called for a goal with a horizontal opening, high enough so the ball would have to be tossed into it, rater than being thrown." The method he adapted for putting the ball into play-the toss-up-borrowed from English rugby, but had only one player from each team vying for the initial toss-up, rather than the whole team. The next morning, Naismith assembled the elements for the new game. First, he considered whether to use a football or soccer ball. "I noticed the lines of the football and realized it was shaped so that it might be carried in the arms," he said. "There was to be no carrying of the ball in the new game, so i walked over, picked up the soccer ball, and started in search of a goal." He asked the school janitor for two 18-inch square boxes to use as goals. Fortunately for the name of the game, the janitor suggested halfbushel peach baskets instead. Naismith nailed them to the lower rail of gymnasium balcony, one at each end. A man was stationed at both goals in the balcony to pick the ball from the basket and put it back into play. Then, Naismith drew up the rules. Besides outlining the method and objective of moving the ball, he described various fouls, such as holding, pushing, or tripping. A referee would be appointed to judge the play, and the game would be divided into two 16-minute halves, with a five-minute rest between. While any number could play, nine on a side was suggested as the ideal. Naismith's secretary typed the rules and tacked them on the bulletin board while he waited nervously for the class to arrive. Somewhat dubious about "Naismith's new game," the players nevertheless cooperated with their popular instructor and listened attentively as he outlined the method of play. They wore the then-usual gym costume of black, full-sleeve woolen jerseys and long gray trousers. Most of them also sported the luxuriant handlebar mustaches that were so popular in the Gas-Lit Era. Naismith later described those first moments of play in mid December 1891: "There were eighteen in the class; I selected two captains and had them choose sides. When the teams were chosen, I placed the men on the floor. There were three forwards, three centers, and three backs on each team. I chose two of the center men to jump, then threw the ball between them. It was the start of the first basketball game and the finish of the trouble with that class."

The new game was a success from the minute the first ball was tossed into the air. Word got around that something new was going on in Springfield, and spectators began crowding the balconies. Once launched, basketball spread with incredible speed. Some of the students introduced it at their local YMCAs during Christmas vacation, and the rules of the game were soon printed in the school newspaper, The Triangle, which went to YMCAs around the country. Because of the College's international student body, it wasn't long before basketball was introduced in more than a dozen countries by these students. Basketball quickly moved beyond the YMCA network, as well. Within a few years, private athletic clubs had organized basketball teams. High schools and colleges launched the new sport as well and, by 1905, it was recognized as a permanent winter sport. Five 5 Basic principles of Dr. James Naismith when he created the game basketball. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The game is played with a round ball and with the hands. The player can not run with the ball Any player can take up ay position on the court a any time There shall be no physical contact between players The goal (basket) shall be place horizontally above he floor of the court

Basketball Objectives 1. To gain point at the opponents basket 2. To avoid the opponent to gain point from your basket Equipment Main articles: Basketball (ball), Basketball court, and Backboard (basketball)

Traditional eight-panelbasketball The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the basketball and the court: a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends (or in the case of 3-on-3 street basketball, half a court with one basket). Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, scoresheets, scoreboard(s), alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems.

An outdoor basketball net. A regulation basketball court in international games is 28 metres (91.9 ft) long and 15 metres (49.2 ft) wide. In the NBA and NCAA the court is 94 feet (28.7 m) by 50 feet (15.2 m). Most courts have wood flooring, usually constructed from maple planks running in the same direction as the longer court dimension.[39] The name and logo of the home team is usually painted on or around the center circle. The basket is a steel rim 18 inches (45.7 cm) in diameter with an attached net affixed to a backboard that measures 6 feet (182.9 cm) by 3.5 feet (106.7 cm), and one basket is at each end of the court. The white outlined box on the backboard is 18 inches (45.7 cm) high and 2 feet (61.0 cm) wide. At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet (305 cm) above the court and 4 feet (121.9 cm) inside the baseline. While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height - a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting. The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is 29.5 inches (74.9 cm) in circumference (size 7, or a "295 ball") and weighs 22 ounces (624 g). If women are playing, the official basketball size is 28.5 inches (72.4 cm) in circumference (size 6, or a "285 ball") with a weight of 20 ounces (567 g).

Positions in the court Main article: Basketball position

Basketball positions in the offensive zone Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution, one guard, two forwards, and two centers or two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, more specific positions have evolved, namely: 1. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's

offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time 2. 3. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the opponent's best perimeter player on defense basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively 4. power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense) 5. center: uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound. The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will choose to use a three guard offense, replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. The most commonly interchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players have good leadership and ball handling skills. Strategy Main article: Basketball playbook The strategies also evolve with the game. In the 1990s and early 2000s, teams played with more "isolation". Teams that had one superstar would let one player, usually the point guard or shooting guard, run most of the offense while the other four offensive players get out of his/her way. Nowadays, teams tend to play with more teamwork. The "Center" position has evolved to become more of a taller "Small Forward" position. Since teams play more teamwork, ball movement has evolved with the game, and more jump shots have been taken as a result. There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and man-to-man defense. Zone defense involves players in defensive positions guarding whichever opponent is in their zone. In man-to-man defense, each defensive player guards a specific opponent and tries to prevent them from taking action. Defense has also evolved with offense. "Zone defense" has changed with many variations. There are defensive schemes called "23 zone", "32 zone", "box-and-1", "212 zone" and many more. All of these variations were created to defend different varieties that offense has. "Man-to-man defense" has been the most preferred of all the

options because many basketball games are not as organized as the entertainment part of basketball. Offensive plays are more varied, normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball. A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is a cut. A legal attempt by an offensive player to stop an opponent from guarding a teammate, by standing in the defender's way such that the teammate cuts next to him, is a screen or pick. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll, in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket. Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays; these allow the quick passes and teamwork which can lead to a successful basket. Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. On court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur. Defensive and offensive structures, and positions, are more emphasized in higher levels in basketball; it is these that a coach normally requests a time-out to discuss. Nature of basketball

Ball game any game played with a ba.

Team sport any sport which involves players working together towards a shared objective. Variations and similar games Recreational basketball where fun, entertainment and camaraderie rule rather than winning a game

Player number variants FIBA 33 A formalized version of three-on-three halfcourt basketball created by FIBA in 2007, and currently being heavily promoted by the federation.

Play medium variants Beach basketball played on beaches in a circular court with no backboard and no out-of-bounds rule, with the ball movement done via passes or 2 steps, as dribbling is next to impossible on sand.

Streetball variation typically played on outdoor courts, with rules that vary widely from court to court. In most versions there are no free throws, and carrying, traveling, and double dribbling are allowed.

Water basketball played in a swimming pool with a floating boardless hoop, combining rules from basketball and water polo.

Riding variants Donkey basketball Played on the backs of donkeys, this version has come under attack from animal rights groups.

Horseball game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net (approximately 1.5m1.5m). It is a combination of polo, rugby, and basketball.

Unicycle basketball is played using a regulation basketball on a regular basketball court with the same rules, e.g., one must dribble the ball whilst riding.

Wheelchair basketball designed for disabled people in wheelchairs and is considered one of the major disabled sports practiced.

Special interest group variants Basketball Schools and Academies where students are trained in developing basketball fundamentals, undergo fitness and endurance exercises and learn various basketball skills. Basketball students learn proper ways of

passing, ball handling, dribbling, shooting from various distances, rebounding, offensive moves, defense, layups, screens, basketball rules and basketball ethics. Also popular are the basketball camps organized for various occasions, often to get prepared for basketball events, and basketball clinics for improving skills.

Disabled basketball played by various disabled groups, such as: Bankshot basketball[2] Deaf basketball Basketball played by deaf people. Despite the game's many whistles due to its no contact nature of play, deaf players have adapted well to reading the flow of the game and can easily tell when a foul is committed. Sign language is also used to communicate referee decisions and communication between players. Wheelchair basketball based on basketball but designed for disabled people in wheelchairs and considered one of the major disabled sports practiced.

College and University basketball played in educational institutions of higher learning.

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Intercollegiate basketball, commonly known as College basketball in the United States although it is also played in most universities in the country.

Ethnic and Religion-based basketball Examples of ethnic basketball include Indo-Pak or Russian or Armenian leagues in the United States or Canada, for example, or Filipino expatriate basketball leagues in the Gulf or the United States. Religion-based basketball includes, most notably, church-related

Christian basketball leagues, Jewish, Muslim and Hindu basketball leagues, etc. or denominational leagues like Coptic, Syriac/Assyrian basketball leagues in the United States or Canada. Gay basketball played in gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender communities in gay basketball leagues. The sport of basketball is a major part of events during the Gay Games, World Outgames and EuroGames.

Midnight basketball a basketball initiative to curb inner-city crime in the United States and elsewhere by keeping urban youth off the streets and engaging them with sports alternatives to drugs and crime.

Mini basketball played by underage children. Maxi Basketball played by more elderly individuals.

Rezball , short for reservation ball, is the term used to describe the avid Native American following of basketball and, in some areas, the style of play of Native American teams. Prison basketball , practiced in prisons and penitentiary institutions. Active religious basketball missionary groups also play basketball with prisoners. Some prisons have developed their own prison basketball leagues. At times, non-prisoners may play in such leagues, provided all home and away games are played within prison courts. Film director Jason Moriarty has released a documentary relating to the sport, entitled Prison Ball.

School or High school basketball the sport of basketball being one of the most frequently exercised and popular sports in all school systems.

Show basketball Show basketball Performed by entertainment basketball show teams, like the Harlem Globetrotters. Specialized entertainment teams include: Celebrity basketball teams of celebrities (actors, singers, etc.) playing in their own leagues or in public, often for entertainment and charity events;

Midget basketball teams of athletes of short stature offering shows using basketball;

Slamball offered as entertainment events.

Alternate game forms

Fantasy basketball -

Basketball video games

Spin-offs Spin-offs from basketball that are now separate sports include: Korfball played by 2 teams that each have 2 males and 2 females, on a court divided into 2 zones, with each zone having a pole (without a backboard) with a netless hoop at the top. Unlike basketball, in which the hoops are placed at the ends of the court, in korfball the hoops are placed well within the zones.

Netball played between two teams of seven players on a rectangular court divided into thirds, with a raised netted hoop (without a backboard) at each short end.

Slamball form of basketball played with 3 trampolines in front of each net. It is played "full contact" and has boards around the court.


Equipment of the game Basketball inflated ball used in the game of basketball. Basketballs typically range in size from very small promotional items possibly only a few inches in diameter to extra large balls nearly a foot in diameter used in training exercises to increase the skill of players. The standard size of a basketball in the NBA is 29.5 inches in circumference.

Rock the ball

Basketball court the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor with baskets at either end. In professional or organized basketball, especially when played indoors, it is usually made out of a hardwood, often maple, and highly polished. Backcourt (1) The half of the court a team is defending. The opposite of the frontcourt. (2) A team's guards.

Ball side The half of the court (divided lengthwise) that the ball is on. Also called the "strong side." The opposite of the help side.

Baseline The line that marks the playing boundary at either end of the court. Also called the "end line."

Block The small painted square on the floor next to the basket just outside the lane.

Downtown Well outside the three-point line.

Key The free-throw lane and free-throw circle together (originally, the lane was narrower than the circle's diameter, giving the area the appearance of a skeleton key hole)

Lane The free-throw lane.

Three-point line the line that separates the two-point area from the three-point area; any shot converted beyond this line counts as three points. The distance to the three-point line from the center of the basket varies by league:

NCAA (women) 19.75 feet (6.02 m) High school 19.75 feet (6.02 m) International ` 20.5 feet (6.2 m) WNBA 20.5 feet (6.2 m) NCAA (men) 20.75 feet (6.32 m) NBA 22 feet (6.7 m) to 23.75 feet (7.24 m)

Bench (1) Substitutes sitting on the sideline, (2) The bench or chairs they sit.

Backboard The rectangular platform behind the rim in which supports it Hoop Breakaway rim hoop that can bend slightly when a player dunks a basketball, and then instantly snap back into its original shape when the player releases it. It allows players to dunk the ball without shattering the backboard, and it reduces the possibility of wrist injuries.

Shot clock A timer designed to increase the pace (and subsequently, the score) by requiring the ball to either touch the rim or enter the basket before the timer expires, resulting in a loss of possession. The time limit is 24 seconds in the NBA, 35 in the NCAA. See alsoairball.

Clothing Basketball sleeve an accessory similar to a wristband, made out of nylon and spandex, which extends from the biceps to the wrist.

Finger sleeve an accessory that enhances the grip on the ball during a shot and prevents the ball from rolling or slipping to the top of the fingers.

Jump ball method used to begin or resume play in basketball. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after it is tossed up into the air in between them by an official.


Three-point field goal also known as a three-pointer, it is a field goal made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc radiating from the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for shots made inside the three-point line.

Three seconds rule

Infractions Fouls Foul Violations of the rules other than floor violations, generally when a player attempts to gain advantage by physical contact. Penalized by a change in possession or free-throw opportunities. Block A violation in which a defender steps in front of a dribbler but is still moving when they collide. Also called a "blocking foul."

Charge A violation in which one player makes illegal contact with another player who has an established position. Also called a "charging foul."

Flagrant foul An unsportsmanlike foul in which there is no serious attempt to play the ball.

Personal foul a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. It is the most common type of foul in basketball. Due to the nature of the game, personal fouls occur on occasion and are not always regarded as unsportsmanlike. However, a contact foul involving excessive or unjustified contact is classed as an unsportsmanlike foul (or in the NBA, flagrant foul).

Offensive foul A foul committed by a member of the team playing offense.

Technical foul A foul assessed for unsportsmanlike non-contact behavior and for some procedural violations (for example, having too many players on the floor or calling timeout when none remain). Penalized by loss of possession after a free throw which may be taken by any member of the opposing team. Frequently abbreviated as "technical" or "T."

Unsportsmanlike conduct acting inappropriately or unprofessionally, such as fighting, verbal abuse, profanity, and flagrant fouls. An offender's team can be penalized by free throws being awarded to the other team followed by loss of possession, and upon repeated transgressions an offender can be ejected from the game.

Violations Violation An infraction of the rules other than a foul, such as traveling or a threesecond violation.

24-second violation (NBA, WNBA, FIBA) a shot-clock violation. Basket interference violation involving any of the following: 1. touching the ball or any part of the basket while the ball is on the rim of the basket or within the cylinder extending upwards from the rim

2. reaching up through the basket from below and touching the ball, be it inside or outside the cylinder 3. pulling down on the rim of the basket so that it contacts the ball before returning to its original position.


Double dribble Either of the following acts results in a loss of possession: 1. 2.

To dribble the ball with two hands at the same time To dribble, stop, and then begin to dribble again Backcourt violation

1. Touching the ball in the backcourt after it has entered the frontcourt and was not last touched by the other team. 2. Failure to bring the ball from the backcourt into the frontcourt within the allotted time of 8 seconds in the NBA (previously 10) and 10 seconds elsewhere. Five-second rule Also called the five-second violation, is a rule that helps promote continuous play. The situations in which a five-second violation may occur are:

Five-second throw-in violation a team attempting a throw-in has a total of five seconds to release the ball towards the court.

Start of throw in count: When the basketball is at the disposal of the throw in team (usually bounced or handed to the throw in team by the official).

Penalty = Loss of ball: A throw-in is awarded to the opponent at the previous throw in spot.

Five-second closely guarded violation When a player with the ball is guarded closely for five seconds.

Penalty = Loss of ball: The opposing team gets to throw-in the ball from the out-of-bounds spot nearest the violation.

Five-second back to the basket violation (NBA only)

Penalty = Loss of ball: The opponent is awarded the ball at the free throw line extended. Five-second free throw violation Under FIBA rules, a free throw shooter must throw the ball towards the hoop within five seconds after an official places it at his disposal.

Penalty = Lose the shot and possible loss of ball: A successful shot does not count. The ball is awarded to the opponent at the free throw line unless another free throw or a possession penalty is to follow.

Goaltending the violation of interfering with the ball when it is on its way to the basket and it is (a) in its downward flight, (b) entirely above the rim and has the possibility of entering the basket, and (c) not touching the rim.

Over-and-back See backcourt violation (1)

Three seconds rule requires that a player shall not remain in the opponents' restricted area for more than three consecutive seconds while his team is in control of a live ball in the frontcourt and the game clock is running. Traveling To move one's pivot foot illegally or to fall to the floor without maintaining a pivot foot (exact rules vary).

Penalties and bonuses Penalties For infractions of the rules, a team is penalized by bonuses being rewarded to the opposing team. And one The free throw awarded to a shooter who is fouled while scoring. Bonus under NCAA and NFHS rules, a team is "in the bonus" when its opponent has seven, eight or nine team fouls in a half and so gains a one and one opportunity on each non-shooting foul. The opposing team is "over the limit." See also double bonus and penalty. Double bonus (NCAA and NFHS) when a team accumulates 10 or more fouls in a half, the other team is "in the double bonus", earning two free throws on each subsequent non-shooting foul by the defense. See also bonus and penalty. Free throw Penalty once a team reaches a set number of team fouls in a playing period, varying by governing body, the fouled team gets free throws instead of possession of the ball. The fouling team is "over the limit." See also bonus and double bonus. One-and-one (NCAA and NFHS) A free-throw attempt which, if made, allows the player a second free-throw attempt. See also bonus. Turnover A loss of possession.

Game play Participants Players Ball hog A player who does not pass the ball Bricklayer One who repeatedly shoots bricks. Sixth man (or sixth woman) A player who does not start, but is generally the first person off the bench, and often has statistics comparable to those of starters.

Basketball position The general location on the court which each player is responsible for is referred to as a position. A player is generally described by the position (or positions) he or she plays, though the rules do not specify any positions. Positions are part of the strategy that has evolved for playing the game, and terminology for describing game play. Backcourt positions: Guard One of the three standard player positions. Today, guards are typically classified in two broad categories: Point guard has strong ballhandling and passing skills and is typically used to run the offense. Shooting guard as the name implies, are generally the team's best shooters, and are very often the leading scorers on their teams.

Frontcourt positions: Center One of the three standard player positions. Centers are generally the tallest players on the floor, responsible mainly for scoring, rebounding, and defense near the basket. Pivot Another name for center Forward One of the three standard player positions. Forwards are primarily responsible for scoring and rebounding. Power forward positions that plays a role similar to that of center in what is called the "post" or "low blocks". Power forwards typically play offensively with their backs to the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a zone defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense Small forward

Tweener A tweener is a player who is able to play two positions, but is not ideally suited to play either position exclusively, so he/she is said to be in between. A tweener has a set of skills that do not match the traditional position of his physical stature. Tweeners include: Combo Guard Combines the features of both point guard and shooting guard.


Forward-Center position for players who play or have played both forward and center on a consistent basis. Typically, this means power forward and center, since these are usually the two biggest player positions on any basketball team, and therefore more often overlap each other. Point forward A forward with strong ballhandling and passing skills who can be called on to direct the team's offense.

Swingman A player capable of playing either shooting guard or small forward.

Coaches Strategy Princeton offense an offensive strategy which emphasizes constant motion, passing, back-door cuts, and disciplined teamwork. It was used and perfected at Princeton University by Pete Carril, though its roots may be traced back to Franklin Cappy Cappon, who coachedPrinceton Tigers men's basketball in the late 1930s. 1-3-1 defense/offense Box-and-one defense A combination defense in which four defenders play zone in a box formation and the fifth defender guards one player man-to-man. Continuity offense Flex offense Shuffle offense Hack-a-Shaq The strategy of intentionally and repeatedly committing a personal foul against a player who shoots free throws poorly. "Shaq" refers to Shaquille O'Neal. Jordan Rules Man-to-man defense A defense in which each player guards a single opposing player. See also zone defense.

Motion offense Category of offense involving a series of cuts and screens to create the best possible shot, with most or all offensive players moving simultaneously. Nellie ball a fast-paced offense relying on smaller, more athletic players who can outrun their opponents and make more three-point attempts. Developed by NBA head coach Don Nelson.[12] This offense is most effective against teams that do not have the athleticism or shooting ability to keep up with the fast pace. Run and gun Shuffle offense Small Ball Triangle offense An offensive strategy with the goal of exchanging three (sometimes all five) positions, creating spacing among players and allowing each one to pass to four teammates. Triangle and Two Defense hybrid between a man-to-man defense in which each defensive player is responsible for marking a player on the other team, and a zone defense in which each defensive player is responsible for guarding an area of the court. UCLA High Post Offense Zone defense 2-3 Zone Defense Plays Backdoor cut offensive play in which a player on the perimeter steps away from the basket, drawing the defender along, then suddenly cuts to the basket behind the defender for a pass. The opposite of a V cut. Back screen offensive play in which a player comes from the low post to set a screen for a player on the perimeter. Ball screen offensive play in which a player sets a screen on the defender guarding the player with the ball. Baseline out-of-bounds play the play used to return the ball to the court from outside the baseline along the opponent's basket. Box set a formation in which four players align themselves as the four corners of a box. Often used for baseline out-of-bounds plays.

Dribble drive motion an offense that spreads the players to open up the lane for driving player to make a layup or kick out for a three pointer. Fast break an offensive tactic in which a team attempts to advance the ball and score as quickly as possible, giving the other team no time to defend effectively. Often the result of a steal or blocked shot. Fly fast break after a shot is attempted, the player who is guarding the shooter does not box out or rebounds, but runs down the court looking for a pass from a rebounding team mate for a quick score. Four-point play rare play in which a player is fouled but completes a three point shot and then makes the resulting free throw. Halfcourt defense portion of a team's defensive play conducted with both teams having established positions. See also transition defense. Halfcourt offense portion of a team's offensive play conducted with both teams having established positions. See also transition offense. Memphis Attack another name for dribble drive motion the offense was popularized in the early 2000s at the University of Memphis. Pick and pop offensive play that is a derivative of the classic pick and roll. Instead of rolling toward the basket, however, the player setting the pick moves to an open area of the court to receive a pass from the ballhandler and "pops" a jump shot. Pick and roll Three-point play 1. A play in which a shooter is fouled while making a two-point shot and then makes the resulting free throw. See also and one. 2. When a shooter is fouled while taking but missing a three-point shot and then makes all three free throws. This is rare. Transition defense portion of a team's defensive play conducted when the other team has first gained possession and is moving up the court, before both teams have established positions. Includes defense against fast breaks. See also halfcourt defense. Transition offense portion of a team's offensive play conducted when first obtaining possession from the other team and moving up the court, before both teams have established positions. Includes fast breaks. See also halfcourt offense.


Free throw

Advance step A step in which the defender's lead foot steps toward their man and the back foot slides forward. Air ball An unblocked shot that fails to hit the rim or backboard. Does not reset the shot clock.

Air pass A pass that goes straight through the air to the receiver. See also bounce pass.

Alley oop An offensive play in which a player throws the ball up near the basket to a teammate (or, more rarely, to himself) who jumps, catches the ball in mid air and immediately scores a basket, usually with a slam dunk.

Field goal A shot made from anywhere on the court, does not include free throws.

Over the back a foul committed by a player who tries to rebound the ball by pushing, moving or climbing on a player's back who is already in position to rebound the ball.

Rebound To obtain the ball after a missed field goal attempt.

Blocking and footwork Banana cut A wide, curving cut, as opposed to a cut that is a straight line.

Basket cut A cut toward the basket.

Blindside screen A screen set directly behind a defender where the player can't see it. Block To tip or deflect a shooter's shot, altering its flight so the shot misses.* Block out To make contact with an opposing player to establish rebounding position between the player and the ball. Also called "box out."

Box out See block out.

Bump the cutter To step in the way of a player who is trying to cut to the ball for a pass.

Dingle A steal that leads quickly to a score.

Rip a C A motion used while chinning the ball to create space during a pivot between an offensive player and a defensive player. Pivot towards the defender and rips the ball in a C-shape away from the pressure to create a passing lane. screen, set a screen (v) To attempt to prevent an defender from guarding a teammate by standing in the defender's way. The screening player must remain stationary: a moving screen is an offensive foul. (n) The tactic of setting a screen. Also called a "pick".

Stutter step a common warm-up drill where you shuffle and scuff your feet in a quick moving motion across a length of flooring. This warm-up is supposed to keep the players alert and help them prepare to defend players in a real game, since the stutter step is a smaller version of shuffling.

Dribbling Dribble To bounce the ball continuously. Required in order to take steps with the ball. Wraparound In the wraparound, the ballhandler dribbles the ball behind his/her back, switching it to his/her other hand. This move can be used when the defender attempts a steal, allowing the ballhandler to begin moving forward as the defense moves in. A streetball move with the same name involves swinging the ball around the opponent's body.

Spin move In a spin move, the ballhandler spins his/her body to change the direction and put his body between the ball and the defender. The spin move can be used while dribbling (when it is also called a reverse pivot) or in a post position, where it is often used many times during a game. The move can also leave the ballhandler somewhat disoriented, or to be surprised by a defender after losing eye contact.

Crossover dribble In a crossover dribble, the ballhandler changes pace to confuse or freeze a defender. It is also used to put the defender off balance to make it easier for the player handling the ball to dribble past the defender. The move is often performed by street players. In the professional league, players like Allen Iverson, Jason Williams, and Tim Hardaway are known to use this move in order to generate an easy layup or jump shot. This move is most effective in open-court situations, where it is easy to shake or "juke" the defender with a simple crossover. If done properly, the defender will be caught off guard, being unable to change directions. Sometimes, the defender falls down; this is called an ankle breaker.

Behind the back dribble A basic move in which the ballhandler simply bounces the ball behind the back to the opposite hand, but note that the ball is not intended to go around the body as in the basic 'wraparound.' This move is used to avoid an easy strip, to 'stall', or to 'pick.' It can be used to avoid an easy strip as an alternative to bouncing the ball in front of you for a tricky crossover. To stall means to overlook what can be setup on the court while still maintaining control over the ball. A pick is virtually the same as a stall but a pick is continuous, meaning that the ball is bounced back and forth behind the back; a pick may also be performed between the legs. The best choice when to use this move would be in the case of a teammate's unavailability, to outrun your defender, and/or to drive the ball closer to the hoop due to the lack of space between the ballhandler and defender.

Passes Pass (v) To throw the ball to a teammate. (n) The act of passing. Assist A pass to a teammate who scores a basket immediately or after one dribble.

Ball fake A sudden movement by the player with the ball intended to cause the defender to move in one direction, allowing the passer to pass in another direction. Also called "pass fake."

Ball reversal Passing of the ball from one side of the court to the other.

Baseball pass Also called the lance pass, this is a long pass in which the passer throws the ball with one hand, as if it were a baseball or a football. It is infrequently used, mainly to set up last-second plays off a baseline inbounding situation. Behind-the-back Dealt to a target behind the passer's back. Usually done to confuse the defender, behind the back passes can either be bounced off the floor or passed directly to a teammate's chest. However, most behindthe-back passes are direct. Earl Monroe was famous for this move. Steve Nash uses this move often, and Chris Webber is famed for using this move down in the paint.

Blind pass Also known as a no-look pass, the blind pass is performed when a player looks in one direction but passes the ball to his target in another direction. Blind passes are risky and infrequently attempted, but when done correctly, can confuse the defense. The no-look pass has been popularized by players such as Pete Maravich, Isiah Thomas, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, Jason Kidd and Steve Nash.

Bounce pass A fundamental passing technique that consists of one player passing the ball to a teammate by bouncing the ball off the floor with great energy. Because the ball will be at ground level as it passes a defender, a successful bounce pass can easily result in a scoring assist because a bounce pass is harder for defenders to intercept. Still, a bounce pass may be intercepted due to its slower speed. Thus, a player must use his best judgment when he decides whether to make such a pass. The move has to be executed perfectly because a bounce pass may be kicked by rapidlyshifting players and might be a difficult catch for the intended receiver.

Chest pass This pass is performed best by stepping towards your target with one foot, then throwing the ball out towards their chest with two hands while turning the hands over, ending with the thumbs pointing down. It is best used in the open court and on the perimeter.

Dime See drop a dime. Dish An assist. Drop a dime To make an assist

Elbow pass Introduced with much hype by Jason Williams, the Elbow Pass is one of the most difficult trick passes to execute. The Elbow Pass

serves as a devastating complement to the Behind-the-Back pass and can be used with various no-look elements. Most effective on a fast-break, the Elbow Pass entails what appears to the defender to be a simple Behind-the-Back pass, but as the ball crosses the passer's back, the passer hits it with his elbow, redirecting the ball back toward the side it started on and hopefully leaving the defender(s) amazed and out of position. Williams was able to pull off this pass at a full sprint during a Rookie All-Star game, but most players have trouble hitting the ball with their elbow while standing still. Jump pass A pass performed while the passing player's feet are off the floor. When done intentionally, usually when a teammate gets open during the shot, it can sometimes confuse the defender, causing him to believe that the passer is shooting instead of passing. However, it at times is done as a result of the player having their shooting lane blocked and often leads to the player turning the ball over to the opposing team. This kind of pass is strongly discouraged in all levels of basketball, as it leaves the offensive player very vulnerable to turnovers.

Outlet pass A pass thrown by a rebounder to start a fast break.

Overhead pass another fundamental passing technique, used by snapping the ball over the head, like a soccer throw-in. This pass is especially effective in helping to initiate a fast break. After a defensive rebound, a wellthrown overhead, or outlet, pass can allow a breaking offensive player to quickly score without even dribbling by catching the ball near the basket. Shots Bank shot A shot that hits the backboard before hitting the rim or going through the net.

Board A shot resulting in a rebound.

Brick A bad shot that bounces off the backboard or rim without a chance of going in. Buzzer beater A basket in the final seconds of a game (right before the buzzer sounds) that in itself results in a win or overtime.

Dunk (v) To score by putting the ball directly through the basket with one or both hands. (n) A shot made by dunking.

Fadeaway A jump shot taken while jumping backwards, away from the basket.

Free throw An unopposed attempt to score a basket, worth one point, from the free throw line. Generally, two attempts are awarded when the player is fouled in the act of shooting (three attempts are awarded in the case of three point shot), fouled flagrantly, or when the opposing team fouls while over the foul limit. One attempt is awarded for technical fouls.

Hook shot A shot in which the offensive player arcs the ball over his head using the farthest hand from the basket, while moving perpendicular to the basket.

In-n-out A shot that appears to be going in, but instead goes back out. Jump shot A shot taken while jumping Lay-in A close-range shot using one hand to tip the ball over the rim

Layup A close-range shot using one hand to bank the ball off the backboard Points in the paint Field goals made in the painted area below the freethrow line

Prayer A shot that has very little probability of being made. Set shot A shot taken without leaving the floor.

Slam dunk A shot performed with the player jumping in air and forces the ball into the rim with one or both hands. Swish (n) A shot which goes through the net without hitting the backboard or rim. (v) To make a swish.

Three-ball A three-point field goal

Three-point field goal A shot, worth three points, attempted with both feet behind the three-point line.

Three-pointer A three-point field goal

Toilet bowl When the ball hits the rim on a certain angle and then circles around it, can go in or out.

Trey A three-point field goal

History of basketball James Naismith invented basketball in 1891

Ullamaliztli basketball was in part based on the ancient Aztec ballgame.

Pok-a-tok James Naismith also based basketball on the ancient Mayan ballgame. Six-on-six basketball largely-archaic variant of women's basketball, with six players on each team instead of five, and in which only forwards are allowed to shoot the ball and must stay in their team's frontcourt, while guards must stay in their team's backcourt.

Continental Basketball Association was a professional men's basketball league in the United States, affiliated with USA Basketball.

Four corners offense an offensive strategy for stalling that was rendered obsolete by the introduction of the shot clock and the three-point line.

End of quarter when a quarter ends

Halftime (1) The end of the first half of play. (2) The interval between the two halves.

Pivot (1) A center (2) The pivot foot.

Pivot foot The foot that must remain touching the floor to avoid traveling

Run An interval in which one team heavily outscores the other.

Hot hand fallacy Is the notion that a streak of positive successes are likely to continue, but statistics show that the probability of a streak continuing actually goes down as the length increases.[13] 5 man weave drill consisting of 5 players spaced evenly along the baseline, with the middle player holding the ball. On the smack of the ball players pass the ball repeatedly to the nearest player, while traveling up the court. They then run behind two players. Upon reaching the end of the court the drill turns into a 3 on 2 drill, with the person who shot the layup and the last passer returning to play defense. The ballhandler amongst the group of the 3 retreats to the other end after attacking the goal. The 2 defenders attack the single defender resulting in a 2 on 1 to the other side. These remaining 3 players then execute a 3 man weave to the far baseline.

Three-peat winning three consecutive championships.

Organized basketball Leagues ACB The top professional league in Spain, often regarded as the second-strongest domestic league in the world behind the NBA. Initialism for the Spanish Asociacin de Clubes de Baloncesto ("Association of Basketball Clubs").

Eurocup Europe's second-level transnational club competition. The qualifying rounds are operated by FIBA Europe, while the competition proper is operated by ULEB. Analogous to the UEFA Europa League in association football (soccer).

Euroleague Europe's top transnational club competition, also operated by ULEB. Analogous to the UEFA Champions League in football (soccer).

FIBA The International Basketball Federation, an association of national organizations which governs international competitions.

NBA The National Basketball Association, the largest professional league in the United States, also with one team in Canada.

NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association, the primary governing body for intercollegiate sports in the United States. Also used to describe national tournaments operated by this body, especially the Division

I men's and women's tournaments. An unrelated body with the same name exists in the Philippines. NFHS The National Federation of State High School Associations, the body that sets rules for high school sports in the U.S., including basketball.

ULEB A cooperative organization of professional basketball leagues in Europe, this body operates the Euroleague and Eurocup. The name is a French acronym for "Union of European Leagues of Basketball".

WNBA The Women's National Basketball Association, the largest professional basketball league for women in the United States.