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Geometrized Vortex Sponge World-Ether Provides Natural Quantum Cavity Elementary Particle Standing Wave Incubation and Original Diophantine Equation Encapsulation.

Erik Trell Department of Primary Health Care and General Practice, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linkping, Se-581 85 Linkping, Sweden Tel.: (46) 13 221060, Fax: (46) 13 224020 Email: eritr@ihs.liu.se

Abstract

It has earlier been shown that instant equivalence class tessellation in Euclidean threedimensional space by there naturally parameterized atomic (that is, indivisible) 'cubit' monads (that is, units) in serial iteration and constellations of the octagonal fractals they outline, similar but superior to the geometrical part in recent unified string and loop quantum gravity theories provide the literal incubator and matrix for reciprocal precipitation and distribution of periodic spheroidal particular matter, and in addition a prompt solution of Fermats Last Theorem and Beal's Conjecture (BC) and other prominent Diophantine equations and problems. This strikingly parallels modern nanotechnological self-assembling molecules and compounds as well as cellular lattice robot modules and morphing. On the fundamental level it is here outlined that it also offers a more genuine and complete mapping than present ABC and related conjectures, from which, symbolically as well as really, the AC part can be removed and BC et al. is still proved directly from the uniform constitution of the real construction. An epistemological expos further shows that this rests firmly upon ancient Indian and Greek philosophy and related mathematical and physical principles. These were the fundaments upon which also the Maxwellians at the heyday of British science in the Victorian period built when striving to accommodate the new electro-dynamical discoveries of their era within the classical world-picture. Especially the geometrized vortex sponge ether model seemed workable but largely due to sheer lack of information turned out to be unsuccessful and hence after several fruitless years was abandoned at a pre-productive stage with such discontent that it for decades became virtually barred for direct reconsideration. Due to above related and further novel data and impulses this moratorium has ended and while several other promising alternatives are now in progress, the ordinary geometrical version presented here is felt to be immediately faithful to the vortex sponge prototype and corroborated also by its straightforward reproducible results on e.g. the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy. However, it still rests at an early stage of development and the richest yield, for instance, of self-similar molecular and other external patterns and properties is yet to come.

1. Introduction

In their viable organic evolution, the theories of sciencecorrelate observations and interpretations of objective reality, where among the alternative interpretationsthe one which finds the most widespread acceptance is the one which provides the most comprehensive, simple and accurate interpretation of phenomena, and which solves outstanding problems without introducing complex ad hoc conceptual or methodological devices (Duffy [2004]). One of the most outstanding of such outstanding problems (if one may say so) in the philosophical as well as mathematical and physical realm of Natural History is what has been epitomised as the geometrized world-ether (Ib.) which under the evocative designation vortex sponge was strongly advanced but in the end rejected by, above all, William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, around the turn of the previous century (Lindley [2004]). Designated from heuristic and mechanistic considerations to resolve the Electromagnetic World View and wave equations not only as a reference framethrough which all action was transmitted but simultaneously the inherent generator and, in current terminology, event-particles and vehicle per se of its own dynamical etheractivity, the vortex sponge hybrid necessitated an internally and externally coherent two-way reaction and interaction (Duffy [2004]), calling to mind analogies like the cells wall and nucleus, or an engines piston and cylinder block. From the data available to him, Thomson proposed a fine mixture of rotating and non-rotating elements, which 40 years later, as Lord Kelvin failing to pin downthe exact nature of the little rotating element in his sponge etherpermissible under Newtonian mechanics, he denounced so radically that direct pursuit on that instant classical track became and has remained virtually barred since then (Lindley [2004]). When now rendered up-to-date again by recent developments, this leaves an entire avenue of Science overlooked and still pristine for renewed exploration. Lord Kelvins tragedy (Ib.) was largely related to his vortex sponge debacle and determined by his living before of forthcoming elementary particle discoveries (Ib.). These would almost certainly have enabled him to verify and explain his intuition of strikingly simple ordinary geometrical patterns and transformations, fulfilling the stipulated wave-mechanistic criteria of rotational symmetry and torque of the vortex (or piston) component in the non-rotational real space rectilinear sponge wall (or block) moiety together making up the virtual dualistic dynamo that each vacuole in the mesh so constitutes and yields with true and obligate continuity all from the central interior to and through the connected collective periphery. Whether of primarily substantial or immaterial stuff is of no consequence when everything is part of the same binary give and take. One might envisage a concrete Meccano ready-make strewn out in primary distance space and immediately cogging in (and be baffled why the pieces are all identical). Or one might feel the profound need of a more logical phase motor; the imperative potential, spark and twist between no more or less - than two contrasting and yet infinitely approximating principal philosophical (cum mathematical cum physical) categories always kept in juxtaposition and confrontation with each other. With deep historical roots, the present consensus goes in the latter direction whether the complex-forming agonists are designated string and loop quantum gravity (Cho [2002]), or eternal-universal Branes (Seife [2002]), or Yin-Yang, or the dual interplay (Trell [2002,2003 a-d]) between the curved and the straightat the heart of Greek geometry and indeed of geometry in general (Netz [2002]).

In any case there must be a commensurate structural and dynamic emergence. With the triumph of verbatim web-manufacturing Victorian engineering and the industrial revolution at large, it was natural that the Maxwellians, in that golden age of Science unsurpassed since the Renaissance which they inhabited and formulated, believed that we are immersed in a medium in intense spinning motion, the equal counterpart of mattera complex system of strains and vortex motions in the ether, that tenuous but all-pervading medium (Coey [2004]). And to deepen their understanding and get ideas of the working of the ether the Maxwellians turned to their models, the finest of which was George Francis FitzGeralds now regrettably lost array of brass wheels mounted in a large array on a mahogany base and connected by indiarubber bands which were strained as the wheels turned (Ib.). It displayed several functions illustrating the real electromagnetic phenomena (Ib.) but the missing links of the replication were those of the interior of the spinning wheels and of the ether base, or actually encasement that they were co-acting in and with, and of which later elementary particle spectroscopy findings as well as still dormant Lie group and algebra neighbourhood geodesics would doubtlessly have provided sufficient clues for complementation. Which were the inner springs, the standing waves (Duffy [2004]) that the outer ones were the harmonic continuations and iterations and resultants of? And what was the conformation of the coalescing resonating cavity rather than inert base plate of the oscillations? For mere lack of information this limbo became sealed for forthright further exploration. Only recently has casually imitated quantum foam replaced vortex sponge with strings instead of springs and with a disjoint and heteromorphic instead of interrelated and harmonic spin network (Cho [2002]); and on such an incredible, not to say absurd scale - billions of times smaller than the electron diameter and yet inflatable to that of the Universe - and hypercomplicated constitution - eleven dimensions wrapped up into themselves - that for this reason alone a revisit to the more tangible and verifiable prototype would seem highly profitable. The moratorium that initial failure and ensuing quantum mechanics and misunderstood general relativity laid on the pioneering contrivance has had its day so it is high time to open up the promising corridor anew. Some striking results of this venture will be the aim of the present discourse together with a brief recollection of associated philosophical, mathematical and physical merits and utility. These findings are noteworthy and convincing as such, but it is hoped that still more outcome-oriented research will be stimulated, above all on the electron and associated second- and ensuing generation external properties.

2. Philosophical Roots

The notion of all-pervading, i.e. identical one-by-one local and aggregated global reciprocity between space and matter, and that they commutually engender and sustain each other is primordial. In the recent Kolkata PIRT conference reference was made to the ancient Vedas (Trell [2003d]), probably the oldest written texts on our planet and supposed to have been passed through oral tradition for over 10,000 years before written down in their mnemonic Sutra form between 6,000 to 4,000 years ago. As here extensively quoted from Haselhurst [2003], especially the Rigveda epically envisions how the Universe reveals itself in two fundamental properties: as motion and as that in which motions take place, namely Space.This space is called Akasa and is that through which things step into visible appearance, i.e. through which they possess extension and corporeality.Akasa is derived from the root Kas, "to radiate, to shine" and has therefore the meaning of ether, which is conceived as the medium of movement.the principle of movement is Prana, the breath of life The Universe is Brahman, the one that underlies and make possible all the multiplicity. It is the source of the entire Cosmos and all cosmic activities

relating to the emergence, existence and dissolution of the terrestrial phenomena that form the cosmic rhythm.The one manifests as the many, the formless putting on formsThe Maitri Upanishad mentions two aspects of Brahman, the higher and the lower. The higher Brahman being the unmanifest Supreme reality which is soundless and totally quiescent and restful, the lower being the Shabda Brahman which manifests itself into the ever changing restless cosmos through sound vibrationsThe process of manifestation is from soundless to sound, from Noumenality to phenomenality, from perfect quiescence of being to the restlessness of becoming. Manifestation...takes place through the vibrations, and the action and interactions of vibrations produce all the phenomena. A wave constitution of matter is thus realised, literally rattled off by radial outflow and coupling together of the propulsion between the curved loop and the straight cap and spokes of that "wheelwork of the Universe" (Ib.) bipolar generator - in modalities of sound or thrust, too, if so be - which is symbolised in the original, regrettably later so distorted, Veda mill of motion (Fig. 1).

Fig 1. The ancient Veda wheel of procreation and movement, generated between the interfacing straight frame and round perimeter extremities with the step gradient outlined by the divergence between equal lengths of them.

Similar ideas are found in other cultures, and were brought to the Western world by the ancient Greek who geometrized them, also in mathematical and physical terms insofar as identifying them with the polyhedral solids variously referred to as Pythagorean, Platonic and Euclidean, and where also Aristotle played an instrumental part. The elder of the protagonists, Pythagoras (569 - 475 BC), was paradoxically the most modern insofar as embracing an original heliocentric world picture later reversed to the geocentric by both Plato (428 347 BC) and Aristotle (384 322 BC). With other Greek naturalists of the era he shared much of the Indian view of a dynamical vital force in everything. They called it the fiery pneuma: the primordial energy that pervades all phenomena. The expansions and contractions of this fiery pneuma produces a space that includes hot and cold areas, as well as light and heavy areas of concentration (www [2004]). The still two-pole combustion was exerted by the five archetypal elements ether, air, fire, water, earth. The constant ebb and flow of these primordial five elements created the interchange of mass and energy which manifested the galaxies, solar systems and planets (Ib.) as well as Earth and every substantial grain of it. Pythagoras and his Mathematikoi (adepts) further symbolised the five elements as geometric forms as part of the theorum that numbers were the language of physics and psychology (Ib.). These constitutional forms were the five regular polyhedrons of which the literally pyramidal tetrahedron was the dynamic atom of the fire and the ground atom of the Earth was the cube, whereas for the Ether was initially chosen the dodecahedron. This was a kind of makeshift in the sense that there were four observable elements and five regular solids to allocate. And so the fifth, the dodecahedron, was used - perhaps somewhat prophetically (Seife [2003]) after all - for "everything else: Cosmos and its planets. Before Aristotle, the ether - meaning thin, upper

air - designation of this surplus was more sporadic, and it was not used by Plato at all. And towards Euclids era (325-265 BC) it was realized that as member of it, the anatomy of Earth must be identical to that of the rest of the Universe. As mentioned, the corresponding solid is the cube, and in that building block capacity under the light of later knowledge this constitutes the revised, or neo-Platonic spatial ether element (Trell [2002, 2003b]). For it has been stated that "Plato would have insisted that God created triangles, out of which the Universe is made" (Fraser [2001]) and this is true in relation to a complete solid body in the sense that the "triangular part is a diagonally divided quadrate, four of which recreate the whole square, which then form cubes" (Sutton [2002]). Therefore, what Plato would have insisted is that the physical mathematical objects God created, or actually "folded from planar substrates" (Whitesides and Grzybowski [2002]) for the uniform tessellation of the world continuing outside of Earth as well was the cube with its diagonals continuing also radially as the inwards and potential outward flames of so joined up tetrahedral fire elements, and which in its atomic clone lays the thus constituted porous bricks of ageless geometric ether and matter and numerals alike (Trell [2003d]). And with a large leap forward in history, the inferred cubical quantum cavity enclosure became both philosophically, mathematically and physically cemented by the rectilinear Cartesian coordinate system, which is implicitly distributed along with the particulate components over the entire space and hence also accompanying them into their smallest domains; only so and then allowing a like orientation of local events at all. Actually it seems almost a truism that when the Cartesian coordinate system is a persistent representation of the flat space metrics, this must evenly extend into the infinitesimal reaches, too, as the differential replica of itself: apart from the proportionately downscaled size an equal cube as the global Cartesian quadrant of same axis signs. Otherwise it is hard to see that, for instance, Lie transformations and geodesics can happen if not relating to an essentially identical co-ordinate frame in their miniature setting as in their global environment. Entering our time, such a catalytic ether incubator of sorts is fully compatible with special as well as general relativity, only that in the latter there is a bi-directionality in the sense that also the encasement may become bent. With that provision, Einstein himself, in his famous Leyden lecture [1920] was quite in favour of the ether hypothesis. To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever. The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view.the ether of relativity is a medium which is itself devoid of all mechanical and kinematic qualities, but helps to determine mechanical (and electromagnetic) events.at every place determined by connections with the matter.which are amenable to law in the form of differential equations.We know that it determines the metrical relations in the space-time continuum, e.g. the configurative possibilities of solid bodies as well as gravitational fields but we do not know whether it had an essential share in the structure of the electrical particles constituting matter there can be no space nor any part of space without gravitational potentials for these confer upon space its metrical qualities, without which it cannot be imagined at alltwo realities completely separated from each other conceptually, although connected causality, namely, gravitational ether and electromagnetic field, or as they might also be called space and matterthe elementary particles of matter are also, in their essence, nothing else than condensations of the elctromagnetical fieldOf course it would be a great advance if we could succeed in comprehending the gravitational field and the electromagnetical field together as one unified conformationRecapitulating we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities, in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether.space without ether is unthinkable, for in such a space there not only would be no propagation of light but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense.

The extensive quotations may be justified by their canonical nature in support of a necessary ever-present distribution also of the Cartesian co-ordinate system, i.e., of commensurable cubical space segments, in any localized mathematical or physical realization. Or, as expressed in the colloquial present-day idiom of string and loop quantum gravity, where area-conveying links connect little chunks of space: a recipe for transporting direction-indicating vectors through space-time in order to tell you which chunks of space that talk to each other" (Cho [2002]).

Although likewise inspired from oriental, mainly Indian sources, it was the ancient Greek that first formulated the completely brilliant ideato use spatial images to represent numbers (Noel [1985]). And for the Pythagoreans and through the sixteenth century, one was seen as the root of every number (Fraser [2003]), and was in three dimensions since time immemorial in ground form represented as a unit cube. For instance, the geometry that Euclid learnt from his Ionian teachers "was originally based on watching how people built", and "the measurement of volume by the number of cubes with sides of standard length required to fill a solid space was probably first used by the Sumerians, who built with bricks" (Hogben [1937]). How did the building proceed? There are at least two main continuous alternatives, one of which has been brought to the fore again both theoretically by e.g. Roger Penrose [1995] and in the recent nanotechnological "layer-by-layer" material self-aggregation and self-organisation (Velikov et al [2002]). It can be described as a stepwise eccentric winding over the surface of the expanding box and has been used to literally underpin a previous proof of Fermats Last Theorem (FLT) (Trell [1997,1998a, 2002, 2003c,d]). The other, and most straightforward at the bottom level is to first pave the floor, starting by a row from a corner along the side, after that turning for the next row, and so on till the ground square or rectangle is filled. Then, with unbroken succession in reverse order in the next tier, and so on, till the box is filled in a hence really analytical way, too, i.e. continuous, spacefilling and non-overcrossing. Although this mode would probably be closest at hand for Diophantus as well as for Pierre de Fermat, both may be used facultatively For it is important, that the comparatively late Diophantus himself "stated the traditional definition of numbers to be a collection of units" when in his equations they "were simply put down without the use of a symbol" (Heath [1964], Zerhusen [1999]). The effective quantum leap in relation to modern linear functions is of course the integer and spatial instead of point and imaginary nature of the numerical unit. And pointless, too, would be to make this a heuristic controversy since it is all about reality: reality for the founders, reality of means and ends; reality of the very facts and findings of the case, i.e., that when ancient mathematicians well up to Cardano calibrated joint numerical and physical space they used what during thousands of years between the Sumerian bricks and Roman tessellas* was the most refined of manufactured self-assembling forms: the cube, the irreducible (but in its products rationally divisible) whole-number bit; cubicle, kaba, 'cubit', "nanocube" (Murphy [2002]) of arbitrary unit side, providing the atomic set of a myriad literal dice not alone for God to throw but for themselves to stow by cumulative fulfilment (Noel [1985], Sutton [2002]) of their own, "nanobox" (Murphy [2002]) properties. _____________________________________________________________________________ * Oxford Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language: Tessella is Latin for little cube, diminutive of tessera = a die (to play with), a small cube. Tile, tiling are derived from another Latin word, tegula.

In order to reconstruct the original procedure, it may be reminded that computation in those days was much like surveying (Noel [1985]). For the first degree, positio alignment, the unit number cells (Fig. 2) then automatically deliver the measuring-rod by longitudinal plus or minus stacking like in the contemporary abacus (and the Inca Quipu threads) over a single axis; here, referring to digits, chosen as the vertical.

xyz = 1

xyz = 2

xyz = 3

xyz = 4

xyz = 5..

Erik Trell

Fig.2 Three-dimensional Diophantine whole-number cells (or, after Penrose [1995], polyominoes), one-dimensionally joined together in the vertical direction to infinite series of integers of the first degree by the same discrete amount of the ground unit cubicle, or 'cubit'. However, the added, in a double sense manifold value of the direct spatial realisation of whole numbers does not become apparent until with Diophantus formalising their exponentiations and subsequent equations. The natural procedure that offers for a serial power expansion is a sideways instead of length-wise multiplication of the digit by itself, producing at the second degree stage a square tile, step-by-step like the Sumerians did till the quadrate or rectangle is continuously and non-overcrossingly tessellated (Fig. 3). This mode is also documented by Aristotle when, criticising its application to the passage of time, he wrote that "the movement of the units () will be lines" and "a moving line will be a plane" (McGinnis [2003]). Then, in the same fashion, next layer is filled, and next, and next, till the resulting first-order third degree 'hypercube' is also analytically completed (Fig. 3). In turn, that hypercube of the first order in same periodic progression re-multiplied by the base number yields a 4th power in the shape of a quasi-one-dimensional hyper-rod of the second order, which in forthcoming multiplications generates a 5th degree second order hypersquare, then 6th degree hypercube, then 7th degree hyperrod, 8th degree hypersquare etc. in an endless cyclical self-assembly at all scales (Whitesides and Grzybowski [2002]) that eventually contains all whole-number (and fractional) powers that there at all are (Fig. 3). In both this and the previously mentioned eccentric mode which may be geared in for physical realizations within and from any such hierarchical level, it is important to re-emphasise that the

build is successive also within each sheet by the respectively zigzag and spinning alignment of the individual tessellas so that they never clash. The entire Diophantine equation Block Universe is thus generated by a recursive, perpendicularly revolving algorithm in a maximum of three dimensions, thereby reproducing the hierarchically retarded, non-overcrossing, i.e. analytical space-filling of consecutively larger constellations, imaginable up to the size and twist of galaxies, no matter if taking place during actual time or an instantaneous phase transition in the sufficient ordinary Cartesian co-ordinate frame.

In such geometrized mathematical iteration, a stepwise continuous rod-coil-rodself-assembly of phase-segregated crystal structures (Kato [2002]) - which in turn form assemblies or self-organize, possibly even forming hierarchies (Ikkala and ten Brinke [2002]) - precipitates in a completely saturating, consecutively substrate-consuming way, displacing other stepwise cumulative syntheses (Fig. 3). This is of utmost relevance, since, with bearing to and like Fermats Last Theorem (FLT), far from being some unimportant curiosity in number theory it is in fact related to fundamental properties of space (www [1996]) as well as of

integers (www [1997]). And the uniformity, that all whole-number powers from n = 3 and onwards are realised in sufficiently three dimensions as saturated regular parallelepipeds which per definition are composed by integer blocks alone, is of equal cardinal importance for the demonstrations ad modum Cardano to be exposed in the continuation. That the (Western) situation was essentially the same up to the days of Cardano and hence also current for Fermat is namely another undeniable mathematical and philosophical fact, as most clearly demonstrated by the former in his Ars Magna [1545]. Quoted from Parshall [1988]; "For quadratic equations, Cardano, like his ancestors, built squares, but for third degree equations, he constructed cubes". He concluded "that only those problems which described some aspect of three-dimensional space were real and true. In his words: "For as positio [the first power of the unknown] refers to a line, quadratum [the square of the unknown] to a surface, and cubum [the unknown cubed] to a solid body it would be very foolish for us to go beyond this point. Nature does not permit it"" (Ib.). That indeed Nature does not allow a truly analytic (that is, continuous, space-filling and non-overcrossing) simultaneous physical distribution over more than three linearly independent dimensions had been shown already by Aristotle, and so was the state of the art also for Fermat, when in the exclaimed (but unexplained) demonstrationem mirabilem in 1637 of his last theorem he manipulated plain "cubos" in equal en bloc manner without the use of algebraic symbols (www [1997]). But whereas Cardano "was unable to conceive of.a four-dimensional figure" geometrically (Parshall [1988]), this, and its continuation may well have been that instant flash of insight for the one century younger Fermat mind: just perpetuating the identified row-rectangle-octagon cycle to ensuing powers by the same undulating iteration and reiteration of the ground unit cube which comprised the genuine whole-number atom of the still prevailing protagonist era. The consequences would have been immediately recognised, too, for Fermat, but why he did not pass on the veritable blockbuster remains as an enigma. Perhaps he did not want to destroy future number theory fun, or it was just an act of that cryptic jeopardy game which seems to have been going on in the esoteric circles when mathematics was often a jealously protected secrecy. While the previous proof of FLT (Trell [1997, 1998a, 2003c]) follows the horizontal axis of Fig. 3, the present one engages the vertical. Thus considering the stepwise growth of each number for every new power, it is clearly an ascending differential function, too, and as such exhaustive, that is, filling and so occupying the whole space by its continuous iteration. As demonstrated in Fig. 3, the second degree corresponds to a two-dimensional square in the arbitrary z direction by adding to the one-dimensional number column, X1 (= X), one less further such columns: X + (X-1)X = X2. The ensuing stage is equally straightforward. It is a periodical twisting, or unwinding of the space, where the third degree in like manner is entered along the x axis by the continued zigzag addition of (X-1) X2 planes: X2 + (X-1)X2 = X3. And so it continues. Focusing on the stepwise growth of the exponents of all separate integers, FLT and the latter-day progeny called Beals Conjecture (BC) can be proved, too, by this complementary dynamical evolution of our toy model universe (Penrose [1995]), which will here be performed in algebraic notation. Expressed in the forefather FLT designation, BC states that all possible whole-number power, Xn + Ym = Zp, additions must share an irreducible prime factor in all its terms (Mauldin [1997-], Mackenzie [1997]). From what has been said earlier and by extrapolation from Fig. 3, it can be observed that all manifold blocks grow from the preceding one in the same column by adding upon this one less of the same than its base number:

Xn + (X-1)Xn = Xn+1 This borders to trivial but has profound bearings and consequences, notably in regard of the prevailing X = integer requisite. First, it is a universal relation; All Xn.s are represented, both by the first summand term and by the sum one step up (or successively higher by the relations Xn + (X2-1)Xn = Xn+2 and, with non-integer roots of the multiplicative coefficient, Xn + (X3-1)Xn = Xn+3, Xn + (X4-1)Xn = Xn+4 etc. ad infinitum, according to the general formula, Xn + (Xp-1)Xn = Xn+p, where the specific case, p = n or multiples thereof, is excluded from integer solutions since when by definition Xn has a whole-number n:th root, (Xn-1) cannot have one). It strikingly reminds of the actual world where three dimensions likewise are the most in which a continuous physical realisation can be simultaneously distributed in a non-overcrossing and spacefilling, that is, analytical order. Already Aristotle deduced that with additional extensions the geodesics will get entangled by their equally higher-dimensional co-ordinate points no longer being able to avoid colliding with each other within one and the same static compartment. Also by observations on the own free mobility in experienced space but fixed transport in time he reached conclusions akin to modern expressions like that invariant...orthogonal transformation of co-ordinates can lastingly keep clear of obliterating themselves in a given neighbourhood over at the most three linearly independent axes so that when in the theory of relativity, space and time co-ordinates appear on the same footing, the corresponding Lie algebra, or 4x4 matrix inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations must contain a translational part (Carmeli [1977]). The latter is here offered, too, as the perpetual way out from the final cubicle recess in a filled power box to the next. And of course, in such a sufficiently threedimensional space there is a way out also for translation in purely relational time (Trell [1984, 2004]). The principal condition is that all Xn.s are regenerated in the Z sum one power higher whereas the Y term is a full member only when its (X-1) or (Xp-1) multiplicator has an integer n:th root - and when not can still be retrieved and mobilised as a discrete factor subset within the sum block. Then, one starts to realise that Xn + (X-1)Xn= Xn+1 (etc.) is also the unique, i.e., the only possible non-overlapping or non-gapping binary n =3 manifold tessellation in the entire wholenumber n >2 exponential space, which naturally verifies FLT by exclusion and the secondary BC by the inclusion in all terms of the common irreducible prime factor in X. This is best mathematically expressed by the regular differential chain equation: X1 + (X-1)X1 + (X-1)X2 + (X-1)X3+ (X-1)X4.+ (X-1)Xn-1 = Xn Which can be further generalised to Xp + (X-1)Xp + (X-1)Xp+1 + (X-1)Xp+2 + (X-1)Xp+3+ (X-1)Xp+(n-1) = Xp+n hence providing a formal mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the ascending differential function by its layer-by-layercomplete close-packed (Velikov et al. [2002]) continuous iteration gradually sweeping over and so covering the entire Diophantine equation space. FLT

and BC are demonstrated in the passing since all integern + integern additions in the exhaustive set yield integer(>)n+1 sums, and the mutual X term obviously shares irreducible prime with itself. Yet it may be of interest to illustrate the situation more expressively. The sine qua non of FLT and BC is the pure integer requirement of all the X, Y, Z base numbers, i.e. that the simultaneous external coefficient of their Xn, Ym and Zp terms = 1. It is a binary splicing already at the outset absorbing all ligands in the solution by their mutual double-bonds and thus works like a global Eratosthenes sieve (Noel [1985]), filtering the space from infinitely ascending 1n, 2n, 3n, 4n, 5n..Xn exponential series so that the horizon for lower base number power inclusions is gradually pushed up precisely out of reach. This goes over all magnitudes of n, even n = 1, because, for instance, 2 can only be combined with 4 to form 6. However, in that power it is an unbound relation since 2 can be combined with endlessly many other integers to form endlessly other integer sums, all members of the X1 subset. When the power of the sum is 2, the situation is the same because it is formed by two basically first-degree terms; X1 + (X-1)X1 = X2, and X2 can thus be added together by other first-degree terms which might even be squares. But from X2 + (X-1)X2 = X3 and onwards the relation is locked in all its members; the first term X2 piece exactly and exclusively determining also the unique missing second degree quantitative fraction delivered to the sum member of the common set which exactly and exclusively has to be filled by the missing puzzle piece of the addition. By such homogeneity of its algorithm, the totality of binary Diophantine additions comprised by the universal Xn + (X-1)Xn = Xn+1 (etc.) equation technically forms a folded but wholly even and dense Xn membrane, or n-brane, which, at all its points, by a mathematically equally constant, fixed and unbroken gear of itself lifts itself to the next level of itself. The totality elevates to the totality, in just one and the shortest rise, between one floor and the next, all monolayer shafts in the single interstice filled to the last unit corner, doubly obstructing other manoeuvres. In consequence, FLT and BC are proved by the effective displacement of other, necessarily higher solutions, by the gradual occupation from the bottom of all lowest solutions with the universal Xn as first term. From the whole-number condition of the second term it is possible to regenerate all FLT and BC additions, most transparently by reformulating the equation to: (Xn + 1)n + Xn(X + 1)n = (Xn + 1)n + [(Xn)-n (Xn + 1)]n = (Xn +1 )n+1 This is clearly in ground level exponential state as shown when posed as 1 (Xn+1)n + 1 Xn(Xn +1)n = 1 (Xn+1)n+1, and is accordingly unique already because of one rational solution alone to equations with all base terms of degree 2 and over. It is easy to exemplify for any Xn, e.g. 513 = 1220703125, when the equation becomes: (1220703126)13 + (1220703125) x (1220703126)13 = (1220703126)14, that is, (1220703126)13 + [5(1220703126)]13 = (1220703126)14, and indeed for any magnitude , e.g., when X = 123456789, and n = 6789:

(123456789+1)6789 + (123456789) x (123456789 + 1)6789 = (123456789+1)6790 = (123456789+1)6789 + [(12345)(123456789 + 1)]6789 = (123456789+1)6790 This extraction of all second terms can be systematised by Daviess "brute force" variety of Eratosthenes sieve [2001], viz. first let it (the infinite machine) solve the problem for n = 1; then it passes to.n = 2 and so on down the chain, by which the precipitation in the mathematical solution is completely dense with no interstices or alternatives: X = 1: for 11 : for 12 : for 13 : for 14 : for 15 : (1+1)1 + [(1 1)-1(11+1)]1 = (2)1 (1+1)2 + [(1 2)-2(12+1)]2 = (2)2 (1+1)3 + [(1 3)-3(13+1)]3 = (2)3 (1+1)4 + [(1 4)-4(14+1)]4 = (2)4 (1+1)5 + [(1 5)-5(15+1)]5 = (2)5 etc. ad infinitum; + + + + + (1 x 2)1 (1 x 2)2 (1 x 2)3 (1 x 2)4 (1 x 2)5 = = = = = (2)2 (2)3 (2)4 (2)5 (2)6 ; ; ; ; ;

And X = 2 for 21 : for 22 : for 23 : for 24 : for 25 : (2+1)1 + [(2 1)-1(2+1)]1 = (3)1 + (4+1)2 + [(2 2)-2(4+1)]2 = (5)2 + (8+1)3 + [(2 3)-3(8+1)]3 = (9)3 + (16+1)4 + [(2 4)-4(16+1)]4 = (17)4 + (32+1)5 + [(2 5)-5(32+1)]5 = (33)5 + etc. ad infinitum; (2 x 3)1 = (2 x 5)2 = (2 x 9)3 = (2 x 17)4 = (2 x 33)5 = (3)2 (5)3 (9)4 (17)5 (33)6 ; ; ; ; ;

and X = 3; for 31 : for 32 : for 33 : for 34 : for 35 : (3+1)1 + [(3 1)-1(3+1)]1 = (4)1 + (3 x 4)1 = (9+1)2 + [(3 2)-2(9+1)]2 = (10)2 + (3 x 10)2 = (27+1)3 + [(3 3)-3(27+1)]3 = (28)3 + (3 x 28)3 = (81+1)4 + [(3 4)-4(81+1)]4 = (82)4 + (3 x 82)4 = (243+1)5 + [(3 5)-5(243+1)]5 = (244)5 + (3 x 244)5 = etc. ad infinitum; (4)2 (10)3 (28)4 (82)5 (244)6 ; ; ; ; ;

And so it goes on, for every consecutive X and every consecutive n, and hence, for every whole-number Xn introjected in the second term there is but one pure FLT/BC equation where all terms are ground whole-number powers, i.e., in the irreducible form with all external coefficients = 1 [that, for instance, (82)4 + (3 x 82)4 = (82)5 can be expressed as e.g. (6724)2 + (60516)2 = (37073984321)1 does not alter that], screening off other solutions. Because the equation thus drains the whole space of binary additions of integer powers it also proves both FLT and BC since (stated in most general form) (Xn+1)n + [(Xn)-n(Xn+1)]n = (Xn+1)n+1 excludes n.th power sums (FLT), and the mutual (Xn+1) shares least prime factor (BC).

In conclusion, what has been quite extensively done here is a "brute force" "infinite machine" (Davies [2001]) exposition that every discrete X, Y and Z power can be explicitly retrieved by a simple, but universal numerical formula. As so much brute force it is actually superfluous because contemplating that the entire whole-number Diophantine Equation Block Universe chart of Fig. 2 and its infinite extrapolation really comprises each and every separate element in its total space and that each and every of them likewise has a specific numeric formula of its solitary constitution, it is indeed almost a truism that there cannot be more formulas either so that both FLT and BC instantly follow. The ascending addition acts infinitely and successively ties every second term specifically to the complementary first term, hence making also the sum sharing the mutual least prime factor. So, with BC in tow, the proper spelling-out of the FLT acronym should now righteously be Fermat's Last Triumph. Contrary to the assertion that "the problem may require a brand-new approach that would not only re-prove the Fermat theorem but a whole lot more" (Mackenzie [1997]), the brand-old directions yield even better. It is therefore not possible to dismiss the reproducible findings here as some illegitimate Fosbury flop (when yet the outcome counts) of turning the absolute scientific method upside-down. Truth is the reverse: a genuine scholastic return, exchanging again today's intermittent infinite descent with the actual infinite ascent springing from the orthodox roots of original pan-epistemology. Facts, i.e., the very scientific substrate and quintessence not frivolously to be rejected, are that the primordial Sumerian as well as Platonic as well as Diophantine as well as Cardano building blocks of real space, equivalently ethereal and material and mathematical, were atomic cubical monads, and that still in the Renaissance three dimensions for physical extensions and distribution were all that was needed. Facts are as well each and everything else that has been briefly summarised, as much as possible by direct quotation, in the present account, including their striking coming back in the novel literature, whether, as earlier surveyed, coined nanocube self-assembly or quantum gravity dot-to-dot chunks of space, or, most recently, "cell-like modules" for "decentralized architecture" of "expanding cube design for a lattice robot" with "morphing ability" and "locomotion" (Mackenzie [2003a,b]). In ground state strikingly reminiscent of the arrays in Fig. 2, such 'Telecube' and 'Crystal' robots (Ib.a) are topologically significant also because they show from a combinatorial angle what Fig. 3 structurally discloses, that it is perfectly feasible and appropriate to project endlessly many dimensions over the ordinary three-dimensional space (Ib.b). Further, they indicate the "path to reality" more "like living organisms" proceed (Ib.a), that lies in the broad span of continuous morphing likewise doable by "discrete translations" (Ib.b) between the in many respects polar mathematical idealisations of the eccentric layer-to-layer self-aggregation (Trell [1997, 1998a, 2002, 2003b,c,d) and the linear space-filling of Fig. 3. From the prevailing self-similarity of physical structure, i.e. that things come out periodically much alike in the microscopic as in the macroscopic formats, the modular lattice robot designs provide a useful model of particulate organisation at all scales. It is then important to consider that like their cubical building units are but vehicles for locomotion and carriage of their internally loaded equipment and instruments, the reproduced cubits of classical physical space analogously permeates the bifurcating decentralised architecture and distribution of the ordinary Cartesian co-ordinate framework of the currently reconfirmed flat Universe canvas (Kamionkowski [2002]) corresponding to the "quantum foam..of the very fabric of

spacetime" (Cho [2002]), by and in which the material events are catalysed and arranged, even co-mutually moulded, rather than immediately embodied. Literally, it is in double sense their native 'incubation' in which alone they will also naturally render their form by the thereby engaged Lie algebra realisations as more in detail previously described (Trell [1982, 1983, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1998b,c, 1999, 2000, 2003b-d], Trell and Santilli [1998]). But the original track has gone lost and before getting back there it has to be retrieved. The question is then: How come? How come that spherical matter atoms remain prima facie acknowledged while the equally prima facie and topologically reciprocal rectilinear quantum cavity/number monads have of late "collapsed" into different infinitesimal "modular function equivalence classparameterization surfaces" which "all of them resemble something a child in kindergarten might make out of modelling clay: a blob poked full of holes, like a torus with extra handles grafted onto it" (Goldfeld [1996])? This is said without irony, because it is a grand achievement to have devised such facsimiles that, so far not very sharply, though, "provide a new way of expressing Diophantine problemsincluding thosein three variables" (Ib.). Nonethe-less, something must have disappeared and something must have been added, and yet another historical excursion must be undertaken to find out. Importantly, what early disappeared in the West was Diophantus's Arithmetica (written in Alexandria) until its rediscovery in the 1560.s. And importantly, what was gradually introduced in the meantime, first in parallel, then in monopoly, was the idea of "pure numbers" (Goldfeld [1996]), i.e. spatially one- or nil-dimensional algebraic entities, rather easy to distinguish up to a hundred or so, but both practically and philosophically harder to figure out as truly separate individuals towards and between, for instance 1234567890 and (1234567890 -1). Yet they live on, and evacuated from full space they cause that cumbersome inconsistency and roundabout that is expressed also in the modern Diophantine equation methods when at the most mapping there the artificially spotted discrete members out of the per se continuous "infinite one-dimensionalreal number lineto a two-dimensional plane" (Ib.). So much simpler when instead constitutionally three-dimensional and discrete whole-number infinitesimals are mapped back to themselves and their automorphic collection in real and identical constitutionally three-dimensional space! And so much more genuinely Diophantine! To follow the triangle separation drama when at the outset harmonious Philosophy, Physics and Mathematics split up from each other, Karen Hunger Parshall's splendid study (extensively quoted in Trell [2003d]), The art of algebra from al-Khwarizmi to Vite [1988], is the best guidance. It exposes how, over centuries of Arabic algebra refinement, finally in the year 1591 "Vite's....set of clearly expounded rules for actually solving equations and proportions" came to replace Diophantus's stacking of implicitly equal-sized units to blocks which only and sufficiently in so automatically rendered three dimensions could hold also all powers by the old Euclidean geometrical notion of associating the numbers and their multiples with the side lengths so that all solvable Diophantine equations could be mapped back to themselves in their product/sum block instead of from the "infinite one-dimensional space of the real number line" (Goldfeld [1996]) to more or less intricately convoluted proxy surfaces. And for the latter-day alienation we may thank or blame Cartesius, too, for his as such genial coordinate system by which vanishing points can be restated in regular three-dimensional space as per their imaginary location there. And so it happened that even in the latest abstracted ABC

conjecture the number phantoms are again assigned ordinary sqp coefficients and xkykzk coordinates, but can still maximally be lifted to a "tiling of the plane" (Goldfeld [1996]). Again, why not in and on stead, plain and straight tessellate the real figures in the real Euclidean framework by their own real Cartesian co-ordinate extensions there? Due to the feasibility of substantially building all of them and their powers in three dimensions (Fig.s 2,3), this will result in a very simple spatial (x,y,z) and/or identical numerical (A,B,C) row matrix specification that will here be used interchangeably and on the spot squeeze out BC "and a lot more" (Mackenzie [1997]) much effectiver than the ever so intellectually superb ABC et al. conjectures. Thus going back to the entirely immanent, entirely self-similar partition of the aboriginal threedimensional Pythagorean-Platonic-Euclidean ethereal-mathematical-physical world-panel, out buds the atomic, indivisible, 'cubit' monad, One, which in itself embodies all the properties there and in a Cartesian co-ordinate system is also directly spanning its spatial/numerical co-ordinate value (1,1,1). By such regular and precedent formula, where the numbers and their genuine powers and fractions and Diophantine equations don't by proxy tile imaginary planes but by themselves tessellate real space, everything else follows spontaneously. Also "for the Pythagoreans and through the sixteenth century, one was seen as the root of every number" (Fraser [2003]), and from this basis the ground, one-dimensional, per definition discrete number pillar can be realised along any axis (here Y, Fig. 2), and hence, as seen in Fig. 3, its first member > 1 has the co-ordinates (1,2,1) while the first second-degree number >1 has the coordinates (1,2,2). In the third dimension numbers, the third co-ordinate extension leaves the origin, too, so that the initial member >13 is the (2,2,2), 23 cube (Fig. 3); the first actual space portion where the constituent eight cubits may then serve as distinct origins along all the corners of the essentially eightfold Cartesian segment formation so established. It is now appearing that the construction and constitution of consecutive manifolds will be absolutely uniform. Since a power is always a multiplication of a number by itself, and this is here by digital namesake identified by its spatial Y/numerical B vector, this means that every Diophantine equation term is wholly specified and built as a row matrix (Bn,Bm,Bp) and that there is an ongoing tri-cyclicity from the third degree/dimension (B1,B1,B1) over the fourth (B1,B2,B1), fifth (B1,B2,B2), sixth (B2,B2,B2), seventh (B2,B3,B2), eight (B2,B3,B3), ninth (B3,B3,B3).1486th (B495,B496,B495).2033rd (B677,B678,B678)..4788th (B1596,B1596,B1596) etc. etc. ad infinitum. Thus every member, every Diophantine equation term, in the respective power series, n = 3,6,9,12,15..-3; n = 4,7,10,13,16..-2, and n = 5,8,11,14,17..-1 is completely and retrievably "encapsulated" (Goldfeld [1996]) in the corresponding of the (Bn/3, Bn/3, Bn/3), (B(n-1)/3, B[(n-1)/3]+1, B(n-1)/3) and (B(n-2)/3, B[(n-2)/3]+1, B[(n-2)/3]+1) equivalence class sets. In other words, every possible Diophantine power and its minute constitution can be "collapsed" (Goldfeld [1996]) down to the ground, except over their linearly independent extension axes themselves further irreducible, (B1,B1,B1), (B1,B2,B1), (B1,B2,B2), purely cubic, quartic, and pentic equivalence class encapsulations, respectively, where the sub-factorisation of each larger generation is cumulatively repetitive up to the largest, sum, block. It is then only necessary to consider the bottom encapsulations which, when "completely close-packed (Velikov et al. [2002]) to the last (1,1,1) origin corner of each Bn and its equivalence class sub-units, must entirely consist exclusively of B and such factors, for instance, sqw They are freely exchangeable within the box, e.g., in a member of the

(B1,B2,B1) equivalence class, equivalently [(sqw), [(sqw), (sqw)], (sqw)] and permutations of it like [(sqwsqw), (sqwsq), (w)] etc. However, the geometrical build remains over the entire Diophantine universe an in the true sense of that word stereotypic, i.e. "monotonously regular" (The Concise Oxford Dictionary [1956]), optimally packed box. When studying the FLT/BC type of Diophantine equations, it is feasible to literally hybridise the box of the first term of the addition into the sum box and see how they develop in successive simultaneous exponential folds (FLT) and linear factor multiplication/stacking (BC), respectively. To that end and start with, the mesh of a real organic molecule with the symmetry (and cornered combinatorial properties) of (3,3,3) is emulated, into the origin of which is projected the smallest, (2,2,2), composite cube (Fig. 4). The figure describes the initial simultaneous folds of them, and it is evident that these first pass both (3,3,3) and (2,2,2) from the cubic to the quadratic (3,32,3) and (2,22,2) equivalence class, then to the pentic, here shown as (32,32,3) and (22,22,2), after which next fold (not shown), takes them again to the (hyper-)cube encapsulation, (32,32,32) and (22,22,22), for another round of the endless cycle.

Fig. 4. Simultaneous exponential folds of (2,2,2,) hybridized into (3,3,3), and applicable primarily to FLT since this equation is always within the same degree. This procedure can run through every sum/first term power hybridisation, in which for a Diophantine addition the difference between them must always be the second term. In FLT, the first and second term must be of the same degree as the sum, and the corollary of Fig. 4 is that in all degrees the quotient between the ground sum cube and the first term inclusion is preserved as a root of the same degree as n in all levels of that, so that the second term adding with the first term to the sum is specifically derived as (the quotient - 1) times the first term and must have an n:th whole-number root to satisfy (the antithesis of) FLT. For instance, the quotient between sum 63 and first term inclusion 33 is 216/27 = 8, which has third root = 2. But 27 has to be added by (8-1) 27 to yield 216, and a third degree term minus 1 can never have another whole-number third root, which is evident enough even when the quotient is a whole-number, and both more so and a priori when the quotient is not wholenumber, like in, for instance, 274/84 = 531441/4096 129.746338 (with fourth root 3.375 which is also the third root of 273/83 and fifth root of 275/85 etc).

When by definition 129.746338.. 84 gives a whole-number 4th power, (129.746338... -1) 84 in the equation, 84 + [(129.746338.. -1) 84] = 274 cannot give another whole-number 4th power which is the qualification of the second term in FLT. Because within the same exponential representation (in this case n = 4) and in relation to the same sum, here 274, the lower wholenumber powers possible for the second term, here 264, 254, 244, 234 etc., have other decimal endings in their relation to 274 than .746338.., e.g. 274/264 = 1.162952, 274/254 = 1.360489.etc. down to 274/94 = 81.0. But this latest of the available whole-number powers only yields the equation 94 + (9-1)94 = 95, which is an instance of the special case when Xn is unfolded in Xn+1 , because then Xn+1/Xn = X and it is feasible for (X-1) in the equation Xn + (X-1)Xn = Xn+1 to have an n:th root. But already (X2 - 1) in the equation Xn + (X2 -1)Xn = Xn+2 can not have an n:th root, nor can any other multiplicator in the general formula, Xn + (Xp - 1)Xn = Xn+p, so that Xn + (X-1)Xn = Xn+1 is unique, by which FLT and BC are again demonstrated when potential second terms are tested against consecutively rising sums up to infinity. However, BC can be separately accounted for, since in principle associated with another basic operation than folding, namely, one-dimensionally linear multiplication/stacking by factor (Fig 5 a-c). For in BC, the sharing of factors is concerned. Also starting from the lowest end and step-wisely ascending, the figure displays (3,3,3) and (2,2,2) merged in simultaneous discrete iteration which in the exponential case (not shown) amounts to an additive accumulation by alternate even and uneven whole-numbers.

Fig 5. Reconstruction of initial end of Diophantine mode of unit portioning in integer multiplication of a real molecular (3,3,3) array with (2,2,2) inclusion. In permutative expansion of this binary alloy, consecutive new powers continue to alternate in proportion and phase-shift of the ground cubes solely within the ramification of the respective constituents, and hence in the difference block between them gradually depriving powers of either numerosity. The condition of BC is that all terms of a binary Diophantine addition of various terms and degrees must share least prime, that is, least common denominator (LCD). It can be approached in a facultative prospective way according to the different varieties at hand: (a) Addition of equal powers to same power. Excluded by FLT demonstration.

(b) First term and sum term are both powers of the same term. Then they share the mesh in the hybridisation of the type illustrated in Fig. 5, so that second term must also have the same factorisation since always broken out of that mutual latticework. (c) First term and sum term are both even; then they share LCD = 2 and so must the second term, too, and BC is satisfied. (d) First term and sum term are both uneven and divisible by 3; then the second term must share this LCD as well. (e) First term and sum term are even/uneven or uneven/uneven by successive prime numbers. These combinations are addressed in Fig. 5, which, starting from the very bottom both number- and power-wise, gradually taps the whole corresponding BC/FLT universe by groundup elimination. (2,2,2) and (3,3,3) are the smallest, n > 3 powers there are and from this end, over all their own factor multiplications obligate to form further powers of them, obviously preserve the phase-shifted non-congruence of their respective irreducible LCD parallelepiped meshes. As inferred from the vertical overlap of two times 33 and three times 23 in Fig 5b, only when the terms are cross-wisely multiplied by the factor of the other term will they overlap partially or wholly (e.g. when 33 x 23 is projected in 36) but then they also share factors by that operation which, in addition, distort them from being pure whole-number powers.. Thus this type of binary amalgamation, for the involved numbers, presents the contradictio ad absurdum that verifies BC, because if the second term, that is, the difference between the sum and the first term were to be exactly coinciding with either of the irreducible meshes of these, then it has to continue over the entire sum, which it obviously doesn't. And settled for 2 and 3, next runs start with (5,5,5) versus (3,3,3) and (5,5,5) versus (2,2,2) (because (4,4,4,) does not need to be tested since member of the (2,2,2) expansion), and so on in a perpetually ascending total extraction proving both FLT and BC. An interesting widening of the demonstration - but out of the present purview - is the identification of solutions of three- and higher-variable Diophantine equations necessarily and only in the surplus zone of incongruent power pairs as a net minus amount when there is excess overlap and plus when there is deficiency. All of this seems embarrassingly simple, but (without other comparison) it turns out, as David Hockney said about his "cubification" of the scenography of a Ravel opera, that "it takes a long time to make it simple", and here there is no end to the yet unravelling set and stage. There is no difference but size between, say, B3 and B-3; there just is no simpler but likewise no more complicated way of performing them than by themselves and in their own columns. The ultimate corollary is that the universal formula Bn + (B-1)Bn = Bn+1 is also unique - and FLT and its thus offspring BC are both demonstrated pari passu. And the "whole lot more" (Mackenzie [1997]) includes FLT, permutation methods of solving also multivariate equations from the sum block, and an interesting (5+) 2,4,2,4,2,4... ladder frequency of successive prime numbers and their products that "pop up" (Goldfeld [1996]) alternately and alone in second and third of the power series parameterisation equivalence classes, enabling an infinitely ascending capture of these elusive but systematic characters as well.

4. Physical Reality

What has at large been outlined here is in principle a specific three-dimensional Hausdorff, i.e. equivalence class topological vector space (Trell [1984, 2004]), whose distinct separability axiom is determined by the fundamental interrelation between the curved and the straight (Netz [2002]) in closest exchange with themselves, that is, not as solitary antagonists but a phase transition of infinite alternative forms over their infinitesimal differential gap, i.e., to least order, the limes decimal of (Trell [1984, 1998c, 1999, 2003 a-d]). This endows the system with the quintessential conditions of spatiality and measure; commitment to an inter-surface interstice with the impenetrable dark mass and directional dark energy if so be of the maximally contracted spherical extremity underneath; and has equal philosophical, mathematical as physical domicile (Ib.). In sequential time-slices cut by the overall governing partition (Trell [1984, 2004]), the parts are joined with their whole and the particle/wave phenomena with their stage by the synthesis of unit cubical compartment with commensurable radial dynamical element vectors of continuity from centre to surface and further peripheral interlinking. In contrast, at least so far, the root-less string and loop quantum gravity theories presently in vogue mainly seem to create new rifts between fellows of common basic quantum mechanical confession, as should be apparent from the following extract of an authoritative account of them: "Space isn't smooth, and time does not flowThis foaminess has hamstrung physicists striving to explain how the universe sprang into existence and why it appears the way it does todayEven the leading candidate for a "theory of everything" - string theory - side-steps the sticky frothbut a few physicists have plowed headlong into the quantum foam. They've concocted a theory that precisely describes spacetime on the smallest length and time scales. Loop quantum gravity, as it is called, directly reconciles the minutiae of quantum mechanics with Einsteins general theory of relativity, which describes gravity as the warping of the very fabric of spacetime. It also predicts that space comes in discrete chunks, so that there is a smallest possible area and a smallest possible volume. Just as matter is made of atoms and elementary particles, space consists of tiny indivisible bitsLoop quantum gravity builds the 'geometry of spacetime' from scratchString theorywhich assumes that every fundamental particle is really a tiny loop known as a superstringsuffers from a fundamental weaknessthe strings move in a spacetime whose shape has been chosen from the beginning, as if they were actors on a previously constructed stage. A truly fundamental theory of gravity, everyone agrees, would build the stage itselfThe solution describes slices of space each frozen at a fixed time. A single solution resembles a Cubist's dot-to-dot drawing.you can view the nodes as chunks of space and the links as paths that tell you which chunks talk to each otherAs a result area can come only in discrete amounts, just as any sum of money can be counted in a whole number of pennies. Thus the spin networks tell theorists how to put space together, one little patch at a time.both string theorists and loop quantum gravity researchers say they hope that their two approaches will merge somedaywhen light rattles through chunky spacetime" (Cho [2002]). Exciting as they may be, there is little synthesis in sight from any of the diametral, by mere unreachable scale predestined blind alleys in question. It is therefore their explorers who have sidestepped existing theory of everything instead of vice versa as they claim (Cho [2002]). On the contrary, all what is needed on both the foam and the stuff side is full available in open sources. When these are consulted there is found but rather more literary expressed understanding that (in back-translation): space comes in discrete chunks, so that there is a smallest possible area and a smallest possible volume"; that "space consists of tiny indivisible (= atomic from Greek, own remark) bits"; that "there is a smallest possible area and a smallest possible volume" which "from scratchbuild the stage itself."

However, they were not dot-to-dot scattered pointillism but, as the ideal cubistsquantum foam (Ib.), conformed cubicles densely permeated through ordinary orthogonal space. And this realistic rectilinear constitution of the "canvas" has been re-installed also in current theory (Kamionkowski [2002]) as well as concretely paralleled in practical nano-technological selfassembly (Ikkala and ten Brinke, Kato, Whitesides and Grzybowski [all 2002]) and, most recently, "cell-like modules" for "decentralized architecture" of "expanding cube design for a lattice robot" with "morphing ability" and "locomotion" (Mackenzie [2003a,b]). Further, the consequential intra-neighbourhood wave-mechanistic adjustments are extensively explored and clarified over a long series of years (Santilli [2001]), and on the practical plane the here disclosed 'cubit' modules likewise stage, not only themselves but closely relate to the inner phase transitions (Venkataraman [1993]), too, very much as can be learnt all from the oldest Veda scripts (Trell [1999]) till still vivid Indian transcendental symbolism (Fig. 1). And thousands of years later, to the contemporary Western sphere, this is where Marius Sophus Lie enters the arena (Trell and Santilli [1998b]). Thereby, paraphrasing Dr. Watson, all the elements are falling to place. When, in the words of another, more recent observer, untanglingthe fabric of Cosmoswithout recourse to anything more esoteric than words and pictures, the first choice is henceforth not such abstruse things and fantasticquantum fluctuations as the six-dimensional Calabi-Yau space and similar implausible ideas of fanciful computer complexity floating around these days (Trefil [2004]), but again that simple unit beat between the curved and the straight (Netz [2002]) in a classical geometrized vortex sponge twosome. It is possible to envision a mutual interplay and intermorphing between the outlined cubical Cartesian matrix of the Platonic "quantum foam" and the curved "superstring" geodesics of the interior and interstitial particulate symmetries by that SU(3) = SO(3) O(5) group and algebra describing the elementary particle symmetries (Trell [1982, 1983, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1998c, 1999, 2000, 2003 b-d]) as well as Lies original, on philosophical reflections upon the nature of Cartesian geometry based, "transformations by which surfaces that touch each other are turned into similar surfaces.between the Plcker line geometry and a geometry whose elements are the space's spheres" (Lie [1871], translated in Trell and Santilli [1998]) (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Graphical exposition of Lies projection of the surface "fundamental relation that takes place between the Plcker line-geometry and a geometry whose elements are the space's sphere" (after Gilmore [1974]).

But it is significative of the present-day alienation of theoretical physics from the prime Lie groups and algebras that it has been stated that these are but mystically fit to describe mathematically the elementary particles and their patterns and behaviour (Jaffe [1977]). On the opposite, and on the proper infinitesimal physical neighbourhood plane, by their direct geometrical, nowadays labelled SO(3) O(5) decomposition of SU(3) we find between the corresponding transformations of R: all movements (translation-movement, rotation-movement and the helicoidal movement), semblability-transformation, transformation by reciprocal radii, parallel transformationetc. (Lie [1871]). Bringing this in phase with the equally concrete as abstract vortex sponge dual motor is then a prescribed task of centrally accommodating maximally contracted endless Round, viz. the surface of the sphere here epitomizing the Nucleon, within the commensurate portion of maximally extended endless Straight, viz. the open-ended rectilinear space grid of the eight cubits of the surrounding positive and negative Cartesian co-ordinate quadrants of the same unit scale (Fig. 7). That the sphere as the inner subsidence forms the matter heart (or clockwork orange) member is just as perceived also in modern quark, Bag, QCD and related confinement theories (Trell [1991,1991, 1992, 1998c]) where it is explicitly specified that the hadron must be an extended, geometrical object of spheroidal symmetry with the Nucleon as the spherical preferred (ground) state of the system, whose all other properties are attributable to this non-perturbative ground state trough a semi-classic approach similar in spirit to Bohrs treatment of the hydrogen atom (Jaffe [1977]). The initial state governed by the Cartesian frame is the complementary orthogonal subspace O(5) coset of the canonical real form involutive automorphism of SU(3) (Gilmore [1974], Trell [1991]), wherein the unit radii of the enclosed sphere are statically extended (e.g. in a Neutron star) along the ordinary x, y and z axes as the neutral t isospin root vectors directly ingrained in the core junction of flanking neighbourhood cubit segments (Fig. 7) (Trell [1982, 1983, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1998c, 1999, 2000, 2003 b-d]). In addition there are over the walls of these the diagonal, so called H2 vectors (Ib.) of length 2 (Fig. 7).

Erik Trell

Fig 7. The core junction in the eight-cubit Cartesian vortex sponge neighbourhood coincides with the orthogonal t isospin root vectors of the Neutron and realizes the O(5) extra degree of freedom as the diagonal Platonic fire H2 vector of length 2.

These interestingly enough correspond to the sides of the Platonic fire triangles mentioned in the beginning and which provide tracks for a rolling medial motion very much as suggested in Fig. 1. There is in consequence, neither in the static submersion nor midway movement any deviation from the Cartesian space axes, so that this spherical mode is that of the Neutron. The charged state(s) and events result from the maximal compact subgroup SO(3) of the canonical coset decomposition of SU(3) (Fig. 8 a-d). As inferred by the name it is primarily a further contraction of the sphere; a drop in the positive or negative direction relative to the Cartesian co-ordinates as Proton and anti-Proton, respectively, into the hexagonal, unitary Lie algebra A2 symmetry of SO(3). Without going much into detail since earlier extensively reported (Ib.), a veritable - and verifiable - 'eightfold eightfold way' (Trell [1998c, 2000, 2003c,d]) is thus provided where unit transitions and differentials over the composite orthogonal and unitary root space vectors extensively reproduce the complete Baryon, Meson and Lepton spectroscopy including flavours, channels, angular momenta and exact mass numbers and force category. By the virtual piston movements of the steps in a Cartesian space segment over the transition gaps in the inner inscribed sphere of radius 1, the ground Proton-Neutron Nucleon isodoublet is projected (and against the pole the Hyperon and further series); while in the intermediary inscribed sphere of radius 21/2 and its continuation the Hyperon and from there the series arise; and in the outer circumscribed sphere of radius 31/2 the (and N) and their series (Fig. 8 a-d).

Erik Trell

Fig 8. (a) SO(3) x O(5) mapping of duplicated Lie algebra A2 root space diagram into unit sphere with (b-c) three-dimensional transition lattice by unit length pion and lepton vectors there, and (d) some basic super-multiplet transitions produced by eight-fold way steps of them in either of the eight Cartesian space segments. Note the double horizontal displacements of 1/2 and (non-accommodable) vertical one of 3/41/2 as the impulse moment between the O(5) frame and the SO(3) nuclear root space diagrams.

All these and their anti-states plus here not shown Baryon varieties including the charmed ones are gauge- and symmetry-preserving ellipsoidal deformations in a Cartesian segment of the per se irreducible unit sphere volume part there, with suggestive bearings to necessary exclusion/annihilation of internal opponents and further to dark mass/energy and to coordination as automatic condition of (self-) assembly (Trell [2003 c,d]), first at the atomic level within single, then at the molecular scale in "stacks of cubical modules" (Mackenzie [2003a]). And so on, and so on in sequential magnitudes. The fewer the involved/observed such modules, the more quantum indeterminate the display, while with larger aggregation the precision increases. And due to the pronounced neighbourhood and surrounding interdependency, Relativity prevails, too, equally intact as Quantum Mechanics. The individual strong force transformations rise in the Cartesian neighbourhood and are predestined to bounce back into it after calculable lifetime, and in that process shed off the corresponding areal weak force meson and linear electromagnetic and neutral lepton and boson differentials and collections as likewise exhaustively retrieved in the system (Trell [1982, 1983, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1998c, 1999, 2000, 2003 b-d]). Again, since earlier reported, also in this congregation (Trell [2000]), it suffices to conclude that we envision a real form two-stroke engine with rotational output in the form of the muon tightly surfacing, and the electron and (here shown) positron rising over its outside (Fig. 9), and with a tangential emission (not shown) of practically end- and hence mass-less, straight neutrino and sinusoidal photon resultant trains.

Erik Trell

Fig 9. ac: The muons (here positive variety) are formed by either orthogonally (as here shown) or 60-120 O to each other inclined t isospin root vectors linked in closed (a) or helical (c) or propeller(b) orbits rotating over the Nucleon surface with relative length of 2 21/2 and 221/21/2, respectively, and consequential mass number in relation to Proton mass and unit radius = 938.28/(2 21/2) MeV = 105.59 MeV, in comparison with actual 105.66 MeV. d, e: Surface geodesics thus occupied, the electron and (here shown) positron formed by the t isospin vectors as here shown inclined 60 and 120 O to each other are translated into a cloverleaf (or Mercedes) neighbourhood (d) or helical (e) orbital trajectory of path length 321/2 covering the three sides of the space and of relative momentum in first Bohr orbit of 938.28/(137.03602... 3 2 1/2) 0.514 in comparison with actual 0.511 MeV.

Beamed off by what in current theoretical physics flamboyant mlange of parables (Cho [2002]) might be described as the perpetual hammer works (or constant fall) between the standing wave conduction plates (or electrodes as it were) of O(5) straight versus SO(3) spherical symmetry, it is this output that joins up and operates in the wider habitat. The electron/positron emerges as the instrumental agent in these external proceedings because its spiralling three-pronged wave-front (Fig. 9 e) is relegated from the nucleon surface to outer saturated orbits and in each axial halfplane of its advancement simultaneously holds and covers the three dimensions of space there. This enables a facultatively duplicated concentric realization of atomic and larger structures in stepwise orbital stratification with analytic (continuous, non-overcrossing, space-filling) lodging and conveyance capacity proportionate to the square of the discretely increasing radius (and in periods of 2, circumference) of the so aroused polygonally folded cross-section arrow. The first instances are the saturation with 2 12 electrons in the atomic k shell, 2 22 in the l shell, 2 32 in m shell and 2 42 in the n shell before the storage power pertubatively tapers off. It is fairly easy to project further molecular and onwards interaction and coupling with the outside, but for the moment this departs from the vortex sponge machine itself, where the electron quantum numbers still warrant brief additional consideration. Especially the mass and its relation according to the formula, 938.28/(137.03602321/2) 0.514 to the fine structure constant ( 1/137.03602), to , (the base of natural logarithms) and thereby the golden section forms a decipherable 20th century mystery (Gilson [2004]), profoundly connected with the self-untangling of the Universe (Trefil [2004]) in space-filling hierarchical layers. In all orbits there is a close interdependency between their electron velocity (ve) and perimeter length and the , which in the ground Bohr orbit precisely equals ve/c but in outer orbits with increasing ve to keep pace with the collective progression more and more hinges on the length so that this with ve approaching c can maximally be 137.03602 times larger than that of the bottom orbital. That the fine structure constant can now also be derived from twocomponent trigonometric functions of relative to orthogonal displacement resultant vectors (Gilson [2004]) very much like those of the n p decay even more points at the deep contiguity between the outer electro-magnetic rotational and inner vortex sponge nuclear machinery spectroscopies, where needless to say very much more numerical and topographic and other work remains to be done. And the same applies to the molecular and larger structural-dynamical extrapolations where in general the "expanding-cube design" and algorithms for 'wiring', morphing and "navigating that world" (Mackenzie [2003a,b]) would seem to be a promising self-similar approach. Its continuous and space-filling modus operandi through individual topological "body plan" (Ib.b) adaptations has close counterparts in the symmetry co-ordination and cubical-rectangular parallelepiped and size modulations of the smaller cubit relatives. By the fundamental reciprocity to spherical geometry, the self-assembly periodicity will primarily come in frequency of the golden section. That there will be a tendency to aggregation is also natural, as by that to collective dextro- or levorotation from equal corner occupancy of the constituents, and hence to helicity and innumerable other modes of folding due to neighbours who "compete for the same space" (Ib.a,b). When the turns are 90 degrees the resulting form will be cubical, too. But with more intricate and heterogeneous ingredients and neighbours one might anticipate phenomena like when "in a lattice robot.stacks of lattice modules can reshuffle themselves into a nearly limitless variety of shapes", inspiring "animal metaphors, such as snakes, spiders, and centipedes. But they can also attach end to end and form wheels" (Ib.a).

5. Discussion

Hence the ring is closed. When we now "leave the tunnel" (News Focus [2003]) and "return to the Greek natural Philosophy of mathematical beauty and perfect symmetry" (Winterberg [1998]), we are back to the outset. Only the cube fills the space densely and thus the immanent partition of space is the cube - and yet the particles and the planets and the galaxies are round. Only cubes can propagate truly spacefillingly and continuously while points cannot, which already Aristotle noticed (McGinnis [2003]) - and yet in the core there are points. This dilemma is resolved by the implicit property of the proposed synthesis that there is a coalescence of categories in the sense that the spherical glimpses in its trajectories flare up from the void of their preceding and ensuing positions in the solely three-dimensional composition, so that the empty share is occupied by latent quanta of the past and the future with a fleeting, statistically but not as to exact location determined transition between the ethers momentary space and matter portions. It has earlier been summarized (Trell [2002, 2003 b-d]) how, as a rule rather well, the present results also comply with philosophical "infinite machines" (Davies [2001]), Wittgenstein factuality (Hossack [2000]), Hilbert's formalism and so endorsed Euclidean geometry games" (Devlin [2002]), Scientific Realism (Kukla [1998]), Kant's teleological als ob archetypes (Laubichler [2003]), the Turing computer (Earman and Norton [1996]), deployable mathematical software (Petti [1995]), nanotechnological self-assembly (Whitesides and Grzybowski, Velikov et al. [both 2002]), fluctuations in reinstituted flat universe (Bachall et al. [1999], Rees [2000]), eternal-universal brane inflation" (Seife [2002]), and, not the least, the bright bio-inspired future" (Douglas [2003]) where "crystals with exquisite micro-ornamentation directly develop within preorganized frameworks" (Aizenberg et al. [2003]). But it is the updated vortex sponge which stands out as the prime appliance on the fundamental level. Here some of its vital intrinsic features and results have been described. They are quite plentiful and unprecedented and they are perfectly compatible with relativity and quantum mechanics. Yet, especially by computer aid (Trell [1983, 1990, 1991,1992]), the richest harvest is still to come. And as an extra spin-off in a sufficiently three-dimensional world, the altogether plausible and paradox-free opportunity of temporo-spatial excursion warrants constructive elaboration, too (Trell [1984, 2004]). Further, the employed engine blueprint is no more philosophically profane than the "tables and chairs" of Scientific Realism (Kukla [1998]), no more jargon and verbose than many a trendy cosmological text (Cho [2002]), and no more outlandish than dramatic Eternal-Universal Branes (Seife [2002]). On the contrary, when the initially mentioned truly rational scientific criteria are applied that among alternative interpretationsthe one which finds the most widespread acceptance is the one which provides the most comprehensive, simple and accurate interpretation of phenomena, and which solves outstanding problems without introducing complex ad hoc conceptual or methodological devices (Duffy [2004]), then the present updating of classical geometrized vortex sponge World-Ether and its reproducible results deserve serious consideration. There is in effect no ontological conflict with other, and more sophisticated models (Ib.), but the contribution lies on the descriptive and quantitative plane which with the appropriate adaptations fully complies with them and upon which it is hard to see a more congenial alternative or come around it, when deeper and deeper ever-sharper nanotechnology confirms the fundamental selfsimilarity of the physical world all from its very entry.

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