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The substation

Source: Lakervi & Holmes

Outline
The substation Substation equipment Overhead lines

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

From generator to customer


Generation | Transmission | Distribution | Consumption

Substation functions
Voltage transformation (reduction)
Power transformer

Connection point for local networks Switchyard for network configuration


Bus bars, circuit breakers, disconnectors

Monitoring point for control center


Potential and current transformers

Source: vattenfall.se

stra mottagningsstationen, Lund At the city limit


Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson 3

Fuses and other protection


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Substation equipment
ENGLISH Busbar Generator Two-wdg transformer Line Circuit breaker Disconnector Surge arrester Current transformer Potential transformer SVENSKA Samlingsskena Transformator Ledning Effektbrytare Frnskiljare Ventilavledare Strmtransformator Spnningstransformator
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Substation layout

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Circuit breaker
Sweden USA Open Closed Interrupts large current
Several kA Short-circuit current Hidden contacts

Disconnector / Isolator
Interrupts small current
Load current

Sweden

USA Open Closed

Visible interruption Very manual control Design challenge: Weather

Control
Source:ABB

Protection systems Manual remote

Open

Closed

Design challenge
Speed and current
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Source: Nicklasson

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

Current transformer
Reduces current
Typically 1000/2 A

Voltage/potential transformer

Current monitored
Source:ABB

Control center Protection equipment P, Q transducers

Reduces voltage
Typically x kV/110 V

Voltage monitored
Control center Protection equipment P, Q transducers

Source:ABB

Also C voltage divider


Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson 9 Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson 10

Surge / lightning arrester

GIS - Gas Isolated Switchgear


SF6 Air

Overvoltage trap Alternative to air gap Short-circuit to ground


Source: Lakervi

SF6 gas
Isolates much better than air - reduces size Greenhouse gas
Source: ABB

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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Transmission towers

Line conductor

400 kV

750 kV

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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Source: Nicklasson

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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Supporting structure

Insulator disks

Voltage level
Source:Glover & Sarma

Flashover distance Air humidity


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Number of disks

Electric Power Systems - Olof Samuelsson

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