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Homework Solutions

7-2

V B = $985; M = $1,000; Int = 0.07 × $1,000 = $70.

 

a. Current yield = Annual interest/Current price of bond

 

= $70/$985.00

 

= 7.11%.

 

b. N = 10; PV = -985; PMT = 70; FV = 1000; YTM = ? Solve for I/YR = YTM = 7.2157% 7.22%.

 

c. N = 7; I/YR = 7.2157; PMT = 70; FV = 1000; PV = ? Solve for V B = PV = $988.46.

7-3

The problem asks you to find the price of a bond, given the following facts: N = 2 × 8 = 16; I/YR = 8.5/2 = 4.25; PMT = 45; FV = 1000.

With a financial calculator, solve for PV = $1,028.60.

 

7-5

a.

1.

5%:

Bond L:

Input N = 15, I/YR = 5, PMT = 100, FV = 1000, PV = ?, PV = $1,518.98.

 

Bond S:

Change N = 1, PV = ?

PV = $1,047.62.

 
 

2.

8%:

Bond L:

From Bond S inputs, change

N

=

15 and I/YR

=

8,

PV

=

?,

PV

=

 

$1,171.19.

 

Bond S:

Change N = 1, PV = ?

PV = $1,018.52.

 
 

3.

12%: Bond L:

From Bond S inputs, change N = 15 and I/YR = 12, PV = ?, PV =

 

$863.78.

 

Bond S:

Change N = 1, PV = ?

PV = $982.14.

 
 

b.

Think about a bond that matures in one month. Its present value is influenced primarily by the maturity value, which will be received in only one month. Even if interest rates double, the price of the bond will still be close to $1,000. A 1-year bond’s value would fluctuate more than the one-month bond’s value because of the difference in the timing of receipts. However, its value would still be fairly close to $1,000 even if interest rates doubled. A long-term bond paying semiannual coupons, on the other hand, will be dominated by distant receipts, receipts that are multiplied by 1/(1 + r d /2) t , and if r d increases, these multipliers will decrease significantly. Another way to view this problem is from an opportunity point of view. A 1-month bond can be reinvested at the new rate very quickly, and hence the opportunity to invest at this new rate is not lost; however, the long-term bond locks in subnormal returns for a long period of time.

7-7

Percentage

 
 

Price at 8%

 

Price at 7%

Change

 

10-year, 10% annual coupon 10-year zero 5-year zero 30-year zero $100 perpetuity

$1,134.20

$1,210.71

6.75%

 

463.19

508.35

9.75

 

680.58

712.99

4.76

99.38

131.37

32.19

1,250.00

1,428.57

14.29

7-8

The rate of return is approximately 15.03%, found with a calculator using the following inputs:

N

= 6; PV = -1000; PMT = 140; FV = 1090; I/YR = ?

Solve for I/YR = 15.03%.

Despite a 15% return on the bonds, investors are not likely to be happy that they were called. Because if the bonds have been called, this indicates that interest rates have fallen sufficiently that the YTC is less than the YTM. (Since they were originally sold at par, the YTM at issuance= 14%.) Rates are sufficiently low to justify the call. Now investors must reinvest their funds in a much lower interest rate environment.

7-10

a.

Solving for YTM:

 
 

N

= 9, PV = -901.40, PMT = 80, FV = 1000

I/YR = YTM = 9.6911%.

 
 

b.

The current yield is defined as the annual coupon payment divided by the current price.

 

CY = $80/$901.40 = 8.875%.

 

Expected capital gains yield can be found as the difference between YTM and the current yield.

CGY = YTM – CY = 9.691% – 8.875% = 0.816%.

 

Alternatively, you can solve for the capital gains yield by first finding the expected price next year.

N

= 8, I/YR = 9.6911, PMT = 80, FV = 1000

PV = -$908.76. V B = $908.76.

 

Hence, the capital gains yield is the percent price appreciation over the next year.

CGY = (P 1 – P 0 )/P 0 = ($908.76 – $901.40)/$901.40 = 0.816%.

 

c.

As long as promised coupon payments are made, the current yield will not change as a result of changing interest rates. However, as rates change they will cause the end-of-year price to change and thus the realized capital gains yield to change. As a result, the realized return to investors will differ from the YTM.

7-13

The problem asks you to solve for the YTM and Price, given the following facts:

N = 5 × 2 = 10, PMT = 80/2 = 40, and FV = 1000.

In order to solve for I/YR we need PV.

However, you are also given that the current yield is equal to 8.21%. Given this information, we can find PV (Price).

Current yield = Annual interest/Current price 0.0821 = $80/PV PV = $80/0.0821 = $974.42.

Now, solve for the YTM with a financial calculator:

N = 10, PV = -974.42, PMT = 40, and FV = 1000. Solve for I/YR = YTM = 4.32%. However, this is a

periodic rate so the nominal YTM = 4.32%(2) = 8.64%.

7-14

7-16

The problem asks you to solve for the current yield, given the following facts: N = 14, I/YR = 10.5883/2 = 5.29415, PV = -1020, and FV = 1000. In order to solve for the current yield we need to find PMT. With a financial calculator, we find PMT = $55.00. However, because the bond is a semiannual coupon bond this amount needs to be multiplied by 2 to obtain the annual interest payment: $55.00(2) = $110.00. Finally, find the current yield as follows:

Current yield = Annual interest/Current price = $110/$1,020 = 10.78%.

First, we must find the amount of money we can expect to sell this bond for in 5 years. This is found using the fact that in five years, there will be 15 years remaining until the bond matures and that the expected YTM for this bond at that time will be 8.5%.

N = 15, I/YR = 8.5, PMT = 90, FV = 1000

PV = -$1,041.52. V B = $1,041.52.

This is the value of the bond in 5 years. Therefore, we can solve for the maximum price we would be willing to pay for this bond today, subject to our required rate of return of 10%.

N = 5, I/YR = 10, PMT = 90, FV = 1041.52

PV = -$987.87. V B = $987.87.

You would be willing to pay up to $987.87 for this bond today.

7-18

First, we must find the price Joan paid for this bond.

N = 10, I/YR = 9.79, PMT = 110, FV = 1000

PV = -$1,075.02. V B = $1,075.02.

Then to find the one-period return, we must find the sum of the change in price and the coupon received divided by the starting price.

One-period return =

Ending price Beginning price + Coupon received

Beginning price

One-period return = ($1,060.49 – $1,075.02 + $110)/$1,075.02 One-period return = 8.88%.

7-19

a. According to Table 7-4, the yield to maturities for Albertson’s and Ford Motor Co. bonds are 6.303% and 8.017%, respectively. So, Albertson’s would need to set a coupon of 6.3% to sell its bonds at par, while Ford would need to set a coupon of 8%.

b. Current investments in Albertson’s and Ford Motor Co. would be expected to earn returns equal to their expected present yields. The return is safer for Albertson’s. Looking at the table, we see that the Ford Motor Co. bonds were originally issued with a lower coupon but their yields have increased greatly (resulting in a spread of 320 basis points, compared to Albertson’s spread of 149 basis points).