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HEE ( AA@ @II @Aw .
S
<=S : E@<= A<=A A@@@ A@@A A H<< A ( A<S S<= @H@ AA@= AH@@ A@= H<= AA<L
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@<=A AA< LH<=@ I@ E=@ SA<= AI@@ A .
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HEE A@HE= A<<= <H@< tI< @AL << << H<@ S@<< I= E@= :@E< E@ <= H@@<
A H@= AH<A A<= @<@ A H@< A<@ < @=< .
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.
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<<w S I<H@< A@AA A@< A@A A<@@< @<A@ ES I@L@ @@ EAH<= AS I@@=@@ @=@=@@ SI
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{ .
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<= AH@=@ AAA< AHEE A@A= @HE@A AHA=@ E<@ A H@=. A

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H@@ AA@ <= AI=@ A@<= @HS= IH@ A<I E<=@ A@= OA=@ <A @A<< @E@I. O
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@A AQ @HAA <<A EA @HA @ <A E< @@@A @=A < S=< @<=@ A=A@ A@@A A@E@
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EH@ ) E H@<L@ ( E<= HEH@ .
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@@<L=
=A< @@@L@ <I E@= << S=< @<= A@A H@@L@ <I@ EA <@<= AHE= S@A H@ I<I E@A <=
@= <<<A@ A=@E@ @<< <E EE@ < @A E@<=@ AI @@<L@ A=A<@ A< LH<=< @@ SiIA
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H@=< S@<= @=E= A=@ H@A t H@@@= <L< HA=@ A<@<=@ HE= SA< L@@ @=A SA= @=A@
< @AA@ AA< AIE A@= SE=@@ SE EA @ QHE= A<< << I=<A ) t<=<@@ ( <=
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@= O@A< O< ( A=@ ) EE A@H O@@= ( OAES A I AHE=@< A@ <A @=E S
) @EH@ ( O@H @< EE A@H ) O@< ( A=@ ) =@ AS=E O@@=A AA tE A@@H A@A@ OA<
=@ ( OAAL AIH@ A<@ @. I
S

) <=S : E@SA@ <= HE= SA=@ EE A@A .


.
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@=EA@ A @@ AEE AHE= A@A=@ @I AH@@A A@@ EEEA A@@ SA= A@ < @A A=SE
@@ H@@@ A@A< EE E@ < @A @@@ @<LA @ H@ E<I E@@ SA= A@ < @A L A AA=@
@@ AA AH@H A@A=@ EE A@ < @A t@@@ @<A@ A=@ A AH@H AA@ << A H<A :
L@@@ EE AHE= AI< S<= @@ S@ < @A A= S E@@ H@@@ A@HA=@ S@AHA< p @= .
) <=S : E@<= @HS= IH@ A<I E<=@ A@= OA=@ <A @A<< @E@I ( O<S S@=A <=@ @=w
E=@A @<A@ A< L=A@< IH AEA E=A@< EE AH@A QA@=@ O< <A AH@@ A@<= @=@A<E
@@@< E<E EE@ @=EA@ @< @= @@< IH@ A<I E< @=@ S@A IH@=< AA< L@@ < @SS
@Aw .
@<@@ SHA< A@H@ EA@ <= =@<@ @<w <<=@@ <<@ E@I @<@= @=@E ES I<=@< E<@@< H@At
<A=@E@ @A E@<= AHE= S@A=@ E< @A E@H<=@ @< <= A<A EE@ A I= AA=@
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.
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S=< @<=@ @< @=< <I EE<I A@ < <= @@ H@ <A H@<= E@A @@@ <<I E=A< .
SH @@< @< < <=@@= AA=@A A@<< w@@<=
H@ @A@ H<= A@@@ HE= SAEEA A@= @=@ O@<<I E<= @HS= @< ASEA ) A<=S : EA
<@ A@A<= @A .
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@<< A H@= : A@<= @< A Q@ AA<w A @H AIA@ ALA < E=@@ <A=E= @= << :

@A EEH<w @A=E= @= << < @A EEH<w @IA E<I E< <=<@ HA< EA @@ iHA@A
A= IA@ A@<= @SI@ <A@ AI= E@@ EAHS@ <@A EHE=. S
) <@ @H@ @<= @E HEH@E@ ( @=A @E < E=@< @ H@ p<<@@ @<= EA HEH@@@ ) < S=<
@<=A@ @ <= E=A ( HA< LHEH@< @=@ EA= HA< AHA@@= A<< A HE=@@ .
) @@@@ ( HE= ) SAH@Q ( A<= @@@ @< H@ Q< HE@Q< H@Q@ EE A<A AHA<@ A@I
<= <@< H@= E@<< @= HS i@AL <A@ HS ) @@< @= <=<@ EE <= @A ( @A< E@
@=E@ ) A<= @<< < AA ( @ HAHA=@ ) AA H<@< ( Q= AH@=E A@A< < @A EAHES AA<L
HEE@ @=@ HES A@=@ HA=@ A<<= @@@ A A<A@ @<t EHEH A@< I@ ASH@ HA=@ S@AS
@<E AHS@ <@S SEHA AHEE A< EHA A@H@@ <A@ ) <= @<@= @<= @@ @ ( <AI@ <= @<=E
<< <= < @A << A LAAI. A
S
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A<= AH@Q A@@< E@ E@ EHE@Q AA= HEE A<@ @I@ A AA H@A A H@@A. A
@A <= AH<A A<I EAHA=@ AL < H@S< H@Q EE=< E=Aw <AI EE=@< A AA< @@@I E
@A< E@I SA A@A A@H<I S<=< @@@HA H<< E@<= AA @@i A H@ L E@@< .
) <=S : E@@< @= <=<@ EE <= @A ( <S SA A@@ < <I@ <= =<<@ @=E@ S I<=<@=
< S=< @<=@ @A A@I@ I=<A t<<< :< <=<@ H<A EEE <A AA@@@ AA A@@ O< @A EA<IE
<=@ E@< AI@A A<@@ <H<A@ A< @@= << E@= S I<=<@= @A A@@ O@A E@<= AA<L
EE@ HE= AAA@@ AI< A@E@ A=@@ E@< <@@ <HEE A@@< A< LA<< H@@@A
E=@@@ @=@ =<A A<@@E@ @=@ E<A=@A@ <@A EHE= S .
<A= @ I@ SA@ AH S@< = E<@ @@ @E@IS ESE EHE= A@<=@ A@ =<<@ @E@ SI
<=<@= A@< AH@@ AHEHA Q@@@ AIHA< A@=@@ @@=@ HEE A@<= @I@ A<A@ A HE=@A
<<< @SA@ <= @=A HE=< AES A@A A=A< O@A=< A<A OA= @= A@@@ O@=A< A@=O
A H<@ QA@< AA< AH@@@ A@=@ HES A@HA=< A@< E=A E<@ ptE AA@@A@ L A A<EH@@E
@A< :< @A EA@@ AEE AI@ A@=@@ .
) <=S : E<= @<< < AA @ HAHA=@ ( A<S S<= @<@ <H<< @ HAHA=@ A<<< <=< A@=@< @= @<<
AHA=@ A@<=A A<H@= ) A<=S : E<= @<@=

@<= @@ @ ( @< A=@ <A @A<< @E<@ @E@ =A@ E<A @A IL AA< L@H@ EE AIH AA<
.
@A=@ <A EE@ @E@ A@@ @= E@I O< S=< @<=@ A@@ AI A<< A HEA : AE@ IAE
<A= @A E@<=@ HEE p<< A I=A A@<< A HE=@ : A@@<=@ HE= SA=@ <A @A<< @AH
<= @@ @ =A@w @H@<@ AHEE AA <= A <=AA@ H@ A@E@ IA EA@@A AAQ<A
@<= E@= @A< w@HEE p<A AtS@ AH@=E@ AAHA<@ A .
@@@HS E< L<H<@ H@@A A<@< A<= A<A @A<< ) <=S : E<AI@ <= @<= E<< <= < @A (
<S S@< @=A A= EA< LHE@@ AH@A AH@A EA=A<A t< H<= E@<< A@ < =< E@A@
<A< S<AA@ @@<@ A@ @@I@ AH<= AA @A A@ <H<@ HE@Q E@<= AHEE@ @AE
H@= A<A L@< LA @I= E@A @S EH@@ EA<=A. A
) @E IA@< AHEE@ ( AE@ IA E< @ A< A@= AHEE@ ) A@AA O@A=@ O@@@<< ( @@ SLA
A<L EH@@ <=E EEI wA@< AHA ) A@EA@ A@= <=<@ <A <= @<< AA ( @@A pA A@A
H@= A< LH<=@ @< < LA IHES AA IA A@IA@ A@=@ @=@< @@ ) w<= <<@ @= AIO
@A@L< @AE=@A<< @SE O@=A=< OS=EA@ A EE A<@ A@ AS=A@ @< @=A@ ( <AIw
<@= <= <A@. w
S
) <=S : E@@@<< ( <S S@<A@ < H@=@A< A @@<< @=@ I@. A
@<< A @= AH@=@ A@A @@<< @AI@ <H@@ <H< A A< LHE=< <=@ A@@<< .
SH E<E@E E<I EAHES A@A A@H@ E<= S= A<A AH@ Q@LA E<I EAHES A@@ <S t<@
<@@ < =A@A AA@= A@@<< A= <= AEE A@@< O<@ A H@= ) A<=S : E<@@ L@ .
.
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<= ( .
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A <= A<A EE@ A<I@ <H@ SA= H@H A@<S IA E<= S<A EE@ <<< @=@A AHE@QA
H@= E@< IA AA@= AHE= AA HA AA@<A A<@ @@ @<= AHE@Q EA HE E@ AA@=AA
A@<A@ A@S< @=E EA HEE@ A@HA@= A@< A=@ O@A ) O<=S : E@A@L< .
.

.
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< @@ @@<I@ @=E ) E@=A ( :@HA S= @A AA O@EE@ O=@@@ @@ @@@ O<@ A<=@=
A@ <= ( .
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<S S@<= @HS= @ HEE. A
@<< H<@ : S@<@ E@ AS= AH@=< A@EEA@ @< IE A@A H<@= <AI w .
@<= @= AA<w
) @@E@ @< HEE AEE SH@=A A@<= AHEE ( AA<w AIAA QA<=A A@<= AI< } E<AQ <
SA H@=A@ A@A O@< EE ) { OL A@E@ ( O<< H@S< @ E@=A A< H@=A. A
) @ ( @E@ @<= ) AL@ ( EAH<=@ AA<I EA H@=A A@=A@ < AHA A@=@ <=A : A@@E@ @<
HEE AEE SH@=A AA<L E@@I@ <I E<I @@ < EHES E@@ <I E<H@ <=< AH@ Q<<< H@E@
L@ E<=< << A H<A @A< LH@=A@ H@@@ <= @A << @@ <I E<= E=A= A @@A
=@A@ @<= AI< E@<= SQ@ <I E<= @S= H@=A EH@@ E< @E E<E@ L@ E<< A
HE=@=< @E@QE E@ <<@ A <@ AH@@ AAHA@ AtEA Q@A@< @@@ @<=A@ H@A EAEEA
IH AA L@ A< AEEAA@ H@=A@ ) @A@ SHS= ( AS=EA@ A <=A A<A< H@ S@A<
@ E@@ <= ) A<=A ( A@<I A@E EA<= AiH A@L@ A@= EA= AL AI=@ AIAA
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) @@=S ( E<= @= S@ E@ A ) A@< @H@
) @@ t@ E@ ( <= HS= ) SA ( A<L= A@H<=@ A
AA@ AH<=A@ ( A@@Q@ @@=A@ @AH A= AL A@@< @I=A A@H<H A@t= A@=@
H@=@@ A@<= A@@= A@< A I= A@E@@@ A<=A A<=< AHA@ AL < =@<@ <= @H A<=< E<=<
AHA@ A<< A HE=@@ .
S
) <=S : E< @E E<E@ L@ ( E<S S<< @=@A H@ E IA AA<I EA A@ A<=A : A@@E@ @<=A
L@ E@=A HEE@ <AI E<<@ A@@< @= @<< @= EAEIA@ ) <=S : E<A< H@< ( <S S@< @<
A@@ AL@A QA< LA A@@A AE@ EA@ S@ E< H@ AA@= ALA ) A<=S : E@A< @ E@@
<= ( <S S@=A <E@ @@ <E=@ AH@ A@@< @< A@@ AH<=A QA< LA A@@A AH@ S@@ E@@
@< @ @@ OA HE=@ A<@ A I=A ) A<=S : E@@=A EHS= A@=w @=w ( @=S E@ HE@ EAA
HA@A t<= <=E ES I@<= @ @t EA H@IAI AS=EA@ A @=A AHEE A@H@A AHS=<

@H<@ t<I EE@i E<A@ w<A@ w@ E< H@ A< @< <= A A@ AHS=. A
) <=S : E@@ t@ E@ A ( AE=@= @= EA@ <I@ EA<=A AHE=A SH@A S< @@ tE=@w .
) @EH@ E< ( E<= AHEE ) AA@@E ( E<= HS= AA HA@ A< @H@ AHEE A< H@HE@ HS=< <
<@= IA< S<= L= E<= HA@@ S@< H<= AA=@ <A EE@ A<I E<=@ A@A O@HA@@S
EA@= @=w @=w @AI E<=@ AS= O@<< E@I :SA t< H< @HE@ A< LA@@< HEE A@=A
@=@ HA@. A
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) @< EH@ E< E@ tHS= AAHS ( Q@< @ @@@ ) @@H EHE=@ AAIA ( QA< LA @HAAA=
AHEE A@@ AA= @A @HAA A< HES A@HA< AH AHS= A<EQ@ AIE@. A
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.
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tHEH EAH<@@ AEH<w A<I E< <@@<
<= ( <S S H<< @@E E@ <<@ E@= HA@ A<< @ A
A@ < <@= IA< S@< H<= A@A H<< @Aw AIA< A@E@ @HE E<E@ @A S=
@@<I@ E=@ S@ Q@ E@ A A@@=A A .
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A<I E@HE EAH<< A@E@ A @A A<< A <@@ <= A@@=<=@ @<<@ <E L= : A<I E< @HEE E@AH
<@= IA< S@< H<= A@<= << @ E< H@ A@<<@ HSEA t<I E< @H@ A A< <@=
IA< S@< H<= A@A< E@ <= S<A EE@ .
) <=S : E< A@ SHSE ( A@< A <A AQ@@ A@<A@@ E@I AE=@ AHS= AA< LS@ @A@ LE
@= E<@@ EA E=@A A<<@ EI=<A t@@H EHE=@ AAIA QE@ IA ) E<=S : EA< LA
@HAAA= ( << @=@A H@ EIA AAHE<@<. A
) <= EA ( :<= << EH@ wA A< OE@@ O@= E<= EH@= EE SH@< AA A@A=A@ E@=
AH A@< <H@ S<<@ EI=<A. t
E< AA A<<< ) @@E@ ( A<= HEE p
S I<I <@< A= HEE A@HE= A@@@ A @@ A@ @ =
@HE= ) SA@ AH@= A@H@= A@HAH A@H@< A@LH ALA A@A@ O<@@ @=A@ ( E<=

@=A@ EAI= ) A@A< EH@ ( E<AS EIAA t@<E H@@ AIAA t@A <=A " A<@@ " @@
< <I E<= <= @HA= <= EH@= Q<w .
) @ ( @E@ ) AA@ O@=@A EA AHAH ( E<< A EE AH@<A ) A< A@ AHAH ( A<= H@AA
A<@@ AHAH A<< A HE<@ A<@ LH<=@ @=@E@ < LH<I< @ O@< <A@A AH<=AI A@LA@
=<<@ < <A@ OS=@ ) @A H@@ ( <= @E@ AAHA@ AH@HS@ A@< @HA A< H@E@ ) A( A
<= A @A OA= AH@ HA@ ) A<= E@@A ( <= @ < @@ < E@Aw ) <t=E ( A@H@H@ A
@H@ Q@@ A@@=A@ ) <= @A tH@=A A<I@ ( A@I@< A@tH@ A@@=A@
@tH@ EH@=A t@H@Q t@@ @A< H@Q tEHA ) <= @A@ ( E@H @< A A<= @A H@@
@A@ ) E<SHA@ A ( A@=A < <=@ A IA A@=@ < H@E@ A H@ A<= @A@ E<SHA@ A ) A<
@A tH@@ A@@Q tH@=A ( A@H @< @A QH@=A ) A<H@ ( i@HA@ Q<A L@=@ EA H@A
EHAE ) E<< ( <= <H@ ) A@A EH@A@ ( AA HEH AH@HS ) A<= <I@ ( @H @< @@ )
<=@< ( E<= <=@@ @A OA= AH@ HA@ A@A@ L= S@L= E@IA@ ) SEH <= <A
@A ( =A@ @= H@A A@@@HA @@E E@<= @<@= A@@ S<A OA= H@@A A@<< <= <I@ <@@
<=@A A<A <@@I@ @= EEI AHA@@A
< L<H< H<@ A=A@ @I <=< E@I << < <I@ H@=<= A<= @E= HEE pA A@<=@ <<A@ A@
<< A H@@A A<= @<@ HAI@ <= H@A< <@@I@ <=E E@<=E E@AE E@E EA AHEE p@<< A
Q@@ AH@=S S@= H<@A< A@@E E@I < L<=@@ H<=@ A@H@ H@A A@< EA HA@ A<E@QE
@@ A= @= SL= S@L= E@IA@ SS IIE= @@@IS< A=@ A= <= A@A O@<@@ A @=A
L@A Q<= A@<A= @=S E< H@S< @A @< ALA A<I < <<@ @<= A<=E E@@@ A A<A <<
@E E<@ @@HA ) <S=@ O@@=<@ O@<A@ O@@@ OA H<@ ( Q@@ < @ @<< A= H@@A A
@Q@@ ) A H@A@ @< ALA ( A<= AH<=A< AH@HS@ A@<=S ) EAA< ( AE@@i A<=A A<= <I@
<=@< ) E@ <I@ <@@@ ( <= <@@ <=@A ) A@@ ( <A LHE@@ AH@=E AA <=A A@<= AI<S
@I< } EH@ p<E < E@QE E@= L @ <I@ <=@< E= <=@ E<= A@ { EE@ I@ EA< LLA@
< E@Q E<A ) @A@ ( O@H @< @ O@=@A E@=EA@ A @HA AH@ AH@A <=A@ @E@
E=@ EHA@@ A@H<A @E@ @ ) @H@ EAA=@ ( O@<@ ) A A@@ <= E@ ( <= <= E=@ = .
) <<E ( E@E@ L= S@L= E@IA@ S@I HEA@ <= @E= =A=@S ) E<= @ A EHA ( A<=
H@A ) @E@ @= A @= ( O<= @@@ A<HE OA @@@ A<HE OAA@ AHA=@ AA@@ AA

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) <=E EAH@= ( AAI@t A@A< AAHA@ A@A<
<= @@@I= S E@ H@@@I E@=A EHES A H<@= @=AI w@@I@ @AL << @A=@ @@A AHA@A
@@@I EAA@ ) @<= E=@@ E@ E@ A<=A ( AA< H@S< < ES @E= @< @=@ < E<A= <= EA<
@@ @= A @= O<= @HS= EH@ EA <A AQ@@@ A H<< <E E<=@< HE=@A Q< @@@I SAA
A< LI@@< @A S< H@= A@<< <E @= : O@@@I SA AA< L=A@@ H@= A@A H<=@@ I@t@
<A I=A@@ A< EAE E<< @@@I ) EE@ ( <= <=E E<A E@ ) HE=@ ( E< @ << <E
E<=@< << A EE AH@<A. A
@A LAAI AH@= E< << << LA= @= OA @= O<AI E@A <@<@= A AI@@ S@I
@@I@ S I=@@< @@@ @= A @= O<E@ @A @<= @<@= A AI@@ S@E@ @= A @=O
S I=@@@ H@ p<@@ << LA= @= OA @= O<E@ <A << A I@=@AI ) H@= EE@I E=@@E
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@< A@ AI= A@A@@E@ @H@A @ < @@<I E=A=@S E@A< E@ @ @H@ EAA=@ O .
@@= E@ <@ A H<A A< L<H< : E@H@A @ @H@ EAA=@ O .
@<< @@ @<= A@A EH<A A H<= AA<=A A@E@ @ @H@ EAA=@. O
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<<@ EA H@@A A@I=A A@<A OA= HSE A .
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S A= L= A<= L= A<= IA@ A<< <@ << A H<= A@E@ <= <= <= <= A .
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A@ EHA@@ A<= HA=@ A<= A S i@@ A@@< A= S@AA= <H@ S A=@ @I@ E@= <@@
<= A@HS A HE@I A .
@<< A H<A :@H<@ t< HE=@@@ A S i@@ O@@< OA@EE= )
<=S : E H<@= @=AI w@@I@ @AL << ( <S S@=@A < HE@@ HEH E@< SE A<< AI@@ A@=AIw
<@= <= < AEHA@ <I E<H@A <@ << H<@ S@@= <A EE@ <I E<H@A < @@@I EL
AI@t A@E@ LA @=@A @=AE E<@=@A @@ EH<= A@=@ H@=AI A@<=A@ .
A< LIA< I@ @H@A A=@ H<H@ AI@t@ L AI@tA A= <= A<= O@E@ <= HEH EHE=@E

@<= A@< @ <I=@ EA= @H A@= AHA=< A .


@<< A H@= A@=@ @HA AA@< @A Q@ A@@<= AH<=@ S I<< : L@@A@ @ @@ I=A
@IE HEE A= < Q@< << A@ < <@= <=@ @=AI O<@ <S @A A H@ AH@A
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I@t A .
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@E EHEE pA A@A H<< @A @E@ IA E .
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A H@A < @@@L EA H@@ iL ASE AH<< A@A@< @=@A E@ <I@ EI=<A t@< @ @< E@=
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A @= O<H@A < @E @< < L@=A@ HES A< @@@I EA<I E<= @=@H E<H@A <A< @@I@
@=A EHES AA= H@A <A= E<=< <@<I. H
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H<H@ AA=@ <A @A<< @< @=A AIH AA @@ AES AI@@ A< H@A AH@ A@A=@
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@A@< @H@ E@= E@ =@@ EA A=A@ AA<I E<= @S= < E@= <<H@ EHSE AHEH EAEEA
I@@ A< H@A AH@ AA= @=A A@A A@<@ EH@ H<A A H<=@ EH EH<A A@@t@
H@A AH@ AAESA@ A E<@< OAE A@@t O .
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.

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@=A EHA@@ .
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<A LAI w@<<A@ A HE@I A@=S SA<< A@ O<H@= AA E= AHE@I AAA@@ A<= O<AH@ E<= O@AE
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A@ @E= EA@ O@A= EHSH A@=@ @A= @@= <@=A EA=@ HSH AA A=A
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@=@ AH<= A@E@ @@@ @AA=@ A<H O@< @@@ O@=E EA< @AA=@ A<@A@ O@< @@@O
@=E E<=@@ S<=@ O<@ A Q@ AH@I A@@< A< SH@= AHE@I A@SHA A@HSH : EE@
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@< E= AI= A@E@ A=@ <@@@ HSH E<@@ @@@ A@ @EE@ A@ O@E=@ S=A@ AAIO
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<<=@ E@<= @@H@ <A@ AA@< O@I=@ I= EIA@ E< H@= AHE=@A A@A<A@ E=< E<L
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@@=A AA <= AHEI A@@ =A@ AH@= AA H@= A@H@= EAL AEHAA
I@. A
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EEA AE=A ) @H@ ( iA< S@ S=EA@ A= <@ ) O@H@@ ( AA< A@ @< <=E EAL= ) A<=
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I=A E<= A@@t AI@ AA@= S< @=E EA< A< O@LA I < H@S< HE@A S@A <=
@A <H<I S H@@ @< H<=@ A<H@A EH@ p@LA I < H@S< HE@A S< E@AE
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<< <=E E@<=E E<A A A<= @E= HEE pA A@AL @@ @<< @ pHAi A@@=A AE=@@ EA AH@<@S
AL= A<@< @< @=@A < HE=@< @A E@ @ A=E= @< @ @A EA ) A<= ( A@ ) OS=E=A< AS=@O
<= @H A@@ ( OH@ p@A EE=@=@w A=@ <A @A<< @<A EE@ @A@E@ L EAS -= A HS=@A
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EE @=A @A EE=@=@w <= @A=@ E@I OALA << ) H@A H<< ( H@ pHE=@=@ ) S<A
A IA ( A=A@ @I @@ H@@ E@= <A @A< < <I E@@ @@@ w<A< w@@I << <E
EE@ @E@ A@@ @= <A @A<< I E@@ @@@ w@A< w@<= @@ E@I @= <A @A<< <IE
<A <= E<E O@@<= AH<=@ .
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@E SA AH<S E@E@ E<I A@ < <= @=A= @< H@< A@=S EAL@ ) E<=S : EA@= S< @=E EA<
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) <=S : E<L@ A@<w E@AS EA L= A@L= A<A H<< <=E E@<=E E<A A A<= @E= ( <SS
@A E< HE<< <A H<< <=E E<= <=E EA<= < AH@ A<@ << I=<A tHEH@A EA@< IA A<AH
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< << E@AS EA @= O@A O<= @=<= A<=S : E<= A@ OS=E=A< AS=@ ( O<S S@A@ <@ <=
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@HA EHA=@< AHE=@@ Q<@ A H@= A@A@= A<= O<A O<= @I OE=< S<= @@A A<= @HA AAiA
<= I@ A< <= @S= E=Aw < @A EE=@=@w <@ A H<= ) A<=S : E<= @H A@@ ( O<SS
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@A EE=@=@w .
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A HAH A@@@@ EI@=A t@<< :IE
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<A@@@ A@=A A@<I LA <A<@@A ) A@@ ( <= AH ) @HE EA ( A<= AQ@ ) A@HE EAL<( A
A<I@ @=@ S@@< Q@ AA @< AtS@ AIA@ A<< A HA@@ A@HA<@ : A@@ @HE EAHEE
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E@ @A HS=A@ < AHA A<A@ IHAE
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<@ tHA@@ A@ <<=@ ) AA< A<=A AA IA< ( A< A H<A @Hw @= H<=@ A@A H<<
A HA@@ AA<< E@<<@ A HE<@ A@= <A EE@ < LHA=A@ < SA@ <E@ AHE EAQ@. A
S
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@E@ @ @=@ EI=@ .
.

.
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@= @@A EI=A@ A@= <@ A HE=@ A@H@= A@H<= A@<A= <<@ A H@= A@Hw @=
L@@<
IAA Q<< A HS=@ A@HE=@@ : L<A@< H@EA Q@@A AI=A@ A@= EE A
@< H<@ Q@A H<= @S= @HSw S I<< :@@E @< < L@< E@ H<@ t< L@A@ Q@@ A<<@
@< I=< LA <I=@ EAA@ AA< @=A < <@@ <A @ H .
) <=S : EAA< A<=A AA IA ( A<S S=@<@ I=A EA @A AH@=<< A@@ <<@E
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( A <@@ <A L= AH<H E< @@< H@ S I@@@ @=@<@ <<@@ <=@ =@ O<H@@ E@<=
<@@ E@ p@< O@@A H@=<< AA@A@ <= EHA= EA< LH@ A H<I A<@@ AH@ E@AE H E@A

@A LA <@@ @=@ E@@=E E<A .


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@=A AHE EAQ@ A@E@L @<= A@EI@ S@H .
.
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@= << EA@@@ A@= AH<H AI= EAA< A<=AA= A@@@ A@= AHA=A A<AI E@=E SA A@=E E<=
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E<A
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@<< E@I :@E EEH<w .
) <= AH E< @= OA @= ( O<I@ A AA<I@ <= <@= @= A @= O< @@@I E@ < = @@@I=
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Q@ EA@ <<= <H@@ H<A S<A@ H@@ E@E@ @=S <@< @< < <=@ @=@ IH A@H@A A
@IA A@HE=<A A@H@= A@HE< @I= AAEE AIE@ A@< <=@ <= @=@ @A
HA= A@H<<@ AA IA AAEE AIE@ AA HE=< ) A<@ < @<@@ A A=<O
<EA@@ ( H< p@E @< H<= A<< A :H@=E A< @=E E< EA@= A= @@A A@<= @=@ <@
<= AIE@ A A< LA= @@A@ <I@ @=@ EA=@ H@H ) A<= =@<@ A@ @@@ @@A ( <I@ A AA@
@@HA < L@ < @@ < E< =@<@ <= @<I@ A H@ A<= H@A A<= @=E= <= @HS= I<t@ A<L
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SL@ ( <= S L@A@ <<< @= E@ A@ A= H@ A<@@ w<@ .

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@=@@ @=@ A< O@<w S IE@ EH<@@ S<@=S E<= =@<@ <A H=@<@ H@= E<E@ A< @<AI E<
@=@A EL < << @= EHAH AA= <I A@ QH@ A< <= AHAH AE@@A ) @A< E=@ EA<@ @H O<
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A@ <= @H@=E= L <=S@ E@ IAE
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S
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.
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<= H@@@ E@I A H@A AIA A@< @A AHA@@@ A<= @H@A= @<=@ <AI E<< < @<@= @=@
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I A@A@ @=@ E@H@ H@H AA HA=< A<@ E=< EA= @=A A@A A@I@ A HA@@ A@<=A@
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=@ << <<@ E@=E@ E@L EQ A@A@ EL E<<@ EA H@=@@ A .
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@@@ < E=< S<=E E<A@ AH@= A@E A=@<S A A@IA E<I E< E@QE E@<<
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@=E. E
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H@=S SA AAH<. E
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< SHA@ A< A@@@A A<< E@i EA <@@ AE=A AE@ IA E<< A H@= A@= H@@A. A
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<HA@ @@=@ <HA@ @EA Q@@ O<= @@@= A<=@ A@A O@ H@HE <A< AE=@ A<=A@ @A<
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) @ ( E= ) EI@@ AHE@L ( A<= H@A< AA @A@ AI ) A@A@ AL= A@@@AA
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.
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HE=@@@ SA HEH A@A H<@= <@ <A A=< <I SA@ < LHA=@< AHS Q<< @@ < LiH@ <=
@@ @< @ O<@<@= AH @ L<HS E@E=A EA HS=AI A<<< @=@A < H@S< @HSw A=@E@
@<A A=@ <A @A<< =A@ AHS. Q
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E=@=A { @H@ t@ tHA@ A@iH SAH StEI A@AI@ SH@ I EE@A AHA@ AA< LHA@@
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@< <I @S S LE=@ E<A <= @< @ E@ H<@ tA= Q@@ A<< A <@ AH@@ A<A HA<
<= @@@ < L@@< @A AH@@@@ A<A <<=@ @A t<=S EA@@A AA= L= AIA ASH@ @=@ @
@@@ <= S<A AH@@ A<A EH A@=@ < L@
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IE@ AAI< A<=. A
S
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I tA <@@A A@A< A <EAIA A@E@ IA ( EA@@ SH<A S I<< @@<= AHE=EE
@<< A H@= A@=@ @HA@ @< @@ Q<AA= <I E@< <A AQ@@ A< E@Q EL=@ @H@@< @H@
@< @=< EH@@< <A@< << A <= AH<=@ A@= ASE A<= AHA=< A LA=A<@ <HA SI
<< @A@< EA@ @= E@ =@@ LA AA HA@@ AA<= A@= << AI QA <EAIA AA<I E<= @@@
H@ HEH<@ < @A E@<= A<= S@HA A<A LEE@ <=A AI@ @HE EA@@ AI@@ A@LAE
I tA@ << @@@I EIH EAI Q<< @A E@EA@ <= @= E@ A <@@ <A @H
@HA @< <= AI QA <@@A A<I E<= @<@ A H@ A H<A A<H@@ EA<I E< H@@ AIQ
) <=S : E<< A H<A ( A@@ SH<A A= <=A A<A< I t< @E@ IA E<<=S : E@@<=A
H<=@ A= HS=@ ) A<=S : E@A H<@= <@ <A A=< .
.
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< <= @=A= @@E EAH< A<I < <<@ @@E E<< .

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@ A@H<=@ S< H@=A@ .
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@=@E@ .
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E=@=A ( << A HE=A A=@=@ II< @A@ EE= @A= } E<< @<= AI< E@=< EHA@@

E=@=A { @E@ @ A= @A AH<A AHE=@A Q@<= << A= H@HE A<A< E=@= .


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( <= @<= << I@t EAHA@ A@=A < @@@ A @< AHA AE@@Qw S I@@< EH@@ S@@@ <I EH
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A< L<=@E@ < @< O@E@ = E@H<@. p
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<< EH<@ S@<< A H@=@@ : A@A I= AA@@ @= =A=@ AE= OA= H<= A<A OA @@i
I@t A@A< A@@ @= H<= A< IA AAIHA A@@ A AHA@@ S<@ tA< LA HA@@ AHS<

=A@ S=A=@ AE= O@I@t EAH@@ A@E E@A H< = E@= =A=@ SE=. O
.
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<I@t EIA E@ OA@H AH@@@. A
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I< AA< LH@=@ @=@ SHS L@HA SE@ HE=@ EA IHA A<<@ EI=<A t@@=@A E<E EE@
A@@ AI@t A<=@< EH<A A@= @=A A@@@A A<= <@@ <= A<= H@ p<S @E@ <=@ E@ E IAA
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S=E @@= ES iS=E OA t@I A@A OEH@< O<= @ H@H A .
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@Et EL H@@< S< H@ A@< @Et EH@ p<H@=S A@@A AHA= AH@AA Q<A H<< < @AE
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<< A IHA. A
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A@@ <@< @E E< EI@t E=@ <@ A H@=@@ A .
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@A@=A A<< @=EE= < E@i @< A@ A<A @A<< @I @HA@ <= @< <@AA@ .
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A A@@< EA H<=@ AEA .
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<I EE@I E@= O H< @@@L E<A@ A HEE A@@ w .
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<@S S<<A@ E@ ) <=S : E<= @E <= @E ( O@@@ @@ @< @HA A<= @AA
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<< IA EA=@ H@ A@@@HS EEH@ HA@@ A H@ L E@@< <=S : E<= @< O@=E S< E<=
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@@=@AE E<E EE@ <@ A HE=@. A
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<= @A H<= @=@=A@ ) <<A< ( <= @H@ E@=@ <A< A@=E< A=A@ EAIH A<= H@ AH@=E@A
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< <= @=@= <= @E= .
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@= AHEE AAH@@ A@A A<< IQ E<E E@. O
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@=@ AH<= AA= E@I I@t A@= <A LH@HE@ A AH@= E<=@ <= EA HA@ A<< @@<
} <@@IE @A <Q <=@E AEEAS= { @E=@ S<=S : E@L L E@<= A@@L@ } I@tE
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<< EH<@ ) S<=S : E H=@=@@@ ( << A H@= : A@E=@@ SH@= EA@A AH@ A<= A<H<A@ @I
<= @@@ AS=E O@A@ O<= AS=E@= A< @E E@<= <I@ H@=@ @I =@=@@ AA< AIH A
@A=A@ E<= <A A <A AQ@@ A@= <=@A@ @I <= @@@ <Aw A= @@A AI@t A<
@E E@E@ H<@ tHE=@ E@@<= AH<=@ <@H@E E@=A SH<@A A@@= EH@@ A<= @=AS E@@=@E
@=@ H@A@= A@E AH@=@= A@A= @=A A<A@ H@@@ A @I=@ @< IA. A
@A Q@ A< @A E@= Ei=@ A@< H@A@ A .
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L AI@t AA <I AH@H AS I@@@
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<<@ H@ @AE E<= EQ@ A<A@ <A@A OEH@@ E@<= AL< E@A @@@ @< <= A<H@ O .
@<I@ HE=A@ A H@@A AAH@= A@<< A HE=@ : A@SQ@ L< EA@H@ OA= @A A<Q A@<<E
EEA A<<<A ) A<=S : E@@= <A EE@ .
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@A ( E<S S@<< E=@@ <@ A H@= ) A<=S : E@EA@ A@A. A
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) A<w @A< ( E@ <= ) E=@< A A<<@ EA= @AA A <A H@@@ E<= <=< EA<H<@ A= <@ AHAHA
<= ( <=< ) EA ( A<= A<@ AHAH ) A@E@ <=@ A=@ E@@I@ @AL ( <= @A H<= @=@= E<= <=< EA<@A
HAH A@E@ A=@ ) E<< ( @@@I ) E@<=< ( E<= <=< <<AA A= ) EA< @@ ( I@t E=@@ EA HA@@) A

@A< < ( =@@ EA H@=E. A


S
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A HA=< A@@@I@ @@L <@<< E<<=< EEA EA<I E<< <A @A H@@@ E<=< EEA A@<=< E@=@
<@A A<= EA= A<I E<= @@@I= < LHS=@< <@= <A@ w .
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A= E .
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@=S @@ w .
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@A<< < <<@ @< <Q A@=E E@E@EE@ :< < I@@@ H@= A .
@<< A HE=@ A@=@ AHA A@A@< <= @= AA H<A A<w @<<@ A@@@ E<@ <I=@@ .
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@H@ EA@A O<@=@A <EAI St@ AA<I EA= <=@ AIH AA<I E<=@ AEE A@A O< @A< w@<
EH <A< <@@ @< H@ A@<= @@@I HS I@A@ E<@@ I@t@ @A< H@@< HEE E@<= @A HH@p
<=@ E@<w @<A@ H@ p@<=@< @@w EA EHEE <@@I@ <E@ S I@@@ A= H@ @ @HAA@

@<< @@tE EA @ QS i@A OA=E@ @A H<= @H AA<@AA@ @A@ A @iA@ @A H<<


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< QI ( S<AI@ < @=S E@I < @@I@ HE=A ES I=@ I@HA@ SA<L AA= ES I<=<@ @I= @<EE
A ) AEA@ <H<E ( E<= <= << <H< E<=@ AHEE AA= E@=E A H@@ AH<=@ A<= <H<E
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@=E ) <@< ( H<=@ A HEE A@HE= ) A@< @=@ E@=@E@ ( <= @=@ I@t A@HE=A
A< LA A@= @=@ H@@ A@HE=@ AA= E@< @A@ < EA I= A@<= << A<H< A@@A AHEEA
A@@ w@Et@ H@p
@A<H< A@@A AI@t AA@@ w@Et@ I@t E< E@i .
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<< ) A= ( A@ ) AHA@ ( A<<A O@=@E EHSL EA= HEE A@@=E OA Q= A@@= A< < EH
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S
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S I<=@@ @<= A@@E E<@ @A H<=@< @@w EA EHEE <A L@@t@ E@=@A EA=A@ AH@@A
<<@@ <=< EH@@ A< <=< EH@@@ A<AI EE=A < EE ) <=S : EA<I E@<S ( E<< A H@=A
=<= < LI@t@ @@ A< @ Q<w <A= =@<S A < =AI AH@@ AA @=A@= A<@EE@ A<=@A@
@@ IAA Q@A@ EL E@<<@ ES I<< LA HA< E@=@ <=@A@ <A=@ <A @A<< @<A EE@
H@@AI S@=@ H@ A@t@. A
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<<@@ E@@@@ E@@@HA A H@ L E@@< .
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IA@ @H@ EA@A. O
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<= ( << @= EH<<A A<=SE= LH@@< IA@ @A @A< w< E@A E<=< <A @A<< @<A
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<<=@ @A t< HE<< @A< H@@ SIA E@@< EA=@ HS=@ A<H<=< < HE<< <I << @@E
HS=@ A@< H@ A@=w A@=EAI AI@t A@EE AL@@ A<A=@ EEA@ <= @=@ @=E <=@<
A< L=A< I= A@=@HA E=A< H@=E A@HE@ EAIH A=A<E E<< A H@= ) A<=S : E@AH
<< A<@AA@ A@=A ( A@=A @<= @H AH@@ ) <=S@ : EA H<< AS -A=E@ E=<A ( @=A <=@
@= OA<H
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< A=@< AS=A A@SE EH<@A A< @=@ EA H<@ Q@ HH@A ESE E<= A<< A<@A@ A<@A@

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@< H<= EA EL= A<= @=@= EA=A< AH@A A@= I< A@H@= EHE=@@ E@ @=E SA A@=<< @@
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@<A A<= A H@=E. A
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t@ AH<A@ A@A@ @I@ A @= AH@=@ A<@ <<=@ E<I@ EEE EIA AAHEH. A
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<< H<@ EA @=AA A@H@A E@=E E@@=E S<= @= S H@=E E<< A H<A .
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<< L< @=S S@=E E@<= =@ L@A EH<@ A@@<< H@ pH<=@ @<< H@= EEA@ <A@ @= <A
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L= A@=S
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< EA EH@=@ @< @ @=@ EA< LH@A@ @= @A AAQ@ A<@@ <@H O@=@ H@= ) A@<=
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A< LA=< E@A EA<A@ @=E< w@@A E<= SA=A AH= S@ A=A@ AH@= A@=@E@ @<<@
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H@= A@< HE=E AH@A A@@ @= AHE QH@A A<H@< p<<A@ .
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S<I EI < HE@A@ HEA E<= EA@


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@A A=@ E<= A=@E@ @A< HA< EA H@=E A<I H@HE E<@A EA AQ<w @A< <
A<@ @=@E= <<=SE@ A@@ A@@ A@=A AA@= < @Et EH@= E@<=S : EA@@A AA@= @Et E .
@<= =@ IHE@i EH<@ S< @HA@ AH<= AAEEA A<<< @ @=@ : E@<@ S@ EA EH@A EA
H@= A@< H@A@ AHEE E<@@ EH<@ AA@=A A<H@ EAHSE A=@@ .
@< @=< <I E@< H<= AAEEA A< H<@ AA@=A A< <= @=@= @@L <AI E@A E@<= A@@S
I< AA@= AH@A A .
SH @< E< SE=A E< HE@@ AH@A A@ @S EH@@ EA<=A AA@ @<< EI=<A t@= H@@ A
@IA E<I E<= H@= E@A A=@ E@<=@ A<= O@I @E@ @<E EAEA A .
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<H@= E@A @A H<< < E=A E<E@ <= E@A. O
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<= H@A@ ) AL @= E= O<A H@<<= A I< A@= ( E<= @= E= ) O@<< ( H@=E
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E= ) O<< ( <= << @=S SH@= E@< E=@H@ EI<. S
S
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@ @=@@ @H@E EH@= S@A H<< @Et EH@= SAH@ AH@A A< AH@ Q@H@E EH@= SAH@ Q@AH
@I EH@= S< H@= E@=@ E@ @=@ H@A@ A@< @=@ E<=<@ .
<S @=@A < HE=<< @< <A LI@ @= E<AS< <A= << A Q@ AH@I A@<= << < E=AEE
<= SHA@@ AL AH@ AH@ Q@I w<= @A= @<= A@< EH@= AAH@ AH@ Q@E=A AH@=E
A<= AH@@L. A
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<S S@=A @< @E t@=E E@=A@ H@A@ AA<=A A<A A<=A A@AI@ @E EA< H@@@ @= @=A
H@=A AA< H<< @Et EH@ p .
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IAA t< E=@@ SA@ QI SA @A AQ@@ A@E@ tIHA SA=@ H@= A< <= @S= @<
IH ) A@@HA ( H@= ) E@< <H< AHA@@ ( A@< E=@@ SA AA=A@ E@< IA A<<
A H<A :<@@ @@@@ A=< w@@ IHA@@< A< < @E EH@= E@<=@ @ H@< HA=< A@A<
H<=<@ E@ tHA@@ AA< @@ O<= @E= @AL @@ @A< H<< @ HA@@ A@<= S@ @=@@ @Et

HA@@< @@ @AL << @<< HEH EA S iA=< O@@@= @=A@ HS=@ A@A H<= @E I@@
@ H@=E@ @= @=A AHA@@ A@E t@E@ @@=A S@ @=@@ < @=A AHA@@ A<@Et@ @@=@E
@=A@ HA@@ A@@I SH@@A A@< @@ A@= AA@@ AHEH@A A@<I H@=A ELA EA= H@A
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@= EE=A A H<= @=S= <= AH@ p@<= E=@@ HH@= E@< =@ EH@ A@< I@ A@HAH AA=
=@ EH@ A@< HAH A@< @HA AH@=E
<= AAH AA< O@<<@ @= EH<AI AH@H@A t@E< A
<< A I@=@AI .
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<= A= AA= AAA@ =@@@ AIA A@= A=A@@ AA<I E@ EA= O< @ E@A O@@= t@ A
@Q@ AH@A@ AA= HA@@ A@@I @@ EH@A S<AE I < @=E EA= IA AA< LL@ @@< <=@
@@@ E< LH@=<< < @A<= @=@ t< EIA A<< @=E EA= E@= ) < @ A@ ( =@@@ A A@I
@=SE EIA EA@@ O<HA<@ A@@=A@ <A Lt<@ A EH AH@A@ A@I S=EA@ @@t@E@ A=
S A@<= @S H@< @@ A<I EE=@< A A<@ @@HA << @=@ A<=A AA @ QH@= ) A@<<( E
@=A << LEIA ) A<<< S<I OA<@AA@ ( @=A <<<< <@ O<@ E@ <A EQ@@ A@A A@@ AH@@ A<<<S

<I O@@ @@@LS@ A= <=<@= ) A@<H<E E@@@ ( A<=A A@L L E@<= A@@L@ } << H@= A<<< S<IO
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HE@Q E@ =@@@ @= EA<= AHES A@=@@@ A A<=E E@= IA@ A@<< I= E<A <=SS= L@@
IA@ A=A@@ @=E A< L@@ A=A@@ AAI @@@I E@<= A<=<E@ @@@ IA@ A< A=@< AA
A I= A<AHE EAA=< AI=A A< AA=@ AEHA A@= EH A@ AH@= A .
SH E@< @=< @ A AA@@t AEH AI< AAI w@<@ < =@@ I@<=@ @AI A@=A@ @@@A
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= ( AA A@<t < @=< ) <=S : E@=A <<L
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@S= OE@@L OA@ ( <= AH@ HEIA


) @<= ( @<= ) EA EIA ( A<= H@= ) AA@ H@@ A
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@<< A HA@@ A@<I HE=@ S<IA E< LH@=<< < <@= A= <@ AH<H@ A@S S@=
@E=@ S@< <@ AHA< A@A H<@= <A@ w< @@ <=@ HE=@ A< @S S@= @E=@ S@<
<@ AH@=@ A .
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@= @< HAH< AA= <= AH@@A A<I A H@@A A<E=< E H@@@=@ @< HS=E A@EIS
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H@@ EA@ A Q< AA<I@ S= EH@= A .
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IE@ A<< AI=A A<< @@ .
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A EI AH@= A@<< Q< E<@ A I=A ) A<=S : E@@=E. E
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@=< @<@ L@=@ E< LA@@@ @< Q@ A<= E@A OA< LI@ E=<A A <H@ AHI EA
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I@ SE@E EE=@A< @<= @@@ w@ @AI< <=E OS= S I=@@ IA@ I E@=<A AEI@ AA=@<
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E@I OA<@<= EI AH@=. A
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w A @A AH<H@ A H<< <@ EI@=A
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@<= <AIE@ A@=A A<@ @@HSE E@LA< S@=<< SHE@i< A@E@I HE@Q@ S@A@ SE <<<
<<@@ A H@= ) A<=S : E@=@<S A @HA AEIA. A
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A<I E@E E<I E<L<@ A <I A@=A@ << E=@ tAAH@ H@=@ A<@=@ E< << AA@ OA@@ @<<<A
<H@ O .
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HE=A A@< I< A@E@ @A @ <=<@ SH @A A@< A< LA=A@< A <= AHSEA
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@<< A H@= A@=@@ EH@A EIA E@@<= AH<=@ A<I E<=@ E@< HEHA @Q@ A<<
A Q@@ A@HA@@ A@<= AH<A A .
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EH<w <I< H@= A=A@w .
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A@ @= <<< @=@A AHE E<I< ) <=S : E<A=@ <A EE@ @E@ <= S<A @A<< .
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@= AHA=< AE@ AQ A@A AEHA .
@<< A H@= A@=@ @HA AA@@< <A EE@ <AI E< E@@I E<A@ L A EI AQ< A<@A= EE@<Qw )
<=S : E<= SI@= AA@ ( <S S@E@ <<< S<I ) O<=S : E@A=@ E@I. O
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@<I@ < L=@ < <= @S= @=@< @@@ @= << <A <<= @S= <Aw <E@ <I AHE@@A @A<
<< <I AHE@@A <H@= E@@@ @= E@=@< @@@ @= .

) @Q< E@ @=S EH@<@ ( @E@ A H<= AA<@ SH@=< A< @@@= <A@ E<@ p@A=@ A<
@<=@ A H<< AS@< pE=@ E@< A@ O<= EE<@ @E@@ << A Q@ ) A@< @ IA<<i( A
A< LEE@ H@< A<@@ @Q@ @< <I@ A= IA A<< @@< < @ E@Q E@A@ <=A@ A= IAA
AA< AH@= A H<= E@= E@@ @ @E @< <I@ A= IA A<EA< A=A@ EE@Q ) @<H<EE
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A= H<= A<AI@ <= @<@= A= A@ AEIA@ A< H<< A@HA@ E= <=@L= @@@@ H@< EA=@ @SS
@A@< E= O@A O< E<@ @@=<A A AHAI S@@A EH<@ SS I@< OA A@<= @L@ <<<@ AA<@A@
@<@ << A LAAI A .
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@A@ HA<@ A<< A H@= A@= HEA A .
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@E@ IA E .
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A H<@@ LAAI A<=< HA@ AAHEE A@<< A Q@ AH@I A@<< @A A<< EHA I=E
IA E<<< E@ H@H@@ .
@A HA@@ A@<H< EH@@A A<@< A<= A<A @A<< .
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AEEA AAQ<. A
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@HA I=@ < I<< A< LH@=@ @=@ EEE@ I< A@AI< <@A@ @< @=@ EEE@ I=A
<@H EEEA A<A @@=@ EAI< <@A A<@A EH<@ p< <E@= .
)S<=S : EA< LH@=@ @=@ EEE@ I<. A
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A= H<H< AA< H@=<A@ H@= EA<< LA= @@@ O@Q< EA<< LA= <=@A@ L < @@ <=@ @HA
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<<E@= EH <A< =<<@ A<< LA= H@@@ A@=@ EA< Q<< A<I O<= <H<@ <A H<< A=A< EA@
E< H@@ A@A E< HE@Q@ HE=< < A A@H AI< A<A H@<= H<=@ H@@<= @@L=
@HE@ EA EH@H AHE=@@ Q< @H EH<@@ A@H A << A=A< E@< @H A@@A@ <= <H<@
<= <@= E=@@< w<E@Q EAHA@< =A=@ @A H=<< @ A<< LA= <<< O<I@= I<< < AA
H@H A<A< @<= H<=@ @@I<= @@L= S IA t@ AH@HS@ A< @@ I EA H@@@ A@<<
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A<@@A@ @@A E@<=@ AHA@ S@<= <<@ < LA= @@A@ < H@@ @= @ @@= S= @<< <
@@@ A<I O<A< @<= I@ @=E EI<< @I=@ @A< <E@= A LA @@I<= @@L= S IA
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<A< A A@=EE= S IH@= E<= EE@L O<I < LI@t@ < @L= A A<<A@ <@ A H@= A@AA

SE A@@ AI@t AAH<< A@< HE= A@<= <<@ EA H@= ) A<=S : E<A H<< A=A< EA@
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A H<=. A
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AH@@@ A@I <= <E@= A HS< @H@A <= EHE= A@I=A@ A<@<=@ <@ pAH@ I< A
@A LA@ AE=@@ S< H@S< H@A A= H@H A<=@ I=A@ A<< H@A HE=@@ IA E< HE=@@@
@@ HE= AS= Ei@ A@@<< @=E@ @@@E EA H@= ) A<=S : E@@HS EE=@A E<= @H
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HE@I S .
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<@ @@ A H@= A<@=@ O@<w <@<= I@ H@= @@@ @= <@=@ S<I O@=@ I= A=A@@
@A< <@= <@ @@ A Q< A@A@ <<S< @= @<w <@<= I@ @=A@ @= <HA=E< LA
@=@ L<A@ =A@@ @< EH EHE=@@ AS I<@@ < HE@Q@ EH@ HE=@@< A<<< ) <= ( @<
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) =A@@ ( <I L<< SHS@ S<A< LI=@ <I @I@ << LH@= A@<H<@ E@<H<@ Q< AEA@ <L
IA@ @= H<< i@IA@ @< H<H< A< @S S@= @< A< <@S S=A@@ wAIE@ A
@<I IA E<A@ @@@ A AA= H<@A AA< H@@@ I< < <I@ <H@A@ @E@i@ A <=A@ <EA@ <L
IA@ @< <I A<H@A@ =A@@ @<I H@A E@IA E<A< LHE=@A<< LA @<@= E=@@@w
@=E@ A= S i@= O@@@ S<I O@@ @@ @<=@ =A@@ <@S SS=E@ A=A@ @= @<I Q<E
<A< <= @S= AH@=< AA A@@ <A<E@ <=@E< @= @IA E@<=@ =A@@ .

@<I IA E<A@ @@H A <I AH@ AS I@I@ EH@ A=A@@ A<<< ) < @=@ E@< w@@=
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@A H<<@ I E@< H@A { A<<@@ A AEH EI< AA@@ w@EH EH@H A@I= A@<< wA=A<A
HA=@ A@< < L@@ IA A@=@ EI<< @I=@ @H@H @@@ HA= A< @=@ E@=w A=@ <<I
<= @=@= @< I EI<< @< <I E@ EA= O< @ E@A O<<@@ HEH@ AH@@ A@<<. w
S
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) <=S : E<@<= I@ @=A@ @= <H@@@. S
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AE=@@ A A@@ EH< AA=A@@ A@< @A AIA A@@< @ @A tA AH<H< E .
@@ A< I E<= @S H<HA=E< LA @=@ L<A@ @< A@ A@ << <@=@ S<I O@=@ I=A
=A@@ A< LHE=@@ < H@@ AH@@@ SLA @=@ L<A@ < @ <=< EA A@@E <A ) <=S: E
<@S SS=E@ A=A@ @= ( <S SHA=A@ <=@= A<A@ O<<< @=@A < H@S< <@ <<
H<@ : SI EE<I E@=E@ A@@@ OA= S i@= O@@A AS= <@= A=E< @@= A=@< @@@
.
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A AA@
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@@ @< H@@ A<< @=E EI<< AE@I AE=@ AI AIA A<@ A H@= A@< E@i AE@I AE=@A
H<=A Q@< IA A<@ A I=A ASH @@=@A < H< @HA@@ @=E@ =A@w @I @@@L@ @<@ .

) @Q< EAS QI=<@= ( AE@ @<@ AA= @H O@S S@=@ A<@AA@ << A= AI A<=E ) OA= ( H@<A
) H<I ( AA<w AIAA Q@E@I O@E<@ ) @=A@ AHAI AA= H@ ( AA<w <E= <I@ @A A A<<
@S S@E@ A= IA A@A< < @=<A HAI SL A@= ALA @<@ < LQ<@ E@ I EH@AE
@A@ HA<@ A@E@ <<A@ <@@ <I AH@A A@A@ H@< AH@A A@=A@ pHAI AE@@i A@=A
@= OE@ O<=@ <@@@@ SH@A@ ) @AH E@ @= E@HA ( A<@ O@A= O<= S=E O<= SH O<=
@= ) O@< ( <@S SA AE<@ @@=<A HAI S@@A EH<@ SS I@< O@@=@ S<= << @L@ @A@E
AHA<@. A
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LA @LA A@<A= @=@ H<I A@LA A<H< EA= AA I <=E O<E=@ S@=w @A @< IAA
<@ A I=A ) A<=S : E@AH E@ @= E@HA. A
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I<< <=@ @@A@ @@@E EA H@=A
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H@=<< @=<<@ @E@ E=< EAA@A@ ) <@ @<= E@=@ A=A< A@= ( <= < <= E@ I<H A @<= @=@
<A@ @ << @= <@=S SA=A@ EAH<=E A@@HE EH<=A@ ) S@A< E@ ( t@=EA@ A A
<A< E@ ) tA@=A@ @@ ( w@E@ @H@ E@A@< @A@ L E@=@ @A HEI AH@= EEH@ A A@=A
@< @= S=EA@= A=A< AH@= AAS AHAI ) A@A< ( E@ ) tA@= O@@=A@ ( @@ w@A A<H@
@@A EE@@ @E@A=@ @@=@ ) @A< ( E@ ) tAAQ@ ( @@ w@E@ @=A @= E@I O@ @E=@@
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@= @HE=@ E<I@ H@<= @ <A <H<=@ A@H<=@ AH<A << @= @@=S SA AA=A@E
AH<=E A<=< I@ A@@=@ E< @A H@<= <=<@ <= <=@@ <= E@A <=A@@ .
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) @A EHEH A=A@ @= =@=@@ EHE E@@@ @H A@< O@<= EH ( A< H< @A@ A @HA
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) @A H@< A<< EEE EA E= OA= H@H A@A I@ A@= S=A@ AA=A< A@A< ( w<<
H<A StEA tA H@@ A<<@ A LA@ A@H<@@ H@=A@AI A@H@A@ A@H@A :
@@= A@HS O@@A AH@LA Q@H@@A A@H@@A <I E< @HE EEH EA=A@@ AA@ @I
@=@A IA@ I E@H@ @< O<Aw @@=@=A@ H@H@ SL E@@S SE EAH< A=A< AA
=A@ AA=A@ A<< I=<A : t@=@@ L<@ @< << AH@@ A@@<<. E
@A H<A A@A AQ A@AI@ @A E@A@ EH O< <= @A= A @H A@< O@@ @@@IS
@E@i A A@A @= H@@ AS I<< <@A A@I SSE AH@@AI A<@ @@ E<<< E@ H<H@@ @<@@
A AI I@< H<A A< L<<@ EE@A AAH@ HSE A<S S< E@<<< @=@E@ A< LHE@@ A@ SA@
A AH@ HSE AA= =A@ ASE AHEH A@@@ @H AI< A@= E@ SA@ A H<A A@A A<L
EI@ @A AH@LA Q<S A @= A<=A AA< L@@< HEH AA=A@ AH@H A<E A<L
A=A<@ H<A< E=@@ A =< AE=@ AH@=S A@H<A@ <= EE=@@ O=@ <=A@ < @
<A O<<I=@ A@H AI< A<@ <I=@ A ASE@ HEH A=A@ <AI EE=@@ SASEA AA A=A@ A@@E
I@< AA= <I AH@H A< AA AA<I EI@ @A E@A@ EH O=A@ < <= @A= A @H A@<O
@@ @@@I SA A@E@i @A @= H@@A
LA S=EA@ A A@AHA@@ A< @H A@< A=A@ ASH <Iw @<= EH @A @A< ) w@E@ ( <=
@A EHEH ) A@@@I SA@H AS i<= O@E@i A ( A<= A<A@ HEE ) AA ( A<= A <A@
H@H ) A@ @ ( A= <= O@@H O@A=@ IAA Q@@@I SAS i<= O@E@i I@A< A@@AI AH<=A
.
S<=S : E<S S< E@<<< @=@E@ .
.
.
<= ( SH E@QE E@ << EHE@i EA <= AH<A A@@< @=A @ << E@A EH<A @=S E@HA
<@ @=A AAH@ HSE A H<L@ @=@A t<@ S@H OA@= S< @=<A E<E@Q < @H A@@A AL A
HA=< AAA< A@A AQI AA= E<AI EA@@ A=A<A A@H <Aw @E@ AI @@@L. E

) @@=SE ( E<= EE H@=S ) AEE EH@H A< EES ( E@A=@ E<@ EES E@A=@ <A EE@
A<E@ <E@i HE@@Q S<=< I@ A< A A@H A= AA<w <E@ AEE AEE AH@H A<
EEA A@< E@i @=@ SS AI= A@= @@I< <=< SSA@ @@=@ SS AH<= AAEE AHEEA
< tEA
)S<=S : E@@=SE EEE EH@H ( A@=A < <= @S= @@I< @< A=A< A@<= @=@A I<I <
@@I< @< A=A< A@=@@ I< EE AH@H A<< @=@ A EAEEA A@HE@ EAH@H A@HE
H@HE@ AA@=E@ A A@ <= @@I< A@< AHA A@=@ = I A<AI EE@i A A=@ @< IAA
<@ <= @@I< At@ @<@@ H@@A EIH@ < HEE AA@=E< @< HE@@iA@ @AL <<
@HA@ AHEE A@tE AA A=A< A@A< w@AI@ @H@ EH@@ SIA EA=@ E<@ A I=A. A
) @ E@HA AH<=@. ( A
) @HE EHE@@Q ( E<= << <= <=@ ) @= ( @@@ ) O@=AI OA@@ A@=A@ @ ( @@ ) A<<A@ (
<L= A@IA@ ) A H<= @E ( I@<= ) A@@S ( EA< H< @=@@ < IE A@@=A A<A LH<<
HE@I< A<H AI@@ AA@ H@ p<A< S=A@ < @= O@@ @E t@<= A<A@ ) AH@ ( AE@@i
A<=A AA@@ ) A@A@A OEA ( O<= A= @HA AHA@< SA< H@S< < EA@ =@@@ ) <H@ i@@=A( A
<@ AH@= ) AAA< A@= AL@ ( A<t= A<A LA AEE@ w< @=@A E@= L= A<@=< A@HA AA
L= A<< EA S<=@. E
)S@ E@HA AH<=@ ( A<= @HA A@@ iH<=@ A@< @=< < L@=@@< @= @=@@ A@ AH<=@A
<=< A= @< A@ A@ A= HEE ) A<=S : E@HE EHE@@Q ( EA A@@ < < L@=@ I@@ A<
@HE EAH@= ) A<=S : E@=AI ( OHE@ EA A@ E@ @=@ H@< A<I A@H@A@ A< @ < E@ @=@E
<H@= A<@ A H@= ) A<=S : EA@@ A@=A@ @<<A@ ( <S S@<= A@I O@A@ OA H<@ Q<@ A
HE=@ ) A<=S : E<L= A@IA@ ( A<= @L= A@<=@ A= H<< A@ @A@ A= E= OE@@Q O@<
@A A@=@ <=A@ A< Lt=@ @HE E<@=< @< @A A<A AA< AE= AH@=@ AA<I E@= EI@@ A<<
E IA= @@A ) A<=S : E@A@A OEA ( O@=A @<= A H@@ ) A<=S : EAA< A@= AL@ ( A<S S@@
EA@ A HEA AA= <= AL@ AEAw A A@@ O<@A @@< @=A A<@=E @< @ < <=
@S= A AEE@ <@ A H@=. A
) @ ( @HE EHE@@Q ) E@= <=A@ ( <= <= AH@=AI ) AAH@= A< <<@ A< QL@@ ( A<A L<<@<
L QA= H<AL AI=AI ) A@<IE EAH@= A@H@= A<<w A HE=@A ( A<= @ A= @HA A< H@=@A@

<L= A@@=A ) AE@A A ( H@I ) ALA< ( AA@= S<= @@@ A<= A<<A A< @A SA= EH@ p@<=
<= E@A HA AA@@ wAL= A< @HE. E
) @ ( @HA ) AH@< ( A@H @< H@= A<= @<IE EAH@= A@H@= A@@HA AH@< ) AA
<=A ( A<= <= AHE=@A A@HE@ EAH@< A=A< EI<S A< HE= E<<= <<E =A<@ I<SA
@<@ H@= A<@ <<E =@ H@ A@<@ H@= A<<w <@ @@HA =<= < L@ < @=@A E< @@I@
< @HE EA=@ E@I O<@ A< LI@@ I@ @E SAH@= A@<= E@= .
= S< @=< < E<= @< @A@ @A AEH@
@A=@ <A EE@ @HE EA@=A A@@=AA A<<< @I O@ A
<A< <@= HA=< SE=@A@ w@L= E@=A AH@ AIA A<<A E<=A A@@=AA A< HE=<@ HA=<S
A H@ ALA A@I @@@I@ S IE@L@ @E=< L= EA H@ ALA AS IE@I E@EH@ S<A@
AA@ <<< @I O@<= << Qi E@=A AH@ AIA AE=< AH@ ALA A<<< @I O@<=
@@I@ H@@ S<@HAE E< HE@ IA A@ A<=A A<@=A @I @E@ < @<A A@t= EE@ t@<=A
H@ p<@=A <@=S t= EH@ <E=< EA@= O@<< EH@ S<<< @I. O
S
) <=S : E@<IE EAH@= A@H@= A<<w ( <S S<A EQ@@ A@HEH@ A AA H@= A=A@ E<<@A
L QA= <= A@HA OA@@ O@ <= @S= E@=A <E<I EAL< A@EH@< A H@= AA@I O@A@ OA
<= AA@@ AHSE A@E@ <=< E@=A@ SH@= AA@ @=@A EI@ E@ A@ < <@< A I@ O<I <
@@ @<= AH@ p<= @< @ < @=@A E<E@ @< E=@@ SH@= E@< I=A E@< @H@ EH@= A
@H@A EH@A E<H@A @E@ HE=@ ) E<=S : EA<= A<<A ( AA@ @@ < @@ A=A@ A<<A
<= AH@A A@@<= AH<=@ @@=@A E@@ S<< AL= A<= ) <=S : E@<= <= E@A. H
.
.
<= ( @< E=@ E<A @ H@<< @=EE= @HE EA@< AIE@ A@E@ H<H@ E<@ A H@= A@=
Q@ AH@I ) A<=S : E<A< <@= HA=<. S
.
.
<= ( @< <= S<A EE@ <@ <<@ EHE@Q. E
@<< <E @A<< :< SA@= HA=< SAH@= A< @HE E<@ @A AEH@ .
@HS A=@ E@I O< @HE E<@ <@ A H<= A@<< A H@= A@A@ @HA. A

A<<w
@A LAAI A<= EI= H@= EA A= OA@ <= H<< <=< H@<@ A@HE EL= EAH@ =
@A H<< @=@ H@<@ A< @HE E@A< E=< <<< @I O@E@L ES L@I O@@=AS EAI=A A .
@<< A H<= A@<= SHA@= I@@ S@< H@<@ AA H@ A<=< < HE@ I@HE@ AE=@@ <= <A <=<
H@= A< @HE E<@ <A= @< <= A<A EE@ @A E< H@HE@ @< <E A@ @<I@ A L= ASH
@E@ E=@@ E@@@< <=< EE@ E@L A@@tAA@ I@@< HE@@L<< A@A<A
H@<@ A@@< @< S=EA@ < LL=@ IA< AA=@ @@ < @HE E<A IHAL< H@HS@< < @HEE
@I @A< H@ p< @ QH@<@ A@@=S< A AL= E@=@ <A@ @@ @< EA AHA AI@tE
@tE SA @A AL= A@S A= H<=@= A<= EE@L OA IA AH@A A@= S< @A SH@p
< @ QH@<@ A@< E=@ EA AL AH@@ @ @A SH@@@ S < @H AHAH A<@=@ @@ tIHA
@< t A@ H<A@ I= E@=@ EA= EEA A=A< EI= A<H<=< A IA A< H@HE@ AH@=A
<<w A@@t A@H AHAH AA<A@ H@ A<AIE= < @=@AE< A A@= I@ A@<= << @@ EH<AIA
A@< A I@ A@H<A A@IA AAH<@ .
.
S I LHE=@@@ A IHA A<I << <<@< L QAL@@ A@<< EES@ E=@Aw A@@ A=A<A
AH@AQ
H@@ i@@I@ @=@@ <@@ < HE@Q@ @= @@ <<< ) :@@= H@A ( Q<= @HE EHE@@E Q
<= << <= @@ ) A@=A ( A@H << <= @A ) <= <= A@AA A H<E@ @H EH@@< ( A@I <IE
H<= @S= <A <= @H AH<= E@ H@A EH@= S@< <=@ A A@=@ L= A@H@@ AA <AA
Q@@ A@A A@@ AH@@ A< @HE EH@@ SAH<=. A
S
) <=S : E<= <= A@AA ( A@< @A A <@@ AH@@ iAH<= A@E@ @< =@ Q@@@= A@= <A
@A<< @<< @A EH@=@ : AE@ H<@ t@A@ << A<@ A@=A AAI<t A@A Q@@ AHS=@ :
H<= EE<i AI@@. A
@<< I=<A : tE@ H<H@ EA@@ A=A=@ AH@A AH<A ) A<=S : E H<E@ @H EH@@< ( AAA
@@ < < L@@ LEE AH@A Q< @E t@ A AA= << AH@= A@ H@ < <L@ H@@<< @<@@E
H@A t@A A@I@ @= EIA@ AA<=A A@< < << @H EL< A<A A< H@< @<= @@@@= H@=S
A= E@=@@ E<= @@@@ @=@=@ .
@A A=A< A@ <<@ EH<@ SA<=A AS IA< I@ @HE EAH<= A< <= @=AH E@H <A H@@< E<

@HE EL AH@= A@A= E@ << @= EH<AI : A@=<< SH@A QE=A< A< LS L<= O@=A S IE=A
L < HE<< I E@=S AH@A QE=@=A A A<E=@ S@@ .
@@< <A <AI E< << H@A E<I E< E=A @I @=A@ @<= <I@ EI= EAH<= A@A @H@ E<IE
S=EA@ <A@ A=A@@ <=A S=EA@ E=@=Aw AIE@ AAA< A@ < @< @<= @=@= AAH@ A@I <=@
<AI EA@A O< @HE EL AHE= AA@@ AHEHA A<@ A< @A< <= @< @<= @=@A= H@= S@< @HA
L< AA< H<= @@@@= LH@ <<=@ < E=< EA@=A AH@A Q@<< H@@@ @<A= @@@ H@At
@Hw A= <= A< H@=@A@ @< @H AL< AA<I E<= E@= A@ EEA A@< H@= AA @=@ E@< <<@
A<A@ A H@A A .
@ A H<= A@<< A H@= A@=@ @HA A@<A EHEEA
HAH< E<=A @@ @< @=@=@ <= <= @=@= AAH@ A<A LH@A I@HE EAH<= AA<I E@=S
E=@=< <H@H A@<= E@= A H@H AL A<=A AE=@ =<w < A<= AIE@ A .
@< @=< @ A A@< @= AAL AH@H AIE@< <@ @I@ EH<@ S@< @E@< A H@= ) A<=S: E
@< <=@ A. A
.
.
<= ( .
<S S@<< < <=@ @=@ @A QIE A@H@=< A@<= AL= A@A <= <Aw <= E@L @<
IA. A
.
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@HE ( E<= @HE EHE t<= @= @A OA A= O@H O@< HE QAIH ) A< EA< A ( A<=
IH ) A@ ( @HE EHE ) t@= <=A ( A<= @A O<= AA A= ) OAH@=. ( A
) S<=S : E@HE t@= A A= ( O<= <I= A@H@A@ A@I A@H@A Q<@ A HA@@ A
.
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) <=S : EAIH AAH<= ( A@A@ A AA@@< H<= A@E@ H@= E<AI E<<@ A H<= A< @@@@
At@ A@HE. E

@A H@A AIA A<I E H@L E<= @I E@=@ @ @A@ <E@ @<< A Q@@ : A<< @@AE@ <=<
H@HS EA H@A AIA A<SI @S SI E< <= @=@=E@ At@ A< @HE E<@ A H@=A
) <=S : E<< @HE ( EE@ HE=@ EAEE AH@H@ <@ A H<= A@@<= AH<=@ <@ A H<A
) <=S : E< EA< A ( A@=A A@= S<= @=@ << EI@@ A<@ A H<A @<< A H@= : A<EA@ AA
< LH@=@ AH<= A< @HE EL A@= A<@ A<< AI@ @ A@AL < @HE. E
.
) @ ( @HE ) EI=< ( S<HA= A@I= A@Qi A@@=A@ ) AH@= ( A@AI@ @I@ AI=<A
A<I E H<< @A <= @=S < @HE EAH@=. A
)S<=S : E@@HE EI=<. S
.
.
<= ( <S S<H<@ A <@@A AAH@= A@@ <@@ E@@ < EA= <= < @H << <= @A @<
HE=@ AAH<=@ <@ A HE=@ A@E=@@ S@@ SH<< AA@ @@@ A AE@ << <= A=< w<= E@
I A<= <=@ E<@ A H@= A@@@<I E@ <= <@@= SH@ E<= E@@ w<= A@ w@=E@ w<= H@@@
H@@AA I<= H<@@ HEAI <@ A H<= A@=@<@ I=A EA @= A@@@ AI=< AA<HA
@= AHAi A<= @@ AH@ A@<< A @<AA AH@A t< SA@ @HE t< EA@ @H<= E<
@L= @HAH E< <@= @H<=< =A@ EL@@ AA HS i<@ EAE E<=@ EHEE A@=S
@IE AL@@ AA HS i@E<< SLA A< EA E= IA@ .
<< A H@= : A@<= =@@ EA <= AH<A. A
) @ ( @HE ) EHA@ SA@= AH@ A@<= AA< @= @<=< ( w<< A I@=@AI ) @A< <H<@ A= @=O
@<=< ( O<< A HEI ) A@A< <=< ( w<< A HA<@ ) A@@I@ @= E<H@A ( A<= HA@ ) AE@i
@< ( L@ ) ALA AA= EEH<w ( <= @@ @@I@ <@S EH@ EA@=AA A<= < @A A@ @< @=
<< I@ E@i @< L@ AH@ A< <= @@@I= <@ E<@<= AA@=A AH@. A
)S<=S : E@A< <=< ( w@< IHA EA<H AH@=@@ A@AL <H@HS EA HEA A<S HA@ S<
@@I@ <<=@ @<= AH@ < < H@@@I@ @@<@ <E@ A< L=@ H@ A@S E@<@ H@= A .
<<= E<Q= EAL=< A<@ A H@= ) A<=S : EE@i @< LA AA= EEH<w ( E@ IA E<< @HEE

I< SAA< A@ <= << A <@ AA@@A A@<< @< H<= A@@@I@ A@@<A A .
@<< @ EAH@ @A AA EE AI<. A
) @ ( @HE ) EH<= EAHE= A@<@ AH<< AAI< A< AI@t ( AA< LI@t@ @H@A @A <Q @A
I< A@HA L@@ ) S<< HE tH@HE E@HE ( t@E@ t=@ SLA @S S@< tSA
A= H<@ ) A@@@ @<< <A@ ( AA H<= A<AI@ @HE EAHE= A@<@ AH<< ) A@H@HS( E
A= I@ A@H<< ) AE=@ ( S@< @HA AA@ HE= E@<@ EH<<. A
) S<=S : E@H<= EAHE= ( A<= E<Q= EAI= A<@ <I@ EA HA@@ AA<I EQ<A H< <=@ @=@
I= A@I A@Q A@A< <@@ @HA@ H<= AAH@ A @I E@<=@ <<w @Ei<= S L@I OAA=<O
<A@ O@<< <= @I E@<=@ A<H@ O@<= @H@= <= SI@@ A@< AE@ <AI@ @HE E<@ A H<=A
) <=S : E@<< HE tH@HE ( E<S S@<I H@@ E<<= <<@ HE@=A t<I E< @HE EAH@<. A
@<< I=@A t H<< <=<@ << E IA= H@= A@A H<< @=@ EI@@< <@@ AI@ <E@
<H<= A@H@@ A@=A< AH<= A<@ A H@= ) A<=S : E@@@ @<< <A@ ( AE@ HE=@E
<@ A HE=@ A@= A@@A AI=@. A
S I<I <@< A= @HA AI@@ A@@@ A @HAA@ < H@A< A@H@A< A@@@ A@ E@ @H A=E@
@<< ) @EA@ <= EQ=@ A@E@ AH< A ( I@ ) AH<A ( A@=A < LHE@@ A= Q@A
Q=@ EH<A E@E@ HAH< S<@ <<@ A HA@@ A< @ @S S@@@ wA= E@=@ S@<A< <@ E@
H@=E ) E@@= EE<I AH< ( Q@E@ @A S@<A AH<@A ) AA ( I@ ) AIA ( AEA@
@= E@I O<I E@@ w=@@@ EA= @= SH@= S@E@ <= EQ=@ AH<A A@@@ w=@@@ EA= @=S
HA@@ S@E@ <= E@= AE<I AH< Q<@L@ <E @=< OHA=E@A t@=@E@ A@ <<=@ ) AI <S< (
E@@i A<= AQ=@ ) A<@= A@ < E=< S@<= A= @A ( O@H A@@t A< L@=< @A O<= @H@= @SS
<A ) @<A O@@ O@@= O@E= A@@ O@@= O@AO H @ ( EA@ ) @ E< E= A<= ( OA<
HE@ EA AE= E<=@ <= O@E EA AI< S@A< E= E@=A A@@ AI@ A<L=A
@Q=A A@<I@ E<E EE@ AA= OA A= ) OAI @ I<@= A<@ O@ ( @= ) A@ E=< S@E=A
<= O< E=< S<< ( <= EA@ <= ) @= ( <= @= S@ < E=< S<A L@=< @ E=< SE=@< AA
) =@@@ <Ep AHA@ A@@ @@ @<=A@ ( <= @< <= AQ=@ AA= H@A A@@ E< =t AA=
H@A ) A< ( E=< ) H@A ( A<= H@ pLA @A ) E@< I@ ( A@A ) <H@=E ( A<=

<H@ ALA @A E@<= AI@ EA=A@AA@ A AL AI@@ A@A@ =A< SI@ AAH@ ) A< @@@
<< O@< AH O<< A@ ( <AIE@ <=@ A@A@= AA@@t AH@A< AAA@ <A LH<=@< @HEE
AA=A@< A<H@=@ A< @@= AH @H@A@ A< @ @= E@ @H@= A@ @@= A<A@ .
S
) <=S : E@EA@ <= EQ=@ ( AHE=@@ EA A@H EHA@@ A<<= << E= @@ <=@ Q=@ A<=<@@
<@@ <H<@ A= E< @=@ EA =A@ AH@=A@A Q@@@@ O@E=@ E<=AA= H@= E<<= @L <=<
Q@A A@@= @@=@ E< .
@< E=@@ EES SHAH@ A< H@= AH@ AA= <= OA < OAA< AA <<= A@A=@E O@@QA
H@=@= AS II@ E=@@ EH@A EE@w <= A<<= @<@ IA tHE@@Q EL= A@H@@ AA A=A
HE@i @E@ @=@=A E<= H@@ EHE@@Q E@< @HA A@@= @<E EAA< A@ <= @@< @ <
@=@=A ) E<=S : E@E@ HAH< ( S<S S@E@ A=E< A@w ) <=S : E<@= A@ < E=< ( S<SS
L @=< HEL A@@=< E<AI E<A @@@< H<S E@=< HAI A@H<H@ A@< LA A@A< < @HEE
<@ A H@= A@E= pH<H@ A< SA@ A HA=< A@@ <H SIA A@ <= @H@= << EHE= AA A<@
A H<= ) A<=S : E@@ ( OHE@ EA A<= EH@A A HEE A@A EHA AL= EH@=E S< SA@
<I ELA A A<=@ @@ @<< I ELA A H<A A@<=@ @@ H@ Q@H@@A AA@= O@@E
@<@ EAA< A<A O<= A@A O<= E@IH
IA A<A @ @@ @<= A@I <= @@< E@@L @= I
<= SQ< @<< <A A<I E< E=< EA<@@A AAHE= AAA< AHE=A A<< A H<= ) A<=S: E
@E= A@@@ ( OAHS EH@ @HA@ ) t<=S : E@@= O@AH ( OI= SAHA@ A@H@= A@H<@ A
@HAH EAH@< A@H@= EAHAA A@H@@ A@@< A=@ <A @A<< @<< @@@E@ @A< @E@ H< H@E
@<I@@ E@I A << A
H@@A. A
) <=S : E@EA@ @ E< E= A<= ( O<S S<< @@ ) O<=S : EA< HE@. E
.
.
<= ( <= @HS= L=@ H<A< @<= A< A A@ H@=@A < HE@Q@ A A@HEH EA H@@ A<L=A
<@= << I EE= EL= AH<A A<< AAHA AA= @A AH@@ A@@= << A<I EE= EH@=A AHE@A
<HS Q<< <<A@ E= EHE= A<H@ A@EQ@ H@A EL < LH<A< A< LHE@@ A A<=@ <= O@EE

A AI< S<= EA= EH@ H@@ A@@@I@ H<= SA=A@ AE= A<@ O<@@ EA= L= A@H@@ AA<L
H<=@ @<= A<@ A H@= ) A<=S : E<= @= S@ < E=< ( S<= <=< HE@Q E@=@ E@< H<AA
<<< <=< AEA@ HEH@ A S i@= O=@@@ AI Q< AHA@@ ) A<=S : E<Ep AHA@ ( A<S S@<=
<@@ E@ <<S@ <AI E< @A E<=S E@HE@ EAEp AHA@ A@ @=@ S@<= @@ L=@ AQHA
E EAEEA
@@ <@@ H@A< A= S@< AH@Q AAI < E=A EA=A@ E@= E@ @@ A A<A A< E@ Q
H@H@ << A H@= ) A<=S : EH@A E<H@=E ( AA A@@ < A< AIAA QA < LH@
LA @@@= @<= AI@@ S< @HE EA=@ E<H<=< A L= AI@ A@=E EA I@ OI S @t
H@ A@<= A< @= EH@ A<Iw S I@= EL= AA AEE A= HA< A<@ A H@= ) A<=S: E
@@= E<A@ ( @=A A AHA=@ @tI@ A<@@AA@ AA=A@< A< iAI. A
) E@i @< <= O<= AE@I OA<@E E@A@ ( @I <= << E@I <= @E= .
@A=@ <A EE@ <= @E= EH<w ) <@ ( E@i ) A <= ( O<= <@ @@ < HE@i@ @ = <A@ <=
) <@@ A A@L S<= O@A OS ( I@< L= EIA ) EA ( A<= A L= AH<I A<A= < @SS
SE EH@L AA ) A<@ <= EA@ ( L= ) E<<@= AH@ H@L SA= ( E<AI E< << <<A@ <= @E=
I< SA ) A<< ( <= <L= AH@HS AA AA @@ A I< AA ) A<= EA@ ( L= E@< <=AA
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@=@E@ H<=@@ <@ A @= AH@=S@ AA= AQ=@ A .
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<AH@ A=@ @A=E< .
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<= ( <S S@HA@@ S@S E@<@ H@A AA @@ AH<@ A A@ << EH<@. S
@A LA@ A@HEA A< @<= E@=@ @ @@@ @@@ @@@@ <<= E=A= EIHA EAI<t AEH@ w<=
EH@@= AAH<@@ AA <A@ A @HAA@ AHA@@ A@@ <=@@@ <A< <@< <<= <I@ <@H@E@ I<t@ <AH
<= @H@ H@@<= A@A O<=@ HE< A<@=S E@<E@ E@. E
.
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IA A@@=AE
H@ A@< << EH@IA. t
) <=S EIA. E
.
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<= ( << @A EH@= A< @@< < @< H<= A A<I EEA@ A= <= AA=A@ A A<I E< =A@@ L
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) <=S EE=@@ ( wA A@@ < =@ AE@< AH<=@ A<<= @I@ HS A@@ AH@A@ L @= @L
@< E@@I@ < EA Q@@ A@Q@@ A<< EH<@. S

) <= @L= @< <= ASL OA H@=A A@@=@E= SI@E= A@ <= <A <= @E= @<EE= ( A<L
LA@ @@ IQ@ A@A A= AHA@ A<< A H@AI ) A@<= AA<AA= A= @=AA= A@
@@= ( @< S@= << @< L A H<=@ @=@E= @@=@ HA@ AA@ << E@<< @E@ A@<A
H@A A<< @HE E@<EE= <@E O@=@< O@L@ @< w@A@ w@@=@E@ @A .
)S<=S E<= @L= @< <= ASL. O
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) <=S : E@<= AA<AA= ( @=A @= @AAA= <= @@AA= <@@E E@=<<< @ <= S I@=@ <=EAA=
@SI@E= .
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.S
) <=S EHE@i @< ES AH@=A ( A<< AHS EA E=@@ ALAAI AS I<< @A@< << @@AE@
L@<< I@A A@< @H AH@=A A@HE@ .
) @@=@ EAHA@ LA EH@A ( E@=@ HA@ A@HEH@A @E@ LA @=A A AH@@< S@H<=<E
) @I= EH<A ( E@E@ LA @=A A AI=@ ) EA H@=A ( A@ A= LA A@I= ) A< (
A A<< A H@AI A@A< @=@E
<= < @=@ EAHA@ ) H<@ pH@A EA ( A<= A H@ =
AHA@ <= ) @<= E@ E=A EA=A< EA ( A@< <=A ) AA I=@ A@A< ( @=@E
AHA@ ) S=@ <= E<<< A<HE ( OA I=@. A
)S<=S EI= EH<A. E
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E@<E E@A< @ @=A A AtS E .
@A< @ @=@E EIE SH<A tA@H@ O<<@ EA HE=@. A

) @H@I@ SA=@ @< AHA A<H@=A ( A<< <A @ H<= @L AI A@<< HA AAH@I@A
A< LH@I@< A=@ <@ AI< A<@ EHE
@@= @<EE= @A H<< @=@ tS A<@ @Q@
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HA@ A@=@E ( E<= AHA@ ) @AL ( <= @A H<= @=@A= ) << ( @=@E ) EL < H@=@A@ H@<( S
<< <A @ H H<@ @< HA@ ALA @S S@=@ @A A@@=@ H@=A A@< @=@A E@<= A@S
HA@ A@A tAHA@ p@A H<@ @< @H A@A A@@E E EIA< AH@=A A< @A tHA@E E@AH
<= @=@A= @<= A@ SHA@ A A< L@=@ H@=A A@@=@ @H A@A A<A EI@ A<@@ H@< SE=@Aw
<I A H@= A@@ H@=A A<= @@@L HL H@A S@<= @=@A= H@< S@A=@ Q@ AH@< A@At
AHA@ pL < =@@@ @<= A@ SHA@. A
@<< <= HA@ E< <@< A= I< AE=@@ t< H@@@I< < @A AHA=< A@@A EHA=< A@ @SS
A< @@ AHE=@HA A@@@ EHA=< A@ @S SAA< A@A AHE=@HA. A
S
) <=S : E@A H<< @=@ tS A<@ <= Q@ ( A@ @ S<A @ H@<<@ AH@ A< A<= <@<I. H
) <=S : E@A H<= @=@A= << @=@E EL < H@=@A@ H@< ( S<S S@< @< A< AIA AA@
@@HS E< LHA=@< AA=A@. A
) <=S : E@A H<@ @< @H A@A. A
.
.
<= ( <S S@< A< EIA A A<I E<<@ AH< EA E=@@ ALAAI AS I<< @IA E<I E@At
AHA@ p@ I@<= AA @ AH@@. A
.
SH E<@ << E@A EH@= A@HA @< @@ AAI AA HA@ AA@ <= <@ @< @H A@A A<<=
H@@ @= AH@<A HEHAI AA= @A< EI=EAI AAA@A@ < @A tHA@E E@I @= AH@H@@=A
L@= A<=@ HA@ AIA A@A H<< @=A A< L<=@@@ @A@ @= <=@ AH@=A A@@
=@@@ @ SHA@ A<= < <AHA@ AA= @H A@A AHEI< A AAH@=A A<AI E< @A tEH<w @@L< EA
HEA AA=A< AH@< A I@ E@ @< <= AIA A@IA EAI SAHA@ AA@ <<=@E
@A@ << EA HE=@ A<= << @=@E@ @A <A < E=A EHEE SA= E< HA@ A@<A= < @=@AE
@S E@<= AA@@ O<= E=@ OA=A<<A A< @=@ EAI< AHA@ AA IA A@E@ =A@ E@= AH<AIA

H@H@A Q .
@@< IA A@A tAHA@ pAA@ AH@=A AH@@ AA H@@ iHEIA< AA A@A H<@= <=@E@
A= @A AH@=A. A
) <=S E<I A H@= A@@ H@=A A<= @@@L HL H@A S@<= @=@A= H@< ( S<S SH< EI@A
<=@ @< <AA A A< L@=E@ H@=<< A<I E<@ @< H@A A@A< << @<=
@=@A= H@< S@<= << @< <AA A<< EIA @@ <=A A@A H<@ @< @H A@A A@<=
@<@ A AA@@ AAI AAHA@. A
) <=S : E@<< <= HA@. E
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<= ( <I=@ @ @@@L EA. A
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@= @@< EHA@ EA@ ( <= AI<@ ) ASi@ ( A< H<=@@ HA@@ @=@ @H A@HA AA= tS AH<AA
<= A I@t ) A<= A@=A@ ( A< H<=@< E@=@ IH@ AHS< A @AI A<= LA@ A<= LA< AA
t@AI. A
) @LA E@= <@ ES@ ( <= S I<@ ) A<= @=E@ @=@ AHA@ ( AA< H<=@@ HA@@ A
IH@ AHS< <@@< EH@@ S<<@@ @@@I< @@ @=@ <@ AHA@ A<@@@ E@i <=@ AI@ A<=
@@< EH@@ S@=@ <@ A@H@ O<= @H@@= A<= << O<@@@ E@i @ <@ @@@HA @@ SEHAA
H@=E ) EA@ @HA ( < EA@@ AA@ SA=A@ A@A< w<A L@ E@i <=@ AI H@@@ E@@ HA@A
@A@ SAHA@ AE@ w@= S@@ @=A@@ E@< @=A@ AHA@ A<AI< A< HA@ AHS< <<
) <HE=<A A@I EHA@ ( <= @HA AL@ A< <@ < <@ A@ EA@ A A< <=@@ HA@@ A HA@A
LA @=@ EA@ ) @@@@I S@@H@ S@@HE E@ @HA A@= AHA@ A< AHE@< A@@@@I ( E< H<=@ A@
@HA ) AAI AHA<@ A@@H@E EI=@ SAI= AA ( A<= A@ @HA @S <A@ A= <=< AHE=<A. A
) @ ( AI< A< HA@ ALA@ A<< ) <HEH@A @I < E=@ ( I<= < @E EAHA@ pA A A<I E@O
A @ QI=A@ AAA< AHE=<A ) A@A H@<@ AHA<< ( A<= << H@=@< E@E E@A< w< E<
<=@< ) @@H< E@HA@< AHA@ A@=A@E ( E<= <= <I@ @A =AH@@ @< O@<<@@ @A EE=@HAw

@<A AA< AHE=<A ) A@@H@E EI=@ SA@= A@A ( A@=A <= <@ < <@ A@ EA@ A A@@<
HA@ A@=@@ @= O<@<= A< H@E@ @<= <= @E= << @ <= A< H@=E@ A A A@<A AAA<A
HE=<A A@= S< @H@ EtE EA@= A<=A ) A@A H<= @=E= ( H@=E ) EA @=A ( A<= @=A
@A ) A@@HA ( H@=E ) EA@HA AI=A ( AAA< AHE=<A ) A@LA ( E<=@ < EHA@@ A@H
E@ ) <<I E@H@ HA@ A@I < @@@I@ <=E EAAI AHA<@ A@< @HA AA@ O@< @= ( O<= @=@ A@=O
< @@ ) @< A@ ( <= < @HA A@ ) @@< E@E EAI= A @@HE E@ @HA AHE@< A@AHA AA@<A
HA=< AA= @A ( A@S <A@ A= <=< AHEH@A ) H@=E E@HA <I< @<A AA @ Q HA@A
@A@@ A @ QI@t A@I <= <=@@ @H@ wA= H@=A ( A@@ HA@ ) A<@ @=@ E@H@@=A
@<@< A<=@ ( O A<I E< <@ @H@ w<<<I E@L @H@@= AAI< A< I@t ) A@<@< A S ( -A=
IH@@= ) AH<A@< @E@ ( w A< L@ @HA <<I E<I S@<A A@<= @@@ HA@< A <@AA@
@HE E@<E ) E@<= <=@<@ ( <= @H@ ) wA= <@ AH<=@ A@L @H@ ( wS=@ ) @<@<E@ ( <=
H<A@< @E@ ) w@@@I@ ( A<I E<<I E@L @H@@= AAI< A< I@t ) AS I@L ( @H@w
) S=@ @<@<E@ ( <= H<A@< @E@ w A< L@ @HA <I S@<A AAI< A< HA@ ) A@< @@@IE
( A< L@ @HA A E@<A AAI< A< I@t ) A@EQ@ A LA< ( A@=@ HA@ A@I=A
) @H<H@ SHA@. ( S
S
) <=S EA< L<=@@ HA@@ A IH@ AHS< <@@< EH@@. S
.
.
<= ( <S S< @=@ tLA EA@< A<I E<= <@ E@=@ =@ AIH@ AHS< @= A@@ A@= O<=
<H< O<= @=@ O<= << A= LA< AHS< A @< AH@= A<E@ <A @@A@ A= @ E@E@
LA EH@=E E<= E@Q= A AHE@Q E@E@ @= EA@ A<I AI< AS IH@@ @<@ E<= @=E@
AEH O<@= O@<H< O@A@@ S@=A A@=@S E@< @ << EHE@i EA <= AH<A A< LLA@ E@ @= <@E
@=@ @ @@< @@ HA@ A@= E@< AHA@ AA@=@< L@ A H@=E@ @@=ASE= LA@ A<E I @= <=@@
<I< @< AHA@ A@<@ E@= A=@ AEH O@@E <<< @=@A < H< @E IHE@Q E@=@ EA@
@I@ EA AA@=@< @< HA=@ @EHE E<I E< @< EHE E< HE@i@ @ <@ EAHEH AS I@HA@ <I<
@<A ALA EA@ A A@<= <= E@Q= @<< <@=@ EA<w AE<@ @@I@ EA @= AH@=@ AA
@= AE@ O@@@E EA H<=. A

) <=S E@I < E=@ ( I<S S@<< < @H@ tA@ @HA A<@ A <= AH<A. A
) <=S : E@A H@<@ AHA<< ( A<S S@=A A @ Q<A A< EE A@< H@A i A< LH@=E@
A@ @HA A< E@@I E< H@=@=A< EHA@ EA @A AH@< A@ HA @< AHA@A A<=< E<@< A@A. A
) <=S E@@HE E@ @HA AHE@< ( A<= AE@< A<A< AAHA. A
) <=S E@AHA AA@< AHA=< AA= @A ( A<S S@<< A@@t A=A@A A<@ A I=A. A
) <=S E<@<= A< H@E@ ( <= @ <= E<Q= IH@< A@=@. O
) @=A ( :<= @=@=A= HE@Q E@A@E
L E@A@ <=< AH@=E A H< E<=< <A@ A=@ <= < IHA@ E< L@<= A@= <@@@ < E<@@@E
H@=E ES I@A@ < H< @=@ <H<=E E<@ E@< AH@=E A@<= <= @=<= <= @HE= A <=AA=
@<= <@ HA@ EH@A@< <@@@ EH@=E E H<@@ HA@ E@< @H AIA@ A<@@= @< SH@=EA
@AL << @I E<Q@ H@A@< A@=@ O@<= @L@ @@ HA@ A@A <= <=< E< @H@E EEE EI= A
@<= @L@ @@ HA@ A@< < Q< L@<= AI<@ @@ HA@ A<E@ @< E@= O<@HE E@A=@ <I E< @SE
< <@ A@ EA@ A A@=@ I=A@@= A<= @ H@=@A E<@< HA@ A@=@E@ A=A@ A@= O@< HA@A
<@=A E@I @H@@ <I E< @=@ @<= A@<I@ EA <= AH<A A@=w A< L@@L E@ < H@@ A@= @@
EE@ I= A@=@ I< A@AL << @<< @A EH@= A@ E@QS EHAH< E A< LHA<@ A
<= AtE A<=< I< A<= @=@ EI@ E@ A H<=<AI A<EI@ =@@ IAA tH@@< AH@A A
@A=@ < H< @S@ <=< I< A@=@ HES A<=@ I@t AL A @@A@ < @@ @@@ I E A@=AA
<= =@<@ @<@ HA@ A<= EE@ H@H AA HEE@ A@HA@= A@H<= A<= EE@ H@H A@E@ @=S
<= @@ < H@=@A@ EH@@ S<= @@ EE@ I AA= @= A@@= A@<= <@ A <=A@ @<= <@@
<=@ I@t A@ I@EH@ E@=A @A=@ <= @<L@ HA@ E@=@ wEHAI w@@@ <=@ E@AE E@A H<=
E@A= E<@@= @A H<< <I@ @H@@ EA@=@ O<@@= @<E EA Q@@ ASi@ @@ <= <= @E=
@@@EE
A H@= ) A<=S E@LA E<=@ HA@@. A
.
.
<= ( @< @@ S<=<A A<@ @@@ A A@<= E AA@A A<=<A A A<I E<= E@Q= @ @H@S E@=@ @@A
EHA A@< @=S I < H@S< @=@ <@ AHA@ A<Iw <H<I S@A @LA @A E@<= A< H@HA@ A@

<@ E<Iw S IE@A@ HA@@ < < H@HE< <<= @@@ HA@@ <Iw S I<@ A@ <@ E@ I@<A= @ H< EA@=A
H@A. A
@<< E< E@HE E@<E EA@@ A=@A AA@ <@ E<Iw @A= <=<A A<= @@< EH@@ S@E@ E@A
<@@< A=@ EAHEE A@=@ <@ AHA@ A< @=<A E@<E E<=@ @A=@ < @HE E@<E EA< =<@ AHA@A
A @=A AI< A@<= @@< HSEAt< A=< E<@ @A AH<@ AA@ <<=@ EA= @@ A@@t A<=AA
AAI AHA<@ A A<I@ < E@i EA H<@. A
) <=S E@H@=E E@HA <I< @<A. A
.
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=@A A@ <@ E<=< E@@<A AAA@A AA@ <=@< E<S H E@ EAE@<<A AtI< @< @HE E@<E E
@A< @HE E@E@ H<@ t A<I E@A< AH@=E A<@ A E=@@ ALAAI A@@I@ A H@A
H@AA Q@@@ <@ A@<A A@=A < H@A AH<=@ A@=@@ A H@@A A@ @I@ EA LAAIA
A= H<@. A
@<< @A EH@= A<<= =@<@ I=A E@H<H@ EH<= SAH<@ AAE@<<A AH<A@< .
.
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<= @<< <<@ EH<@ S@<= @HS= A<w A A<H@@ < H@S< H@H@@ <A= <<@ A
H<= A< L@< A=@E@ <<< @Aw @= HE=@=< <= < =@@ HA@@ A @H@ OA= t@AI AS I<@ <
<@ A@ EA@ A AE@i @H@@= AA<A@ O@E@ OS I@@@I ES I@HA ALA< AA<A@ O@I O@<<
@HA A@H@ OA<A@ O@E@ OS I@@@I ES I@HA A@H@@= AS<E@ A<A@ O@E@ O@<A@EE@ A<A@O
@I. O
) @ EH@@ AA I< ) ( A@ @@< E@@ <= E@A OAHA@ ( A< E IA= @< H<= A A<L
HEH<@ <@ A <H< At@ A<= E@A O<@ @@H@. E
) @<= ( <= @<= << @= EH@@ ) A@=@ I@t ( A<=< I< A HA@A O<= EA I@<@ E A@

@@H < LHEE@ AE=A A<= A=@ <A @A<< @<= E@= ) @=@=A ( E@@ A<=A A@ <=
@E E=A=<S E HES t@< AHA@ A@= HA@ AEHA E@<< HEH@A @I <= <=@< HA@ E<<=
E<Q= <@ @I @@@ A= H@=A A@HE E@< SH<= A<< A H<A E@ SA=A=< A<H
@@<I@ E=@=A @A @@ E@< <=A AEA E<I E@@@ <@=<A E@= EE S@E<Q EA= I QLA
@A AAHA@@ A@<= @<L@ @<<= @<EE= @< E< H@=@=A@ @ <= E@A= tS@ A I=@A
@@ <= @=E= A= H@=A AA A<<= <= @=@=A= @I @@@ @< H@ I@<<= @< SH<= A@A
@< AHA@ AA@@@ ) A<@ < @A@ ( HA@ ) E@= HA@ ( A<= A@ A<= A@ @E EA AI<S
<AI E@=@=A EA@A OA=@ EA<w <E@ @<= <@< <A@ H<=@ <= @E= A=A=< EA< A< OA@@A
H@@ A<= ) A<@@@I ( SHA@ ) E@@=A ( @A@@ @< @ @@ ) @EA ( t@<@ ) E<I< ( <= @<<
I@t ) A<= @E ( E< @<A ) A H<@< @E ( E<= LA =@=<< EEIA A<=A AEA t<I< <= @EE
) <HE=<A ( A<AI E<= E@I @=@ HA=@ A<I< @@=@ H@ = A@@= EI=A A< LA H<I AAL< H@=A
@A LA <@ pI< AA @< @A O<@=@ E< @ ) @AL ( <= @A H<= @HEH
@E ) E@@ ( < @<A A<H ) << ( <= <HA@ ) AHEH@A ( < @@< E@@ ) @H<H@S
AHE=<A A@EH@ O<@< @E EA=AH@ ( EA@S< <=@@ @= E=@ AHA< A<@@@L EH<@ pA< @<O
@@=A HA@ E@HEH@A =@ A<A< AH@@@. A
S
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) <=S E@@< E@@ .
.
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A= E<A A<= @@=@@ <@@@ A= SIA AA A< < @=A E@ IA E <<= =@<@ I=A. E
) <=S EA@ @@H < LHEE@ AE=A A<= A=@ <A @A<< ( <S S@E EA=A=< E@HA@ p
@A H<< HEE E<=@ <= O@ H@A @< IA A<< @=@ tA@ @L< EA. A
) <=S E@=@=A E@@ A<=A A@ <= =A=<S. E
.
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<= ( <S S<= E<Q= < E@Aw <@ A t@ ALA @<=E@ @@=@A < H@S< @<< <= @@ =A=<SE
@< E<I EA@ @E @< E A<@@@ A< LA=A=<@ AA=@ A<A< AH@@@ A<@ @@HSEE
@A@< << A H@= AH<H@ SAHA@ A@HEH@A HA@ pA@@ wAH@@@ A@AHE=<A AA=AH@ E@@t
@= HA< A@@I@ EA Q@ AH@I A@<A E<< AHEE A< LA=AH@@ <H@ SA @ QHSi
<@ A @= AH@=@ AA= AH@A AA= <I E@A E@< HA@ AA=A=< EA@@ wA@< AH<= AAA
@< SH A@@ S@= AH@=@ A@= @@< E@@ @@@I S@@=A <@ <= << @ @@ < E<H
@=@=A@ <=@ EQ<w <S @ H@@@ @<= AA=A=< EA@@ wA@< AH<= A << Q<@ @<
EE A=A=< AHA@ A@<A@ A< L<H<< <S I@ @=@=AS@@ A@ E@ E=@< A A<<@ EA
Q@@ A .
@@E E< H@S< HE@ EAH@A ALA@ A= @=AI A@< AAI A@<A
H<= A< A= @=AI A@@t AHA< AA@= AA=A=< A<< A<@ A @@ A@= AA=A=< AEE
A= HA<. A
) <=S E HES t@< AHA@ A@= HA@ AEHA E@<< HEH@A ( <= @<= EH A< H@<@ A A@=@
H@@ A<=@ <@ AEH O<@ @@HSE EHE@Q. E
) <=S : E<< A H<A ( <S S<=@ E=<E EA @< H@A iA= E@ HA <IA A@A@ H@. A
) <=S EE@ SA=A=<. A
.
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<= ( @< @< @= AtQI. A
) <=S E@E<Q EA= I QLA @A AAHA@@ ( A<S S<= @HE S<=@ @= E<QE E< HA=@ A<@
A H<=. A
S I@@@ <EHE EE@ @ << EH<@ S<=
) <=S E@@ <= @=E= A= H@=A ( A<S S<<= =@=< @
=@=<@ A= A AtS AS I@@@ A= H@=A A H@@ H@A< SHA@@< A= @@A A@@ @
<@HE E@< S@= << E@<Q@ EE< @<A A@@< AHA@ AH<I A@@= @= @AA A@A@A AA @iA
@@= @H< E@A H@@ < H@S< @ < <@ @<@ H<I A@@@@ H<I S<=< < H@A< H@A< S<
HA=@ A<= <=< < H@=A@ HA@@< <@@= @<EE= @@= S@@ A@< AH@A< A@H<= A< H@A<
H@A< S< HA=@ A<=< < H@=E@ HA@ EA= H@=A A .
) <=S E<<= <= @=@=A= @I @@@ @< H@ I@<<= @< SH<= ( A<S S<AE EHAH< E@@

<@= tS EEIA< w< @A AH@=A A<= < @@E@Q EA AA@ EHA EI<< @E@ @AE
<A @ H@= S<< =@=<@ @Ew A= @A AH@=A A@tS EEIA< AES AH@=A A<=
@A I=A=<S E@@HE E@< SH<= AA <= A<A @A<< @<A EE@ @A@E@ L E .
@@HEE EAI SA=A=< AA= @A OA=@ E@I O@A A@I@ H<@ S@<=E E@<<@ HA<@
@A ELAAI A<@@< @@@ A=A=< AA= @A O<=<E@ < <=< E@I O<<< I@ @At
A=A=< E@ @@ HA@ EA H@=A A@A H=@=<@ @Ew A= @A AH@=A A@tSE
EIA< @@ A<w AE@I O ) <=S E@A @< AHA@ AA@@@ ( A<S SEQ@ S A=
Q@@@= A A<I E@I@ <A @ HA< LH<@ IA= Q@@@= AH<@ E .
@<< A LAAI A<= E@Q= E@I @< HA@ A@<<@ L@A t@A@ EL E< L@<@ E<A@
<= @<<@ <E A=@< < L@<@ E< @HE E@E@ H<@ t .
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LE IHA= A<A @< A E=@@ ALAAI AA AA<w .

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@A A@ .
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<@ AH@@. A
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) <=S EA< @A ( O<S SH@A S<@A@ O@<= E@A OE=@ @=@<S A H<A A@<S A<S
IA A< H@=A< <@=@< II< @=@ E@@=@ HE@i <@A@ A@ E=@ w<@E I@<= @ I@E< A<HAHE
@< @= @A HE@i@ <@ A H<=. A
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I=@ A<= <=<< A= tL AA@= AE@< A<=@ AH@ Q<=@ E<@ A H@=. A
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@@@@ @@= A@< H<= A<AI EE=A EH@ H<H ) A@HA@ EA@@= ( AAI= A@= E<= ) @@@tE ( E
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A= tE AL < H@HA@ @I wAI= A@= E<= @t=@ SA H@I } AA<=AA

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A HA=@ A@=@ E A<I E@@t A<= AHA@ A< A@E EA H@A A@EEE EA AA=A< A@@A
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<= OA A@@A ( E A<I EE=A E@A< I@ ) A@< H@S< @=@ @@= A@t <= <E A A@ ( A@@AA
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@H@A< @E@ E=< @AI <= @<E E@< E@<@A A<E@ ) <= Q@ ( AI= A@= E<= .
) @ ( @<E ) EA A@ AHAH< ( A@A@ @ EH@ EA H@= A@< EH@ EA@ < < <A ) O@@=E
@=@A AA= t@ ( AAI= A@= E<= .
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.
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@A HE<@ A@E=@ AHE@i <I@ H<@@< A< H@S< @A SI= A< HA=<<= A@<AE E<I E< EH@E

< QL= A@< HS. i


< << @HEE@ < @ E@E@ @LA EHAH< EAA= A
.
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<= @@ @=A AHS Q@= IA A << E@<<< @=@ E@@=@ HE<@ A@HE=@ AA IHA A<=@<
@ A< LLA@ HAH< E .
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.
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@@= AA H<=AI A@HE=@ E<I E< EH@ E .
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) <=S E<AI E@= E@@t ( O<S S@@@@ I= E@= EA tI } A<< @L L E@<= A@@L@ SA= <H
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E=@@ S@@ EAHA@ A@@ <A@ @= E@I OE=@@ S@<=E E< @=@AS E@EH@ EA=A@ E@E@ < H@SI
HA@@< @=< @HA A@@@@ @@<@ <@ @H@S EI@@ S@ E@@Q < EH@ E@A <= O@A O<=@ @<
@AA A@=E EEH@ EL A@E@ O<@ A <= AH<A ) A<=S E@@@S E<= <AE ( E<S S@@<E@ @A
@E@AS E@ A H@=@@ A@= S<< H@@ SE@ S A= O< <L< A A<<I LA A A<L <E@ <A
@<I@ EA HE=@ AA<=A A@E@ <= H@@ SA= A@@ O<= A@A O<<= << A@@ O<@HA
H@@ A@= @= O<<=@ A A@H @<H<@ A H@@ A@HE@ E< <= @S= @I OE@@A A@ << A

H@=@@ A@= LA@ A< @ I@@@ E< @HE E@<E E@=A < <@< E@I w<= @I@= A<= A@ @@=@
S i@I@= AS=@ <I < <@< E<<< @I OE@@A@ O@HE E@<E E<@ <= @@@
@=@ E@I@= A< @HE E@<<< @I O@HE. E
@A H<@@ < @ I@@@ E<<w @HE E< << A@H@ O @A@ O@=@<S A H@ Q@ HL@E
@tE E@I w<= L@ E@I w@tE E@I wS=@ .
@<< A H<= AH@ tA@ O@A@ OA EH O<<< @I OEHA E@<@ E H@<@ @@= AA S i@IO
@AL < @HE E <E@ E<Q A@ A H@=@@ A@<< <<@ @< H<=@ A H@= A@= HE<@ ASI
<< @E@ @HA <A @@HA @A @=@A AHS. E
) <=S E A<I E@A@ I< A@=A @= E<@ <t A@ ( <S S<AE E<I E<= @A= @= @= EA@ @<=
@@@ } @= IA Q@L L E@<= A@@L@ < LL@ <A@ <S= <<w H@@< A I< A@I<< A
Q@ A@IA@ A H@<A { A <<@ EA HE=@ A@<=A A@<< =@@ LA AA HA@@. A
@<< @A EH@= A@H<@@ S@=AAI AH@A AH@HS A@@ @L< A AA HA@@ AA<=A A@A<L
H@@< @A@ I< A@@ <@ <t A I< A <@@ A A<@@< I=A. A
@A H@@ AAtEA Q<=S E@A< LH@@< @A@ I< A@@ A A@< A< LH@@< @A@@ A<=AA
<= @@A AA< EH<=< @H@A S<I@ A<=A AA I< A .
) <=S E@@H E@=A AAI= A@= ( E<S S@<A@ @ <I=@. E
@<< HE<@ pAH@ SI= A@= E< LI=@ @=E E@@ E<< EA H@= ASH @E@ @=A @= E@@ <AIE
@A@ L E@= E@ IA@E O@A O@A @=@ E<@L E@ @Aw .
@<< < <I< <@ES= @=@ E<HE=AH E@=E= @@ E<@ A H@=@@. A
) <=S E@E@ < H@=@@ @=@ E@< @IA. A
.
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@LA E< LH<@@< @=AAI AI= AH@HS AA< @O A
A H@=. A
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@S< H<@@ S@=AAI wAI= AH@A AA <A@ @A<I@ A= <H@ AH@@ AAA< AH<=<@ A@A@

@@ <IE
I< AA@= A@@ O@< AA@@ AH@<A A<AI@ @=AAI @< H<= AAH<@@ A<@ A H= E
<A@@ <A A= I A A<I@ A= I=< AAH@A A <A= <I <= @S= A@ @A@@ @= <=
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.
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HE@i @=@ E@= HA=< AA= <= AEH O<@@= @<< A H@AI A@@@< A@ AHA<@ H@HE@
< HE@Q< @=@ @=A A@= HA=< A@H<=@ E@ A @I AHSE AA= < LAHA<@ H@HE@ <@ tA=
@=A A@A AH@= A<= @=A. A
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H@A A@=@ w@@=@ wA= <= A@=A AH@= A<= E@HE OEH<w @H<=< @=S EA@= A@@ O .
) <=S E@@H E@@A A< I@. A
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.
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@A@ L E@= } E@@A @E SL A@L L E@<= A@@L@ @= @H@ O<@H@ AQ A@AH@ O<AH@A
H<H A@HA< O<HA< AL=< { A<<@ EA HE=@. A
) <=S E@@@tE ( E@=E @EQ@ AI@t A A< L@A@ @A AHAH@ A<= @I@ @H@ E<@ E@IE
I= p< EA< <=@ @H<=@ EE@ I< A@H<A< A@I@@ A@=@ <=@< @=@@ @=@ @= O<@

A H@=. A
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A @= AH<@@ A A< LI@t@ ES EH@@A@ A<A< A S@ @A A<I E@<= AI< E<< @@@I EA
ESA AA @= A<=@A A@@I SES AE@@ @A@ L E@= EA @=A A@E AL A@L L E@<=A
@@L@ << @@t .
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<< I@t@ @<< E@ E@A@ L E@= E .
@<< A H@= A@@=ASE= A< LA A@=@ tI AEA E<I E@HE @=A H<=@ A A@= @ A@S<
@=A .
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I< A@<A EI= A<I EEH@ EA I< A<@@< @=A O<@ A H@=. A
) <=S E@E@ @= EH@ A@< H@A@ ( A@< IHA EE@ IA E@A A<< HE=E EA= <= A@A
@H@A A@HAH A@SQ@ A@=A A<@ A I=A A@<=A. A
) <=S E@t=@ SA H@I ( A<S S<@@ A A< < LI=@ <=< @@<= A@@A EH@@A A@@L< EA<IE
<H@ E< HEE. A
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IA I@L L E@<= A@@L@ @= @= AH@@ <<< @A@ w@<< HE=A@ @=@ @= < A= A<A
@< OE AH@@ { A .
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<H@A S< LI=A@< A@@ O@A O@I w@ HA@ E=@ <= @A@ @<= @@@@ A@ A@@A
<AI< A< < LI=A@< EH@A@ AtE A@< H@= AH@=E A<@= @A@ w@AI< A< < L@=<@
<H@ E< HEE A<< @=S@ @A@ w@LA EA= H<@A ALA @<<@ @ E@QE ) E<=SE
A<=A A@<= AI< E@ <@ < .
.
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@<= A@@L@ @= S i@= O@I @<H @= @= AH@@ <<< @A@ w<= @= { .

.
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Q@@ A@<I@ AI=AA
@H A=A@ @= @ QI A@<=AA= <AI EEH@ EA< A< O<@ A HA@@. A
@<< A @= AH@=@ A<= @ II@ <= @@A@ EEH@ EQ<w <= A I<. A
) <=S E@A AA< <E@ ( <S SE@ <@ << EI=<A t@@= <A EE@ @E@I O< @H@ A<A@ A
H<@A A@I@A A@A< E@I @@ <A @A<< @AHS EA H<=. A
@<< A HE=@ A@@<@@ <= H<@@< A A@@ O <@HEE E< LA A@@ OS=@ @=E@ EH@E
<<= AHA@. A
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<= A@= OE=AS E<I < <=@ A<HA A<= <@@ A<@AA A<< <@@< <@ A <= AH<A ) A<=S E@<
AH@ A@A@ I< ( A<S S@< @< IA A@<A@ E@=EE= <@ A I=A. A
) <=S E@A@ EHA@ AA HA=@ ( A<S S@< H@H@A t@= <A L= A<I E< EH@ EA=@ IE@A
A< H@@ H@=A E@< H<= A<<@ EH<A. t
) <=S E A<I E@@t A<= AHA@ ( A<S S<< @L< EA HA@@ A@A A<A< A@A A=@E@ @LA@S
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A=@ E< <= @S= <<A@ @@= =@@ HS< EH@ EA=@ EEH<w .
@<< H<@ S< @=< < L=A@@ HA@ AE<I @HS A I= AA @ QH@< A@I << I<tE
@A @<= A@<@ S@ E@ <=E EA EE A@< @< <<@ A<A@ <AI EEA@ A
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A E@< A<A@ H@< A A<I EE@A @=< I Q@E@ H@HS E HA@E EA <= AE@<AA
A A@< < L<=< HA@ AI@ @Et<
@HE @<@E EQ< EHAL@= AA @= AH<=< A@< A@ @
HA@@ AH@< AHE=@A A@< @ A< << @@t@ .
) <=S E< A@E EA H@A A@EEE EA ( A<@@ A A< < LHE=@@@ A AH<@ E@A A@I@ I=<A. t
) <=S ES I<= EA=A< A<@ ( <= <@ S@E O@@. O

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) <=S E@HA@ E@H@ @ A AS=@ ( <S S<A H<= @A= S=@ w=@<@ HE<@ pA< @S E@=@E
@E=< E@A< @=A E@A A= I Q< @HA A<@A E< @=A A@H<@ t@ @@ A@ @=
E@I O<I E@=@A E< tS A<A H@ @E @AL @<@ <= A@Ew <= @@< A I Q<< @=<@
H@A E@HA@ E@=@ E<=< A @@A@ A@<@ AH@= A@< H@@ <A< @I E@HE E@<E. E
@A @= AHA=A@A Q<I EH<@ t@<=< A @@A@ << @ EA @= AH@=S@ AA= AQ=@ AS I<<
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@<@. E
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@A EHE<@ A@E@ EH@@ @ A HA@@ A .
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@@HSE EHE@Q E@<< A @= A@I O<< <= <@= t@ S@H< E<= @=@ A=<= A< EH@E
I< S@<A= EH@ E<@@< @= At@ AA H@= AAH@A } A LH@<A<< < @=E S@= A A<H
<= E@ { <@ A H<= ) A<=S EA@A A@=@A S@<= AI<. E
.
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@A=@ I@A } =@H<< @=@A S@<= AI< EIA I@L L E@<= A@@L@ <<< S=E H<<< <=@
<=E S@A @=A A= A A@@A E<A HS=@ < E I<Aw <H<= Ep@@ <= H<=@ @@A@ <=
=@H@ A@w { <@ A H<= A@E@ @A @< @ EA< @= @= A@I OA@ @<I@ <I@ EH@E
<@@< @= At@ AA H@= A .
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<@ A H@=. A
) <=S EL < H@S< @A@ ( w<< A HA@@ AA@= S< @=E AIA A<< H<@ S<= @< @= @E@
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t@ @<< E<=@ E@<@ O .
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H<= A<= AE@I@@= A@I <= <= @H@ HA HS i<= <@< A @H@ O<< H<@@= @<E E@A A
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< LA< AA@=A< A@=A@ OE=@@< O@A@< < @A EAI=A@ AHS< IH@@ AA H@=E A@=
<=@A@ .
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HA@@. A
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<< @H@E E<H< EA= @H@@= AAQ< AQ@@. A


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SE A@H O@A O<@ << <E @A<< @E@I @@< @< EI S= A@A< @HA <=@ A<I@
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IH A@<H@@ IH@ H<I< @HA A<< H A<I E<H@@ E@<= @=@= A LA @S @H OA= IHA
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AI AtE A<<A@ <@p
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A =@ H<I A<@@ H<@ p@@A@ I=A@ S<@ ItE EA LA @A H<= @H@ HA LA

<@@ <= <<A@ <@ pH<=@. A


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.
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HE@Q A< E<@ A H<= A@HE=@. A
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HA@ AA =@ IH AH<I A< EHA EI=A@< @E@I <<< L@=@ HA@ AA =@ IHA
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A@ @< H<= A<@ @@HA @=AS EA @ AEE AI=. A
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<Iw <=<@@ < H@=@< HS L@< w@A@ w@A@ H<= EHES EA@@ .

) <= @<@ @=@ I@t A<Iw ( <= @@ <=@@ @<@ O= A IH A@<@@ @< IH@@= AA<= AI@tA
S I@<@ < <@ @<= A A< L@ @@@ @<= A<I E@<= @=@= A IH ALA A@A@ <@E. E
)S<=S E<= @<@ @=@ I@t A<Iw ( <S S<Iw A@=A AH@ A@<=A@ <= H<I. S
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A IH A<A @A H@@@ A A<A SA@ < H@HE@ A A@@ HS=@ A@< HA@ A@A< @@@ < EEH
<= EH@= .
S
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@HE@ <@ @HE EA @ AI@t A A<I EEA@ @=E A I< A .
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HA@@. A
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@HE@ A @=A AHA@ AE=@A .
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@=A E@=@ @@= HEHA A .
@A Q@@ AEA@ @= <A @A<< H<H@ S< E< H@HE@ A @=A AHA@ AE=@A .
.
) <=S E@@ S=@ AHA@ ( A<S S<A= < EA= E<= AH<A AL A= EH O<< @<= AI< S@I<E
} @< SH<A A@< Q= AA= @< AH<A AL A= EH { O<@ A I=A. A
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Q= AA= @< AH<A { A@< @=< EI<< @A @E SL A H<= A@<< H@= A@= HSE A@<
<=< E@@@@ A IA< AA AHA@ .
@@<= EA@ i@=A @= @=A A@ E@E E@< H<A E@= A A@=@= A@= <=@A@ .
.
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I=A@ A A@<I E< EH@ E@< <= .


.
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) @<= ( << @<E ) E< <= AHA=< ( A A< LI@A< < = EE=@I OA@H O<<= H@@@ tE<
@=AH@< HA=< A=<<@ @= H<A< AAA< AH<@A A<AI@ E=@I A@H O<< @E E@< II AL
A@E@ O@<< H@A@ EA= HA= A@H@=S A@@ @@@ A A<<H@@ E@@< SHA@@ A@@=@
EA@= @< H<=. A
@<I t@ EI@A E<@@A S@@= <A @A<< @A@ EL E<I E@=A SAEI AH<= A A<I@ < EA=
<=A@ ) @@@ AEEA ( A@=A < H@@@ @A S I@@< @@ ) < ESA ( A@=A < H@@@ <=@ @AO
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@ AI< A@< II A H@ L E@@< .
S
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.
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@= At<@ A .
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H<= E@A< @I@ A=< E<= @@@ @I@ E<< @H@ A A< <= @=@= @=w <A SH <=S E<I
< @I@@ @AE@ << @E. E
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.
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@<< H<A t@@< @@@ =< A@H AII AA HEA A<<< @<= <=@< @< II A@A@ @AE

<= @E= < <@@ < HEA<@ @A H@@L@ H@H E@@ SH @@=@A @=S E@< @< AH<=A
H<= @S= @I@ AEHA@ A< LI<< E@@I EA A@ < E@@I EA H<= AA@ << A H@IAIA
@@E EH<= E<= H<= @A= @< @A @<@ @<=@ E=@A @<=@ H<=<@ E< EIIA
@AL < @H@E EA=AH@ S <= @< HA< EA<=A A@=@ E<I < @I@@ < A A@ <I=@ E .
@IHA EAII A@=A @@@ @< AH@A @E@ AHA=@ A<@ A H@= A@= HE=@@ ) <=S E@<=
<< @<E E< <= AHA=< ( A<S S@< A=@ H@I A<AI E@E E<=<@ << .
@A HEA AA= I A@= @S SI@ @E E< @@I@ < HA=< AA=@ HA@A@ S I@@@ I@t@ <I
<= H@@@ < <= AHA=< A< @E E A<I E< @E@< A @ AA=A@ A<<@ EH<At
@HE@ EAH<A AHA@ EIAA t@A@ EL E<@ @I@ A AA HA@ A .
@<= @@@I= HE@Q EAEH AI@@ A@< II A@AI@ < E=@ E@< <= AH<H< A<@ A H<=A
@E@ H<@ t<@ A H@= A@= HEA A@H<A @A< H<@= @< I= A@Q<@= AE=@ E
@A< @=A EHES A<< H@H@@< S@H@=A S@< II A@A@ <= < <II A@<= @@< @=@
H@=A A@@@ w@I @A@ <@E E@< H<= A< II A@S SA@=A< AH<= A<@ A H<= ) A<=SE
<< @E E@< II AL A@E@ ( O<< A HA@@ A<@ = Ai Q@IE A@A AH@< A@EEA
II A@@@ AA=@ A@= @=<E EA@=A A .
@<< H<=<A t@< <= @@E@ Ai A< << A@ O@A E@=E E<A H<= @S= A@A AH@<@ A<AI
H<=@ @AI @L E@A@ .
.
) <=S E@@= <A @A<< <I E@=A SAEI AH<=. A
.
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H<= A<< A HA@@. A
@<< H<@ S@EA@ @= E<= HA@ A<I@ @A@ @@< @< S=EA@ A <@A@ <A .
) <=S E@@@ AEEA ( A<= A< @@ O<A OA< H<@ A=< E<=@@@ A= H@A AH@ ) A<=S E<
ESA ( A@< A <A AQ@@ A@=E= @@<@ EE@I A A@@ O<<@@ A@ @= @A@ < @= @@<
@A< @=@E E<E EE@ EH<w @=@ EEA A<@=@HA S<HEA < <@@ @< tS A@tE AA

A<A@ @EA@ @= E@I O< @=A @=@ @H@ O@A< <= EAI@ @@ .
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@@@A AAtS A@tE AAAHA AE@ .
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<=@ A@<@ OAHAH@ AS IEQ@= S <=@ A@<@ O@= A@ @@ A@ A AA@ A= I=A@ A@A@
EI S@E AL A@L L E@<= A@@L@ H<= @ I<I E@<= AI< E<<@@ A @= AL@A @@I@
HEH@ A @= AHE@<@ A@<=@ @E@ @=@ S< HEH@@ @< =@ S I@<@ @<=@ HE<< pIAE<
@<= << @L L E@<= A@@L@ } @<=S= AEIA @EI AHE<< AIAA@ A= @=A { @A@ ) EI
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<@ SHA=A@ @H@ w A< LLA <@< EIA t@L L E@<= A@@L@ AH@@@ A=@ @=@< AHA=A
@@ EA@ <I E<< E@i A @@@< A=A@ A@ H=A A<@A @HA=E< <@@= AA=@A
I@@ A<@ <<= A @= AE<Q@A E AHA@. A
) <=S ES I@<@ @<=@ HE<< pIAE< ( << A HA@@. A
@<< H<@ SE@ @=A H<= EA= SL E@ HE@ E@EH@ S@@A @A@ L E@=E= .
) <=S E@A@ EI AQ@ A@Q@ ( A<S S@H<= SAEQIA@ E@ IA. E
@A <@@ H@IA Q<I@ EI E@L@ .
@A HE=@@ < A<@ <I@ EI A @ QQ@ A@Q@. A
@<< I@A t<I@ EI AA=@ AHE<@ A<@ A A=@ AQ@@ ) A<=S : E@<< @= EI@A AI@

EI AQ@ AE< Q@ ( A<S. S


@<< @=EE= <=@= AEI O<=w <@ A A=@ AQ@@. A
) @H@@@ SA@ ( <= I@A ) AEI @< HA<@@ ( AI <= @@@ <= S@=A O<@p @<=
<<@@ H@= E<HE@@i E@A AH<A< A@<= @S= EAw H<= @@L@ @= EH<=@ A@@= <A
EE@ @= <@@ @< < HE@i@ A @=A A<@ E@i @@ HA@ A<@<E EA @=A A<H@ S@IA E<L
AH@@@ AA H@= A<A< w@AH@@@ AA H@=A A<A< S=@ <E@ @@ =@ H<A<@=A
@@@@ H<A<< IA@< << A H<A .
)S<=S : E@<= <<@@ A@=. O
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) <=S E@@= <A EE@ .
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@A EH@@ A. A
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@=@E EA= HE@L@. A
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) <=S E@@ @=@E EA= HE@L@ ( AHE@ EA AEI SH<= A@< @ @@HSE. E

) @E=@@ t@HAE@ < ( =A@ ) ASS AL= AH<I A@A@ @= E@=A@ OAS ( -<= AS i@=A@O
) @=A@@ ( A<@S SI=A@ E@= @HA@ E@H<= E@HE< AL@ AA S i@HA@ O@A HA@A
) @@=A E@=@ I=A@@= A<=@ @=A@ O@ ( << @=@ ) H@A@ A@HA= ( A A<I EHE@@@ SA=
@@ AH<=@ A@A@ L E@@< @=E= < @=A@ @< ) @@A E@< I@t ( A<= HA@ E@A E@<
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S
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@= S<< IA E@@ E<@@ A@HAA@ A<I@ @< SL= A@H<H@ SA@ AE E .
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@<= <@@ @< @H AIH@@= A<IA E<I E@E E@= @=A@@= A@A HEA A<= @@< I@A@
SL@ A@=A@ O@A@ O@<= <@@ @< @H AS i@H@@= A<H<@ t<I E@E E@= HS i A<I E<H@<
@=@@@ I=A@< <<< <=< AH@@ A
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A EH< AI<t A<=w <<< HEH@@ E@ <=< <A< @<< H@L@ SH@<A t< LA Q@ A@A@@A
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Q@E E@< E@AS E@ <I=@ EA= @=A A@@ A<@@ AQ@@ A@< <@ O<=w A< LLA@ < LHE@@
A A<= EI@A. A

) <=S E@@=A E@=@ I=A@@= A<=@ I=A@ ( A@< @< A@ AA=A=@ A@<= SS i@H@ OAHA@A
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@=@=@@ H@= EA=A@@< @< @= A@=A@ O@E@ A= EI@A A@<=@ A@A O<=
E=@@ .
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t@ A@=@ I< A@< IA Q@L L E@@< @<= A@@L@ @@HA A A H<= @HS H@< H< = A<@ A
@= AH@=S@ A@@L< EA HA@@ AA<I E<=@ AEI O<=AO I .
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@@= AH@A A .
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A I@A A@E@ HE=@. E
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@A E@< HEH@ A@A H@@@ @Aw Q<w .
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.

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.
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< @@@ AH<= A< <=< EEH<w .


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EE@ <@ A <A @. H
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I=. E
) <=S E< @A EHS @< w@A@ ( w<= @HE@. w
) @@L< @H@@= A@@@ <@@@ < @=A ( <= < E@i A@ A AI=A@ A@< wA< @=A A@=A@ O A<L
EE@ I= A@<@ A A< AI< ) A@<= @@ @A ( I@< AI=A@. A
) @ ( <A= ) <@@ ( E<= EE@ I= A A< L@ <@ A AA= tE A@<@ A A< AI< A<<
E=@ tA. A
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HEA AA @= AH@A A< LHE=@@ E@ HA@@ S A< L@ <@ EA= tE A@<< <EAE E .
@<< << I=<A tEAE EE@ HE=@ E@A< < EA E A< LH@=@ @@< AH<I A .
@@< H<A E<= S<A @H OH<=@ A@A A<@< H<A E<E @=< O<@ A H<@@ t=@ .
) @< E@= @<= AI= EE=AE E@=Sw ( < <H ) @I @A IAHA@ pA A@@=S SEEp EAH<=<@A
@@A E<=E E<=@ AAI AHA<@ A H@@@ ( @= A<=A@ AA ) t@AL ( <= @A H<= @=E= ) << (
@@@I E@<= AH<=< EH@HS@ ) S@@<E ( E<= @< E@= @<= AI= ) EAH<H ( A<= AAI A<HA
I< ) A< @H< ( E A< LAI@ EA@=A AH@=E A<@HE <@ <= @@ =@ A @ H@<= A< H@=E@
AI= AA@< AI=A@ AAA< A@ < @L@ @E@ <A AI=@ AtHAI A@= S@HE E@<E E@H<=E
< LEE@ I= AE=@ A AA E=@ AI< A@A@ @A@ @tHAI SE=@ A@ A @A<A@ @<=
@<<= AI< AH@= ) A@ <= @@@I ( H@= HA=< ) A<= @@<L= ( <AIE@ E=A< AI=A@< ) @A< ( <
@H< EAI@t ) A@ <= @@<L= <= @=E= A= H@=A ( A@H<= S< H@=E@ <=< < H@@<L@ <= @=E@
@A H@@ <= =@@@ @= HA=< A@A A<< @= EH@@A A<< A Q@@. A
S
) <=S E@< E@= @<= AI= EE=AE E@=Sw .
.
.

<= ( @< A=@E@ .


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) <=S E H@@@ @= A<=A A@A. t
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<= ( <S S@= StE A@A A @=<< AAHA@ AAQ< AH@@A A@<=. A
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@<< @A EH@= AI E<A EHA@@ A@E@ << << @=@ A EL@@ S@< @H@E EHA=@ E= A@E@
@@ @@@ <= <= @=E= <@ @I@ A AA A=@ AQ@@ A@E@ EH@@ H< AHA@@ A@<= AH<AA
@<=AA@ SH @<A@ < LHEE@ AI< AH@HS A<=@ @=@ EHEE@ A= @= OE< @=O
@ H@=@ EHEE EA= S i@= OAS -A<=AI AH@= A<@ A HA@@ A <A< <=<@ <= E@A=
E=@ SI< A<< @=@A E<@@E EA=@E@ <@ A @< AHA@@ A@ I@<= A@ EIA@ A .
@@@L@ H@= E< tE A@=@ H<=<@ A<@ A H@= A@< E@ H@= EA@@ A@H AL@@ AEH<w
A=@E@ @H@= EA@@ A@=E@ A<=A A<=@ AAI AHA<@ A@ << EH<@ S< LQI< <= @=E HA E=@A
I< A@@=S SEE EI= A A<I E<= @@@ @@I@ <=E E<@S SE@Q EE@ I= AA @@A
I< A<@=ES E@@S E@< E=@ EA<@ A@= O< << A <@A A=<S E .
@AHS EA A=@ AQ@@. A
) E@L= = A@L@ @< IH@@= A@@@I EHA=@@ ( <= @@@I E<I ) E<@I@ ( <= <@ I =@ <=@
) @@@@ AI= ( AA@ EA@ <I E@L L E@<= A@@L@ <@< <<A@ ) AA< A@ <= @L@ @< <Q
<I EE@A <= <I@ HEE@ S<= << ( HE@i ) <A@ H@= AAHA=< A<< I< L=@ ( <= <=@E
) @H@@ A<= ( << ) A HA@ A<< I<I@ I@A E@= S@=S ( S@<E EA @A A@A At@ A
A<I E@L@ @A .
< @=E EAI= AA HEE@ A@HA@=. A
)S<=S E< @=E EAI= AA HEE@ A@HA@= ( A<= @ AH AHA=@ AA@@ AAH AH@A AA A@<@A
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) @ t@= <=@ ( I ) t@@@ ( E@<@ A A@@ AHS<@ A@@ t<I A@I O<< A H<A @=@E
< LI I<=@ A@@ O< E< <I E<= @E IA EEA A< ) <I E<= @L ( E@@i A@ ) t=@H@@

@A H<S@ ( I ) t@A< A@A A<Q A@A H<= @=A= ( <t ) E<@< AH<< i@<@@ A S i@ <IE
A@@ ( <= I< ) A@ IA@ ( <= @<A ) A<@<L@ ( A <A@ ) @I =@=<@ H<< ( @<EE
) <=@ @ E=A EA A<@ pEH ( OA= <=< AI< ) A@@@= I=@ ( S@<= ) A@<= ( <= @S= <<
@<E E<A@ H<=@ @ H<< ) E@ E< ( @A EI=@ S A< LHAH@ LA< AI E@Q EH<=<< @=
@@AA@ @HAH EH<A SAI < E=A EA=A@ E@= E<EA< << H<= @S= << A E=< AHS<@. A
S
) <=S E@ ( I@=A A @<A A@<= @I@ AL= A@A EHA@@ A@<< H<@ S<I@
AL= A A<I E<= @ I@=@ H<@ AA=@ <= @=@ @ <@@ <=@ I@t A< E=@@ EL H@<@ A I=AA
<=@ <= E<A H@<L@ @=@ H<@ A<I E@@@ <= @@ IA @=AA A<S @=E E@=@ w@A@ wSI
@HE ES I@S E<E@i @H@ wA@=@@= AS I@HE ES I@=E EAI=. A
) <=S E<< A H<A @=@. E
.
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@<< <= EHA=< A<= <I S@ @@@ < EA AH@ I< A @=@@ E= EH<= A@A< <I S@ @<@
< EA EEA A@@<= A<H< EH@@A A<@ A HE<@ A@H@AI A@LAAI A<< <<@ EH@HAA. t
) <=S E@<@@ A S i@ <I EA@@ ( << A HA@@ A@<< H<@ SA @A AHA<@ ASE
@<<@ @=@. E
@A H@H@AI A@ E@AS E@E@A E<<@ HE@Q A@HA@@ A<@= <@@ <H@=S= AA@ .
) @ EEE AQ<@ ) ( A@A ( EE@I A=@ <A EE@ @A A@@ O@= HA@ A@<= A=@ E@IO
@A A@@ O@= E<< A HA@@ ) A@=@ ( <A S@A ) EA@ ( <= A AH@ I=@ ) A@=AE
tE ( A@=A E=@< @Q H<=< ) AEE AI< ( A@<= @<I@= ) @=@ @HA@@= ( AE@@i
A@=@ ) A< @H A@ ( O@=A < L@= <@@ EE@@ <I@ @<= @=<= @@= A@@@@ S I<I@ @@<@ @HE
=A@ A@=@ AI< A@E@ H@=A t@= = A@=E O@A@ L E@@< @= ) E@< @@t@ @< @<@ (
A< L<A@ AI@ A@E@ @=@=A @=@ I=A@ A@<= E@ A= @E@ ) @< @= @< @ ( wE@@i A@AE
) @<= AH<AAI ( A<<@ E<A @ ) HA= H<=@@ @=@ H@=E< ( A@A@ A A AH<=@ A@A
I= A@I= A@@A =@A< @@=@@ @S< H@ Q@HS=< A@I= A@<= I=@ A@ Q@EI
I=@ A@I= A@=@L= @H@ ) HAI= ( @@ A@= A <=A A@< @= @< @=A < @< @< I=@A

@= ) @H@E EI< ( S<@ @<@ @@@ @<= AtEE


S
@ EEE AQ<@ ( A@< A= @< AHEH A< @@A A@<@@ I@@ @< Q<@ AE< I@A
A< LI@@ A @ QIA AQ<@ S<@ E@ @H@ E@= A@@AA@ @E@ IA E@<A= Ei@ <L
I@@ @@ A @i A<= @E I@<= AA<= AQ<@ A<=w A H@ ) A<=S E@A EE@I .
.
.
<= ( <S S@< A=A< EA H@AAI A< I<AI AA@ << A H@= A<I@ @A@ @< I@A H
<= @S= @<AI w@AI@ @@@I E@<= AHEE EA A AE EA A<@ A @A AH@A@ AHE@I@ A@<I
I<AI S<AI@ @A EE@Iw .
@@E E< HE<< @A EI<AI SE@I AQ=@ AA@@i@ <@ <= @< A <I A@<A A@@@@@ A
AA@ @EH@ E@HAE@ EH<w <= @@ <@= @<AI w<= <=@@ @E@ H<@ t@H<@@ S@ =AAI A
<= AI<AI AA<I@ <= <@= @=AAI w<<< EEE@ @< H<= A@<=@ <<A@ ) <=S E<< A HA@@A
( <S S@<= <<@ A@ A@ H@ ) A<=S EA@ @=A EtE ( A<< A HA@@ AE@ H<@ t@<<
H<@ S@=@A < H< @S< @ @I@ @< EEA A<A H<@= I=@ SA I< A<@S SA@ @
E< SA@ <A H<@= <A@ w<< E=@< @Q H<=< <= @Hw << @ @ AI @@@ <@@@
@=A ALA @<<. E
.
.
<= @<=S ELE ISHE= A A=@ A@ <= @@= @Q A@ A= @=@H@ A A=@ S= @@<IH@
AQ <@ @<IH@@ A= @=A @E @A H<< @A@ I< A<< S L@ SA@ A= <A@ .
) <=S E@=A E=@< @Q H<=< ( <= <<w @A H<= @HS= A@ @=w <=@< E<@ A H@=@@ ) A<=SE
AEE AI< ( A@=A L I=A@< <@@ <= AA<=A A@=@ @HA@@= AAIH A@H@= A@S A=
IHA@@= AEI <@ @I@ EA H@@A A@E=@@ t< H@S@ <@A I@A <@ A H<= A@@@HSEE
HE@Q E@<< A H@= A@ @<@ A Q@ AH@I AA= <I E< << <A < @S E<@ <A<E
H@H@ A@<< @= EHA=< A< E=@ EIA AI<t A@< AA=A< A@<A= @=E E@@=EE< @@E
@= S<E @<=@ <E <@ A HA=@ ) A<=S E@< @= @< @ ( wA A@@ < <I EE=@@S
@@ EH@ AASE AtE A@<A IIA@ <I E< <@< @=@ I=@ A@<=< E<A@ w<= @=@ E<A@w

@@@ tE E@A< < @A EL < H@H@< <H<@ @ AI=@ A@<= <@< @< I=@ ASL@ L H@=@
LA A AA@ < @A E@<= AtE E<< A H@=@@ A@<= SH@=@@ AL < H@H@< <H<@ @A
I=@ A@=A @@ @= AI=@ AA@ << A HA=@ A@= <@A A <= @< = A <I AH@A
<H<@ A= A= AH@ A@@@@ H@=@ LA A AI=@ S<= @=E= @A H<@< H@=@ LA AA
I=@ S H<@< @ @=@ E<= <=< E<H<@ A= A= AH@ A@A EI=@ S@@ < << .
) <=S E@<= AH<AAI ( A<S SQ<@ SEA@ @< IA Q<w <A@ <= <= @H@= <@ A H@=A
) <=S E@I= ( A<S S@@A EA@ A=@ <= @@< } @ tH@= AH@A { A@A=@ <= @@<
} @@ E=AE< { @< A@ A<= AHA@A @A=@ <= @@< } <L @=EE { @< A@ AHA@A
@@=A EtE AA= } @@ I@A @<@@ { A=@@ @A=@ @=AA= } @E=@ @{ O
@<LA A= I=@ AA=@ <= @@< } @E= < @=<E< { <<@ EtEQ t@A A=A< } A@A<
SA@ @<=A= HS= S< @=EE< { <@ A I=A ) A<=S EAI= @H@E EI< S<@ @<@ ( H@E
@A@=@ <= A@ @@HSE E@A A@I@ H@IAt
) <@A E@< H<@ ( Q< @< A<I E<= SH<@ A@H<@ ) A@HE=A A@HEE A@IH@ ( A<
@<= A<IE= <= SH<@ ) A< ( @< ) H<A A@H@=E A@IA Q@H@A A@t<@ ( AA<IE= <=E
<=w <E@ ) <= @A@E@ ( @H @< <=A A@< @< ) @A H<= @HA= ( E<= I@@ ) <A@ <= <=
@H@= ( < <=@@ <I E<@< @< @=@ O<<@ E<A @ ) HAI= <<@ ( E@@i A@A@@ @@ = <<@ E@
H<@. t
.
.
<=
)S<=S E@H@=E ( A@L< @@@ E A@<= AA@@ ASE AH<@ A@E@ <A A@= @@ EEE E@<
@= O@<=< Ow A@ E@ E@HA <EH@@ ESE EI=@ A@<= AAA<@A A@@E@Q EA A@= I@AA
@<< IA E<= AH<@ A<@A E@<= AAA<@A A@E@ =@ Q@@@= A@@< LA@ A< @H@E E @<E@
A H@=@@ ) A<=S E<A@ <= <= @H@= < S=A@ ( @< A HA@ AAH@@AI A@A H<< AH<AAIA
<<<A@ A=@ <A @A<< @<< E=@ S<=E@ @@<= AA=A@ E<@ A HE=@ A@<< A @=A
H@=@ A@= HEA AIA EI@ E@@ Q<w A< LHA@< AH<AAI AS= @= < @H <A=A@A
H@=@ EA EI=@< @A=A@ AIH A< EAE@ <@A E=A@w AA< AI< AA=@E@ <AI@

@E EA=A@ AH@=@ @< @E EA=A@ AIH A<<= @E= =A@w .


.
.
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) < ( @< @= @A@@ ) A= L= A@H@=E AH@H@ A@I@ @HE=@ ( QA@@ A<=AIAA= AHA@A
<HA@ SA=E= << A@ O@H@=E E<< @=E O<I L<< SHS@ S<<A@ @<I IA E<A<L
HE=@ I@=E @= HA@ AA@< A@@t AHA@ A@<= A@@@t AH@=E A< EH@ < EAA<A
HEE A@H@A A@@=AA@ A<IE= @=At< @I= E<= EH@= A<< A @HA AH@A AH<AA
H@=E EA= HE=@ Q<E@ A= H@=E A@L= A@I@ < EA E@=w @<< <A @ H@AE
@< @= @A E@<= AI< S< <@< @< I=@ A<= @A@@ AI= @A E@<= AI< S<= < @AE
A@= O<= A< O<= EE O<= SH O<= A@ O@@=@E@ E@<< <A@ A @ QH@=E A<S S@=E
I=A A< LE@@ <A @ HAH@=E AH@=E SH@= EHEH@ A@E@ E@A AIHA AH@=ES
HEH@ EE@QE E@ @<< EIAA t@= I@A A< LHEE< < <E@ <<< @= @<=< <= << L@H@EE
@<@ <= @A@@ <I=A E< LHEE< @< << A@@A@ <A <@ @ I@<A @<= EEHA O@E@
LA @S S<H<@ A= <A@ <AI E<= @E S@<A EHA @E@ LA < @E S@H<=@ E<=
AI< A< @=@ AQ<@ A@< << A@@A@ :<@E@ @= @H@ EAA<@A A@<= A@A@@A@ = A E@<
<= A@=@ O@A= EH@=E SH<A E@E@ H@HS EA I@A A@<A@ :@= < @H@E EAA<@A A@<=A
@=@ <A= @H@ EA@@A@ A= E@< <=A A@A= EH@=E SH<AS
H@= EHEH@ A@E@ LA <<@ E<A @ H@<AS@ @= < @H@E EAA<@A@ @= < @<= A@< @< <=AA
AI@ AA= E@E@ LA <<@ E@A EIHA A@< @ @@I@ A A @< H@< AA@= AH@AA
H@L AH@= EAL AEHA AI@ A@A<= AH@=A E@H@E
S
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.
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<= ( << @<< A H@=@@ A@@@ E AAI@ AA= IA A@HE=@ @<= A@H@=E A@< <@Q
Q@@@= AS I<< .

@A H<@@ < @A@@ A= @=E O@A E@<< A= IA AH<@ tHEE E<= <<=
=@<@ Q@@ S@I=A ) E<=S E@I@ ( E@ LA EAE AH< @=A A HA@ A@<=A@
<@ A Q@ ) A<=S E@HE=@ ( Q@< A @ Q@= << EH@A < EH<w H@A E@< @= <=@
A I< AA@@A AA= HEH@A <@ @@HSE ) E<=S@ E@=@E@ E@<< <A@ A @ QH@=E. A
.
.
<= ( <S SHE@<< SE<I@ A@ <I=@ E@= H@=@@ A< LA H@=<< AA@@@= A@<= @< @=A@
S -A= SE AtE A@@@A AAI@ AA= H@=E A<E=@ S<< E<A @ H@< A@@ O@<<@
@A AIHA A@< HS=@ @@< E@ H@= EA I=A A< @ << EHE@Q EA= @HA AHEEA
< << A@@A@ @ HE@ @< A=@= AEH@ @<=E E@A HS=EA@ A @HA AHEH@ A@@ @@< E<Aw
A<H@ AHEE AA= <I EHEH@ ELA < @E S<= EE@L OA<I E@ A= @@ OL @E=@@ @@S E<E@
HA= ELA A<I < @=< E@@@ @@A AL AH@= A<< A H<@@ t=@ H@=E S< @< @H@EE
tE E< <<@ << <E @=< O@< < <= @S= EH@w @<< A@ A A@ AQ< A@HAE
HEE AHEH@ AA=@ <A EE@ <H< EtI A@A @A@ O@= E<H< EA= @= O@<=< O@<< E@I @SS
<Iw @= S I@@@ <<< EI <A< @<= S<A @A<< @= @A AEHA < @@<< <A I<@ AAt
@<@ O@A
I= A@I< A@< HA< ALA <<=@ .
.
) @E@I ( <= EE EQ<@ ) AAES O@EE ( O<= AES AI< A@EEA@ <A@= ) AA
I< A<@ ( <= AQ<@ ) A@ ( E@I ) AES AI< ( A< << tS ) E@< H<= ( A<=
@A@ A@ AH@ ) A H@@ ( E<= <=< tS AAEE AQ<@. A
) @ ( E@I <= ) AEEA@ ( <= I< ) A<<A@ ( <= @< H<= ) A@A H<= @=A ( A@=A <=
@<@ A @<A A H@ @<@ <@ @A H@ @@@ S I<@ <<@< A< LH@HE@ A= I=@ AH@E
HEE AAH@=E A@<A@ @=E SAtS A<= @@@<I AI=@ AtHAI AA<I@ E@AS@ A= Si
@= O<< A HEA A@<< A HE<@ A<=@E < L@=@< Q<@ A@@<I A@=@ AI< A@A H<=
@= AQ<@< @=@<S A tS A<< I= EHA@ EH@ =E EAE@@= @@= < E IAtS AA= QIA
@I @E@ @= Q<@ A@ I@<= AE@I
S

) <=S E@E@Q AES AI< A@< H<=. A


.
.
<= ( <S SS=EA@ A =A< AH<= A<< <E @H OAA@ A<< A@ O@=@ @ AI=@ A@@=E
H<AI AH@H@A tI@ @H< E<H<@ A= L< A<@ A H@IAI A@E=@@ ALAAI A@<A @ H@<<
H<@ S@=@ A@ AAHA A@@@H@ E< L<=< H@H@A QE@ Q@@ ) S<=S E H@@ ( E@< @< <=A
@= AHA=< A@<< <=E E< E=@@ S<= A<@ @@HSE EHE@Q E<=S E@<< HE<@ S<=@E <L
@=@< Q<@ A@@<I A@=@ AI< A@A H<= @= ( A@=A < <= @=<A= H<= E<@ <= <@< @@= A@I
@<= AH<@ S@<A @ H@@A EH@IAI A<A= @<< H<@ S@= H@@A A@ EA ESE@ HA<A
S I<< @=@ @HA A<<= @A I@ @<I@ A= @H AHA=@ A@< @@ A=A@A@ <= @<= << @< H<=A
<< E IA= QI AA <= ) O<=S E=@<S A tS. A
.
.
<= ( @=A < <= @=<A= H<= E<@ <I=@ ) E<=S E<< @= EHA=<. A
.
.
<= ( @=A @<< <=E EAA<A A@AI@ =@@ <=< E@AE@< <A A@ IE@IO
) @=E EHE=@ tAA<@ AHA@ A@A H<= @=@= ( AHA@A AE@@@@ ) E@<= @< HE=@ t<= @=E@ ( <=
HA@ E@H@H@ EA@ @@H < LH@H@@ @=E @<= A<< EH@ AA=A ) A<=w ( <= < A I< A@<
@=@@ ) AA< AH@A ( AA= I< A< @A@ A= HE=@ Q@= S@A E@<= AA< LH@=@ <@@ A
@ QHE@i@ << @=EE=
)S<=S EAA< AH@A AA= I< A< @A@ A= HE=@. Q
.
.
<= ( @<< << EI=<A t@<< A HA@@ AE@ IA E@<< H<@ S<=S EE@ IA E=A@
@I A< < @=EE@ @< <=AA@ AH@= A@ H@< <= AE@I ) O<=S EA< LH@=@ .
.
.

<= ( A A@ @< @= << AEE A@@ AE A<@ << H<@ S@A@ EL E@=@=@@ @=EE=
@=A< HE@Q AAH@= A@= HA@ A HEH@@ E< H< @A@ @< IA AA= HEH@A @A@
I< A@<= SHE@Q AA< LH@=@ <@@ A @iA= << @=EE= @=< E@< A=A=@@ @@I@
H<=<A t@ << E@A EHA@@ A@<< @A EH@= A@ << EH<=<A t@=E A< L@@t@ H@=EA
E E@H@ EA @i A< @ Q<=A A@I @AI
A@=A A@A <IA Q< EA@ @<= A@=A @=@@ I@ =
@@tS EA@=A. A
.
) @A@ HE@i ( H@< ) A= <=A A<= @=E= A@ ( A<I@ <=@= A@<AI OA< L@@@E= @AA
I=@< <=@ A= <H@ AI< ) A@ H@=E E@=@@ ( <= I< AA@@ A@@A@ ) @<= @@@ A@ <=
E=AH ( EA<I E@=A @= =@ A@ <=@ A= I< AA@ @<= @@@= I=@ S<A< wA@@ O@A@
I< A<<= <I A@ @< E@A << @=E EA A@= HE= @ ) A@ H<@@ ( E<= tE@ ) E@@ ( <=
I< AA< LE@I@ tE A< E@A =@@ I<A
)S<=S EA<I@ <=@= A@<AI ( O<< A HA@@ A@<< H<@ S@@ EQ=@ AA@ @<AI A@ Q<HAA
@ @@H AI A@A< <E <= @<S@ A A=@ AHE<L A< HE@I A<A=@ AIE A<
@=@< @<w <<S @=A < @=@A <= < @=@A@ @ AA A=@ AHE@I A<@SS< @=@A <<=@
AA=@ AHE@I A< HE@I A .
@<< A HA@@ A<I E@< E=@=@ @E@ A=@ HS<@ A@= A= @@ O@A O .
) <=S : E@ H<@@ EE@@ ( A A@@ < @ Q@ A I@A AA= <@ AI< AAtE A<<
H<=<A t@IA E< H< @HE@ @<E EA=@ HS i .
@<< A H@= A<I@ A I=A A@HE=@@ @H@HAAI @@@ H<@ AA< H< E@A@ HE@i IA@
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.
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