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10 THE CALL BOARD

NEWSLETTER OF THE MOHAWK & HUDSON CHAPTE R, N . R.H.S.

The W alscha e rts V a lve Gear

By Don Barbeau

In the early 1970's, the Mohawk & Hudson

Chap t er sponsored outings on the Cooperstown and Charlotte Valley Railroad.

T he featured attraction was CACV 0-6-0 No.

2 (Al eo 1942), and because of the causal environment at Cooperstown, we were able to observe her close up as she assembled her train. We saw the little engine proceed toward us and stop. We then heard a whir-

ring sound (the power reverse) and saw a valve gear component (one on each side) lift radially. Once the throttle valve was

again opened, the little 0-6-0 backed away

f r om us, all because one valve gear compo- nent was realig n ed. The particular valve gear on CACV N o.

2 is known as Walschaerts Valve Gear . Ou r diagram shows the gear in forward position,

T y pical of most l ater design steam locom o -

t i ves , the valve gear is set "directl y " , wh i c h

means that, in forward, the radius r o d a n d the eccentric rod travel in the same d i r ec -

tion . This is a cc omplished by util izing the bottom ha l f of t he link for forward motion (the link b ein g center pivoted).

Please n o t e t he components as shown in the dia g r a m. T h ere i s an eccentric crank set fast to t h e c r a nk pin of the main driving wheel. A s t he drivi n g wheel rotates, the ec- centric ro t a tion o f t he c rank imparts travel to the lin k vi a t h e e cc entric rod . The link roc k s b a c k an d f orth once with each driv-

in g w h e e l r ortati o n. The action of the link

impa rts t r a v e l v i a the radius rod to the steam

d i s t r i bu t i o n v a lv e i n the steam chest. Le t u s p r e s u m e t h at the little 0-6-0, after

m o vi ng forw a rd , stopped with her near side

c

y l i n der i n m i d - str o ke , with the crank pin

a

t it s lo w e s t p os i tion . T h e first cut-away dia-

g

r a m ( a b ov e ) s h o w s t h e position of the pis-

t

o n i n t h e c y lin d e r a n d t he position of the

sp o o l v a lv e i n th e c he s t . N ote that while the

p is t o n is i n th e ce n t er , the spool valve is

t o w ard th e front of t h e ste a m ch est. This is

due to the angle of the l i nk . I f steam i s a d- mitted into the steam chest from th e t hrottle (not shown), it will f l o w throu g h t he f r o nt passage into the cyli nder, w here i t wil l act upon the fron t face of the piston . Th is w il l push the piston toward the r ea r of the cyli n - der and rotate the dr i ving w he el s so as to cause the locomotiv e to mo v e fo rwa r d . Now let us presume th at, i n s t ea d o f f or -

ward position, the radius r od was ra i sed (by the lifting lever) to the top of t he l ink , wh ile

a l l other components rema in e d i n t h e sam e

position, as in the s e co nd c ut-a way. Now the angle of the link c a uses the spoo l v a l ve to be at the rear of the steam c hest. I f steam is admitted, it w i l l be cha nn eled b y t h e s p ool valve t hrough the rea r passage i n to the cyl - inder, where it will a c t against th e r ear face of the piston an d p r ope l t h e e ngine b ack-

w ards. If the crank pin we r e at its t o p p osit i o n, with the radius rod in th e d o wn (f o rward)

In a p r evious t i m e, CACV N o. 2 w a s V i rgi n i a Blu e R i d g e Ra ilwa y N o. 8 . H er e

B u t i s she g oi n g b ack w ar d o r f o r w a r d ? R ead our v a l ve gear ar t icle and you ' l l know i mm e d i a t el y.

she is at P in ey River ( Va.) in M a rch 1960 .

(Photo by Do n

NEWSLETTER OF THE MOHAWK & HUDSON CHAPTER, N . R .H .S .

THE CALL BOARD

1 1

S+eo.tn Che.s+

1/111 1 Ro.dius RocJ

L;t+;~ Lev e r

Link

& < :dr l l .,.i c

C1l,'rld er

Cornbino.l,·o,., J.eve,.-

- Wo./.scho.er+s Vo./ve Gear

D;~ram -

position , as in th e th i rd cu t - aw a y, the angle of the link wo ul d b e r e v e r sed an d t he spool valve would be at the r ear of th e s t eam chest . The piston wo ul d t hen b e p u she d forw a r d , driving the lo co m o ti v e f o rwa rd a l so, a s it should.

steam that is retained in the cyli nder for co m - pression in order to cushion the piston as it nears the end of its stroke. (The more the . gear is hooked up, the faster the locomotiv e can run.) Thus far we ha v e neglected the function

The other funct i o n of th e

o

f the combination lever . This device, some-

control the speed of th e l oc o m

ti

mes k nown as the "lap and lead" lever, i s

trolling the four c y li n de r " e v

a

c tiv at ed b y the crosshead through the union

radius rod is ra i s ed p ar t w a y

l

i

n k . The comb i nation lever imparts addi-

("hooked up") , the a m ou r r 0

i

o n a l t rav e l to t he spool v alv e , but unlike

raidus rod and spoo l va l v e i s ret::ncee

 

z

r a v e l i mpart ed b y the link, this lev er's

directly affects (1 ) t h e a mo unt ofse e a ra t h, , -

 

e

. ; c o n s tan t It i s primari l y responsible

is admitted to the c y l i n de r ; ( _ )

fo r s u pp lyi n g th e ne ces sary v alv e "lead" that

which the steam flow i s c ut o ff : e l lh " ~n f 1~ at which the expanded s te am i s I r l ! ~~ a s

 

t

h e s t e am t o th e c ylinde r an instant

or e t h e p i sto n complete s its previous

exhaust; and (4) the a mo unt

0

e" T h is sup pl i e s an addit ion a l "kick" at

t he outset of the r eturn stro k e . Since t h e righ t side d r i v ing w heels are a

quarter t urn a head of the le f t side whee l s (relativ e t o cr a n k pin posit i on) , the v al v e gear on each side functions i n dependentl y .

Y et the lifting lev ers are faste n ed to a co m-

mon shaft to ensu r e identical sett i ngs on both sid e s so as to avo i d unequal pow er thrusts.

R e gard ing CACV No .2 , w hose v al v e

gear w e used for our explanatio n , she is on stat i c displa y i n Coopersto w n at t he railroa d station. If y ou ' re ever in that area , stop b y

and take a look at her and her v al v e g e ar .

P . S . Check the photo again . T he r adius

rod is up. The little locomotiv e was b ackin g over the crossing.