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INTRODUCTION TO WORKHOLDING Over the past century, manufacturing has made considerable progress.

New machine tools, high-performance cutting tools, and modern manufacturing processes enable today's industries to make parts faster and better than ever before. Although workholding methods have also advanced considerably, the basic principles of clamping and locating are still the same. HISTORY The first manufactured products were made one at a time. Early artisans started with little more than raw materials and a rough idea of the finished product. They produced each product piece by piece, making each part individually and fitting the parts into the finished product. This process took time. Moreover, the quality and consistency of products varied from one artisan to the next. As they worked, early manufacturing pioneers realized the need for better methods and developed new ideas. Eventually, they found the secret of mass production: standardized parts. Standard parts not only speeded production, they also ensured the interchangeability of parts. The idea may be obvious today, but in its time, it was revolutionary. These standard parts were the key to enabling less-skilled workers to replicate the skill of the craftsman on a repetitive basis. The original method of achieving consistent part configuration was the template. Templates for layout, sawing, and filing permitted each worker to make parts to a standard design. While early templates were crude, they at least gave skilled workers a standard form to follow for the part. Building on the template idea, workers constructed other guides and workholders to make their jobs easier and the results more predictable. These guides and workholders were the ancestors of today's jigs and fixtures. Yesterday's workholders had the same two basic functions as today's: securely holding and accurately locating a workpiece. Early jigs and fixtures may have lacked modern refinements, but they followed many of the same principles as todays workholder designs. DEFINITIONS Often the terms "jig" and "fixture" are confused or used interchangeably; however, there are clear distinctions between these two tools. Although many people have their own definitions for a jig or fixture, there is one universal distinction between the two. Both jigs and fixtures hold, support, and locate the workpiece. A jig, however, guides the cutting tool. A fixture references the cutting tool. The differentiation between these types of workholders is in their relation to the cutting tool. As shown in Figure 1-1, jigs use drill bushings to support and guide the tool. Fixtures, Figure 1-2, use set blocks and thickness, or feeler, gages to locate the tool relative to the workpiece.

Figure 1-1. A jig guides the cutting tool, in this case with a bushing.

Figure 1-2. A fixture references the cutting tool, in this case with a set block. Jigs The most-common jigs are drill and boring jigs. These tools are fundamentally the same. The difference lies in the size, type, and placement of the drill bushings. Boring jigs usually have larger bushings. These bushings may also have internal oil grooves to keep the boring bar lubricated. Often, boring jigs use more than one bushing to support the boring bar throughout the machining cycle. In the shop, drill jigs are the most-widely used form of jig. Drill jigs are used for drilling, tapping, reaming, chamfering, counterboring, countersinking, and similar operations. Occasionally, drill jigs are used to perform assembly work also. In these situations, the bushings guide pins, dowels, or other assembly elements. Jigs are further identified by their basic construction. The two common forms of jigs are open and closed. Open jigs carry out operations on only one, or sometimes two, sides of a workpiece. Closed jigs, on the other hand, operate on two or more sides. The most-

common open jigs are template jigs, plate jigs, table jigs, sandwich jigs, and angle plate jigs. Typical examples of closed jigs include box jigs, channel jigs, and leaf jigs. Other forms of jigs rely more on the application of the tool than on their construction for their identity. These include indexing jigs, trunnion jigs, and multi-station jigs. Specialized industry applications have led to the development of specialized drill jigs. For example, the need to drill precisely located rivet holes in aircraft fuselages and wings led to the design of large jigs, with bushings and liners installed, contoured to the surface of the aircraft. A portable air-feed drill with a bushing attached to its nose is inserted through the liner in the jig and drilling is accomplished in each location. Fixtures Fixtures have a much-wider scope of application than jigs. These workholders are designed for applications where the cutting tools cannot be guided as easily as a drill. With fixtures, an edge finder, center finder, or gage blocks position the cutter. Examples of the more-common fixtures include milling fixtures, lathe fixtures, sawing fixtures, and grinding fixtures. Moreover, a fixture can be used in almost any operation that requires a precise relationship in the position of a tool to a workpiece. Fixtures are most often identified by the machine tool where they are used. Examples include mill fixtures or lathe fixtures. But the function of the fixture can also identify a fixture type. So can the basic construction of the tool. Thus, although a tool can be called simply a mill fixture, it could also be further defined as a straddle-milling, plate-type mill fixture. Moreover, a lathe fixture could also be defined as a radius-turning, angle-plate lathe fixture. The tool designer usually decides the specific identification of these tools. Tool or Tooling The term "tool" encompasses both jigs and fixtures. Essentially, it is a generic term describing a workholder which is identified with a part or machine. Sometimes "tool" is used to refer to a cutting tool or a machine tool, so it is important to make clear distinctions. Workholders Another term which describes both jigs and fixtures is "workholder." A broad term, it frequently identifies any device which holds, supports, and locates a workpiece. In addition to jigs and fixtures, vises, collets, clamps, and other similar devices are also workholders. PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKHOLDERS Jigs and fixtures are most often found where parts are produced in large quantities, or produced to complex specifications for a moderate quantity. With the same design principles and logic, workholding devices can be adapted for limited-production

applications. The major difference between permanent and temporary workholders is the cost/benefit relationship between the workholder and the process. Some applications require jigs and fixtures solely for speed; others require less speed and higher precision. The requirements of the application have a direct impact on the type of jig or fixture built and, consequently, the cost. Permanent Jigs and Fixtures Workholders for high-volume production are usually permanent tools. These permanent jigs and fixtures are most often intended for a single operation on one particular part. The increased complexity of permanent workholders yields benefits in improved productivity and reduced operator decision-making, which result in the tool having a lower average cost per unit or per run. Therefore, more time and money can be justified for these workholders. In the case of hydraulic or pneumatic fixtures, inherent design advantages can dramatically improve productivity and, hence, reduce per-unit costs even further, even though the initial cost to construct these fixtures is the most expensive of all fixture alternatives. In some cases, where machine-loading considerations are paramount, such as a pallet-changing machining center, even duplicate permanent fixtures may be justified. Permanent jigs and fixtures are typically constructed from standard tooling components and custom-made parts. Figure 1-3 shows a typical permanent workholder for a drilling operation.

Figure 1-3. A permanent workholder used for a drilling operation. Low-volume runs and ones with fewer critical dimensions are often produced with throwaway jigs and fixtures. These tools would typically be one-time-use items constructed from basic materials at hand and discarded after production is complete. Although throwaway jigs and fixtures are technically permanent workholders, in effect they are actually temporary.

General-Purpose Workholders In many instances, the shape of the part and the machining to be performed allow for the use of a general-purpose workholder such as a vise, collet, or chuck. These workholders are adaptable to different machines and many different parts. Since they are not part-specific, their versatility allows for repeated use on a variety of different or limited-production runs. The cost of these workholders would usually be averaged over years and might not even be a factor in job-cost calculations. The generalpurpose nature of these workholders necessitates a higher level of operator care and attention to maintain consistency and accuracy. For these reasons, general-purpose workholders are not preferred for lengthy production runs. Modular Fixtures Modular fixtures achieve many of the advantages of a permanent tool using only a temporary setup. Depicted in Figure 1-4, these workholders combine ideas and elements of permanent and general-purpose workholding.

Figure 1-4. Modular workholders combine ideas and elements of both permanent and temporary workholding to make inexpensive-yet-durable workholders. The primary advantage of modular fixtures is that a tool with the benefits of permanent tooling (setup reduction, durability, productivity improvements, and reduced operator decision-making) can be built from a set of standard components. The fixture can be disassembled when the run is complete, to allow the reuse of the components in a different fixture. At a later time the original can be readily reconstructed from drawings, instructions, and photographic records. This reuse enables the construction of a complex, high-precision tool without requiring the corresponding dedication of the fixture components.

Figure 1-5 shows how modular fixturing fits into the hierarchy of workholding options, ranking below permanent fixturing yet above general-purpose workholders. Virtually every manufacturer has good applications for each of these three options at one time or another.

Figure 1-5. The hierarchy of workholding options. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The principal considerations when choosing among workholder varieties fall into three general categories: tooling cost, tooling details, and tooling operation. Although each of these categories is separated here, in practice they are interdependent. The following are some design differences and considerations for permanent, general-purpose, and modular workholders. Tooling Costs The total cost of any jig or fixture is frequently the major area of consideration in many workholder designs. Although initial cost is a major element, it should not be the basis for accepting or rejecting any tooling option.

A more-proper economic evaluation of the workholder design takes into consideration many other factors. As discussed previously, permanent fixtures have distinct advantages in the production of high-volume and high-precision parts. They also typically reduce machine setup time, machine cycle time, and the level of operator skill required to produce satisfactory quality output. Over a long production run, or a series of runs in the life of a tool, the average cost of the tool per piece produced can be quite low. General-purpose workholders are more expensive than temporary tools in most cases, but their utility and flexibility often allow these workholders to be regarded as a capital cost to be amortized over a period of time without regard to actual usage. Similarly, modular fixturing is typically a capital investment to be amortized over a set lifespan, with an average cost assigned to usage for each anticipated job. Another cost to be considered is workholder disposition. Permanent fixtures require storage and maintenance to keep them available for their next use. General-purpose tools are reused extensively, but still incur some costs for maintenance and storage. Similarly, modular fixtures will be disassembled, and the components maintained, stored, and reused frequently. Tooling Details Tooling details are the overall construction characteristics and special features incorporated into the jig or fixture. Permanent workholders are designed and built to last longer than temporary workholders. So, permanent jigs and fixtures usually contain more-elaborate parts and features than temporary workholders. There are several other differences between permanent and temporary workholders in this area. These include the type and complexity of the individual tooling elements, the extent of secondary machining and finishing operations on the tool, the tool-design process, and the amount of detail in the workholder drawings. Since the elements for modular workholders are usually part of a complete set, or system, only rarely will additional custom components need to be made. Permanent workholders contain different commercial tooling components based on expected tool usage. Permanent jigs intended for a high-volume drilling operation, for example, often use a renewable bushing and liner bushing together. A throwaway jig for a smaller production run often uses a simple press-fit bushing. The secondary operations normally associated with tooling include hardening, grinding, and similar operations to finish the workholder. Usually, permanent workholders are hardened and ground to assure their accuracy over a long production run. Since they are intended only for short production runs, throwaway jigs and fixtures do not require these operations. Another secondary operation frequently performed on permanent tools, but not temporary tools, is applying a protective finish, such as black oxide, chrome plating, or enamel paint.

In designing a permanent workholder, the designer often makes detailed engineering drawings to show the toolroom exactly what must be done to build the workholder. With temporary workholders, the design drawings are often sent to the toolroom as simple freehand sketches. Permanent tools are normally designed for long-term use. This being the case, the drawings and engineering data for the permanent jig or fixture then become a permanent record. With modular workholders, the designer may either construct drawings or specify building the workholder directly around the part. Here only a parts list and photographs or video tape are kept as a permanent record. Certain workholding applications require special fixture characteristics. For example, a particularly corrosive environment may require stainless steel components and clamps to deliver a satisfactory life cycle. In other cases, variable workpiece dimensions, as in a casting, necessitate clamping devices which can compensate for these variations. Appearance of a finished part might require the use of nylon, plastic, or rubber contact points to protect the part. Similarly, the selection of tooling details can enhance the productivity of some permanent tools. For example, utilizing small hydraulic clamps may allow loading many parts on a workholder due to the compactness of the design. This would enhance productivity by reducing load/unload time as a percentage of total cycle time. Duplicate fixtures are sometimes justified for machining centers because they allow loading of parts on one pallet during the machining cycle on the other pallet. Tooling Operation The performance of any workholder is critical to the complete usefulness of the tool. If the workholder cannot perform the functions desired in the manner intended, it is completely useless, regardless of the cost or the extent of the detail. As the performance of a permanent, modular, or general-purpose workholder is considered, several factors about the machine tools must be known. These factors include the type, size, and number of machine tools needed for the intended operations. Workholders are sometimes designed to serve multiple functions. For example, it is possible to have a workholder that acts both as a drill jig and a milling fixture. These tools are called combination tools or multiple-function workholders. Figure 1-6 shows a typical temporary workholder for drilling and milling operations on the same part. In this example, since the workholder has provisions for both milling and drilling, it is classified as both a drill jig and milling fixture.

Figure 1-6. A combination drill jig/milling fixture used for both types of operations on the same part. Other machine considerations may come into play as well. On numerically controlled machines, for example, care must be taken in fixture design to position clamps out of the cutting tool's path. Pallet machines require different fixtures than other machines. Obviously, vertical mills would be tooled differently than horizontal mills. Likewise, the way parts are loaded onto the fixture has implications for fixture design. Despite the workholder design or the size of the production run, every jig or fixture must meet certain criteria to be useful. These criteria include accuracy, durability, and safety. Accuracy, with regard to jigs and fixtures, is the ability of a workholder to produce the desired result, within the required limits and specifications, part after part, throughout the production run. To perform to this minimum level of accuracy, the workholder must also be durable. So, the jig or fixture must be designed and built to maintain the required accuracy throughout the expected part production. If part production is continuous, year after year, the jig or fixture must be more durable than is necessary for only one production run. The final consideration, safety, is actually the most important. No matter how good the design or construction, or how well it produces the desired accuracy, if the workholder is not safe, it is useless. Safety is a primary concern in the design of any workholder. Safety, as well as speed and reliability of part loading, can often be improved by the use of power clamping, either pneumatic or hydraulic. Once set, power clamps will repeatedly clamp with the identical force. This is not always true with manual clamps, which depend on operator diligence for the proper application of clamping force. In addition, power-clamping systems can have interlocks to the machine control which will shut the machine down if the system loses powera clear safety advantage for both operator and machine tool. APPLICATIONS FOR JIGS AND FIXTURES

Typically, the jigs and fixtures found in a machine shop are for machining operations. Other operations, however, such as assembly, inspection, testing, and layout, are also areas where workholding devices are well suited. Figure 1-7 shows a list of the morecommon classifications and applications of jigs and fixtures used for manufacturing. There are many distinct variations within each general classification, and many workholders are actually combinations of two or more of the classifications shown.
EXTERNAL-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: Flat-Surface Machining Milling fixtures Surface-grinding fixtures Planing fixtures Shaping fixtures Cylindrical-Surface Machining Lathe fixtures Cylindrical-grinding fixtures Irregular-Surface Machining Band-sawing fixtures External-broaching fixtures INTERNAL-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: Cylindrical- and Irregular-Hole Machining Drill jigs Boring jigs Electrical-discharge-machining fixtures Punching fixtures Internal-broaching fixtures NON-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: Assembly Welding fixtures Mechanical-assembly fixtures (Riveting, stapling, stitching, pinning, etc.) Soldering fixtures Inspection Mechanical-inspection fixtures Optical-inspection fixtures Electronic-inspection fixtures Finishing Painting fixtures Plating fixtures Polishing fixtures Lapping fixtures Honing fixtures Miscellaneous Layout templates Testing fixtures Heat-treating fixtures

Figure 1-7. Typical applications of jigs and fixtures

PENDAHULUAN UNTUK WORKHOLDING Over the past century, manufacturing has made considerable progress. Selama abad, manufaktur telah membuat banyak kemajuan. New machine tools, high-performance cutting tools, and modern manufacturing processes enable today's industries to make parts faster and better than ever before. Alat mesin baru, performa tinggi pemotongan alat modern dan memungkinkan proses produksi industri hari ini untuk membuat bagianbagian yang lebih cepat dan lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Although workholding methods have also advanced considerably, the basic principles of clamping and locating are still the same. Walaupun metode workholding juga sangat maju, prinsip-prinsip dasar clamping dan locating masih sama. HISTORY SEJARAH The first manufactured products were made one at a time. Produk pertama yang diproduksi dibuat satu demi satu. Early artisans started with little more than raw materials and a rough idea of the finished product. Artisans awal dimulai dengan sedikit lebih dari bahan baku dan kasar dari produk selesai. They produced each product piece by piece, making each part individually and fitting the parts into the finished product. This process took time. Mereka masing-masing produk yang dihasilkan oleh piece piece, sehingga masing-masing individu dan bagian-bagian yang pas ke dalam produk selesai. Proses ini mengambil waktu. Moreover, the quality and consistency of products varied from one artisan to the next. Selain itu, kualitas dan konsistensi produk Artisan bervariasi dari satu ke yang berikutnya. As they worked, early manufacturing pioneers realized the need for better methods and developed new ideas. Karena mereka bekerja, manufaktur awal pelopor menyadari kebutuhan untuk lebih mengembangkan metode dan ide-ide baru. Eventually, they found the secret of mass production: standardized parts. Akhirnya, mereka menemukan rahasia dari produksi massa: komponen standar. Standard parts not only speeded production, they also ensured the interchangeability of parts. Standar yang tidak hanya speeded produksi, mereka juga memastikan dari bagian yang interchangeability. The idea may be obvious today, but in its time, it was revolutionary. Ide mungkin jelas hari ini, tetapi dalam waktu, ia revolusioner. These standard parts were the key to enabling less-skilled workers to replicate the skill of the craftsman on a repetitive basis. Standar ini merupakan bagian kunci untuk mengaktifkan kurang-pekerja terampil untuk replikasi keahlian dari tukang pada repetitif dasar. The original method of achieving consistent part configuration was the template. Templates for layout, sawing, and filing permitted each worker to make parts to a standard design. Asli metode konsisten mencapai bagian konfigurasi adalah template. Template untuk tata letak, penggergajian, dan setiap pekerja filing diperbolehkan untuk membuat komponen untuk desain standar. While early templates were crude, they at least gave skilled workers a standard form to follow for the part. Building on the template idea, workers constructed other guides and workholders to make their jobs easier and the results more predictable. These guides and workholders were the ancestors of today's jigs

and fixtures. Sementara awal template yang sederhana, tetapi hal ini setidaknya memberi pekerja terampil standar formulir untuk mengikuti bagian. Membangun template ide, pekerja lainnya dibangun workholders panduan dan membuat pekerjaan mereka lebih mudah dan hasilnya lebih predictable. Workholders dan panduan ini merupakan leluhur yang saat ini jigs dan Fixtures. Yesterday's workholders had the same two basic functions as today's: securely holding and accurately locating a workpiece. Yesterday's workholders memiliki dasar yang sama dua hari ini berfungsi sebagai: aman dan akurat memegang locating a workpiece. Early jigs and fixtures may have lacked modern refinements, but they followed many of the same principles as todays workholder designs. Jigs dan Fixtures awal Mei ada kekurangan modern perbaikan, tetapi banyak dari mereka mengikuti prinsip-prinsip yang sama seperti hari ini workholder desain. DEFINITIONS DEFINISI Often the terms "jig" and "fixture" are confused or used interchangeably; however, there are clear distinctions between these two tools. Seringkali istilah "berjoget" dan "fitting" bingung atau digunakan interchangeably, namun terdapat jelas distinctions antara kedua perangkat. Although many people have their own definitions for a jig or fixture, there is one universal distinction between the two. Meskipun banyak orang memiliki definisi untuk berjoget atau fixture, ada satu universal antara keduanya. Both jigs and fixtures hold, support, and locate the workpiece. Kedua jigs dan Fixtures terus, dukungan, dan temukan workpiece. A jig, however, guides the cutting tool. J berjoget Namun, panduan pemotongan alat. A fixture references the cutting tool. J fixture referensi pemotongan alat. The differentiation between these types of workholders is in their relation to the cutting tool. Dengan perbedaan antara jenis workholders mereka dalam kaitannya dengan alat pemotong. As shown in Figure 1-1, jigs use drill bushings to support and guide the tool. Seperti ditunjukkan dalam Gambar 1-1, menggunakan jigs drill bushings dan panduan untuk mendukung perangkat. Fixtures, Figure 1-2, use set blocks and thickness, or feeler, gages to locate the tool relative to the workpiece. Fixtures, Gambar 1-2, penggunaan blok dan mengatur ketebalan, atau penyelidikan, gages menemukan alat relatif terhadap workpiece.

Figure 1-1 . Gambar 1-1. A jig guides the cutting tool, in this case with a bushing. J berjoget panduan pemotongan alat, dalam hal ini dengan bos.

Figure 1-2 . Gambar 1-2. A fixture references the cutting tool, in this case with a set block. J fixture referensi pemotongan alat, dalam hal ini dengan menetapkan blok. Jigs The most-common jigs are drill and boring jigs. -Yang paling umum adalah jigs drill jigs dan membosankan. These tools are fundamentally the same. Alat ini secara fundamental yang sama. The difference lies in the size, type, and placement of the drill bushings. Perbedaannya terletak pada ukuran, jenis, dan penempatan drill bushings. Boring jigs usually have larger bushings. These bushings may also have internal oil grooves to keep the boring bar lubricated. Boring jigs biasanya ada yang lebih besar bushings. Bushings Mei ini juga memiliki internal minyak grooves agar membosankan bar lubricated. Often, boring jigs use more than one bushing to support the boring bar throughout the machining cycle. Sering membosankan jigs menggunakan lebih dari satu paking untuk mendukung membosankan bar sepanjang machining siklus. In the shop, drill jigs are the most-widely used form of jig. Di toko, jigs bor yang paling banyak digunakan-bentuk berjoget. Drill jigs are used for drilling, tapping, reaming, chamfering, counterboring, countersinking, and similar operations. Drill jigs digunakan untuk pengeboran, penyadapan, reaming, chamfering, counterboring, countersinking, dan operasi serupa. Occasionally, drill jigs are used to perform assembly work also. Sesekali, drill jigs digunakan untuk melakukan sidang juga bekerja. In these situations, the bushings guide pins, dowels, or other assembly elements. Dalam situasi ini, maka panduan pin bushings, dowels, atau elemen lainnya berkumpul. Jigs are further identified by their basic construction. Jigs yang lebih dikenali oleh mereka dasar konstruksi. The two common forms of jigs are open and closed. Kedua bentuk jigs umum yang terbuka dan tertutup. Open jigs carry out operations on only one, or sometimes two, sides of a workpiece. Buka jigs melaksanakan operasi pada hanya satu, dua atau kadang-kadang, pihak yang workpiece. Closed jigs, on the other hand,

operate on two or more sides. Jigs ditutup, di sisi lain, beroperasi pada dua atau lebih pihak. The most-common open jigs are template jigs, plate jigs, table jigs, sandwich jigs, and angle plate jigs. -Yang paling umum adalah buka jigs template jigs, plat jigs, tabel jigs, sandwich jigs, dan sudut piring jigs. Typical examples of closed jigs include box jigs, channel jigs, and leaf jigs. Contoh umum yang ditutup jigs termasuk kotak jigs, saluran jigs, dan daun jigs. Other forms of jigs rely more on the application of the tool than on their construction for their identity. Bentuk lain jigs lebih bergantung pada aplikasi dari alat dari mereka untuk konstruksi identitas mereka. These include indexing jigs, trunnion jigs, and multi-station jigs. Ini termasuk pengindeksan jigs, trunnion jigs, dan multi-stasiun jigs. Specialized industry applications have led to the development of specialized drill jigs. Aplikasi khusus industri menyebabkan perkembangan khusus drill jigs. For example, the need to drill precisely located rivet holes in aircraft fuselages and wings led to the design of large jigs, with bushings and liners installed, contoured to the surface of the aircraft. A portable air-feed drill with a bushing attached to its nose is inserted through the liner in the jig and drilling is accomplished in each location. Misalnya, perlu drill terletak tepat mengeling lubang di sayap pesawat terbang dan fuselages menyebabkan desain besar jigs, dengan bushings dan liners terinstal, contoured ke permukaan pesawat terbang. Judara portabel feed drill dengan paking terpasang nya hidung dimasukkan melalui liner dalam berjoget dan pengeboran yang dicapai di masing-masing lokasi. Fixtures Fixtures have a much-wider scope of application than jigs. Fixtures memiliki banyak aplikasi yang lebih luas lingkup dari jigs. These workholders are designed for applications where the cutting tools cannot be guided as easily as a drill. Workholders ini dirancang untuk aplikasi tempat pemotongan alat-alat tidak dapat dengan mudah sebagai petunjuk sebagai drill. With fixtures, an edge finder, center finder, or gage blocks position the cutter. Dengan Fixtures, berpinggir finder, finder pusat, atau posisi yang menggadaikan blok cutter. Examples of the more-common fixtures include milling fixtures, lathe fixtures, sawing fixtures, and grinding fixtures. Contoh yang lebih umumtermasuk Fixtures penggilingan Fixtures, pembubut Fixtures, penggergajian Fixtures, dan digiling Fixtures. Moreover, a fixture can be used in almost any operation that requires a precise relationship in the position of a tool to a workpiece. Selain itu, fixture yang dapat digunakan dalam hampir semua operasi yang memerlukan hubungan yang tepat dalam posisi alat ke workpiece. Fixtures are most often identified by the machine tool where they are used. Fixtures adalah yang paling sering diidentifikasi dengan alat-alat yang digunakan. Examples include mill fixtures or lathe fixtures. Contohnya termasuk gilingan atau Fixtures pembubut Fixtures. But the function of the fixture can also identify a fixture type. Tetapi fungsi tertentu juga dapat mengidentifikasi jenis tertentu. So can the basic construction of the tool. Sehingga dapat dasar konstruksi dari alat. Thus, although a tool can be called simply a mill fixture, it could also be further defined as a straddle-milling, plate-type mill fixture. Dengan demikian, meskipun alat dapat dipanggil hanya mill fixture, bisa juga

akan lebih lanjut ditetapkan sebagai berjingkrak-berdesak-desakan, plat mill-jenis tertentu. Moreover, a lathe fixture could also be defined as a radius-turning, angle-plate lathe fixture. Selain itu, membubut fixture juga dapat didefinisikan sebagai radiusberpaling, sudut-piring pembubut tertentu. The tool designer usually decides the specific identification of these tools. Alat perancang biasanya memutuskan spesifik alat identifikasi ini. Tool or Tooling Alat atau hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat The term "tool" encompasses both jigs and fixtures. Istilah "perangkat" meliputi kedua jigs dan Fixtures. Essentially, it is a generic term describing a workholder which is identified with a part or machine. Pada dasarnya, ini adalah istilah generik yang menjelaskan workholder yang diidentifikasi dengan bagian atau mesin. Sometimes "tool" is used to refer to a cutting tool or a machine tool, so it is important to make clear distinctions. Kadang-kadang "tool" yang digunakan untuk mengacu ke pemotongan alat atau alat-alat, sehingga sangat penting untuk membuat jelas distinctions. Workholders Another term which describes both jigs and fixtures is "workholder." A broad term, it frequently identifies any device which holds, supports, and locates a workpiece. Istilah lain yang menjelaskan kedua jigs dan Fixtures adalah "workholder." Sebuah istilah umum, sering mengidentifikasi perangkat apapun yang berpendapat, mendukung, dan locates yang workpiece. In addition to jigs and fixtures, vises, collets, clamps, and other similar devices are also workholders. Selain jigs dan Fixtures, vises, collets, klem, dan perangkat lain yang serupa juga workholders. PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKHOLDERS Permanen dan WORKHOLDERS TEMPORARY Jigs and fixtures are most often found where parts are produced in large quantities, or produced to complex specifications for a moderate quantity. Jigs dan Fixtures yang paling sering ditemukan di mana bagian yang diproduksi dalam jumlah besar, atau kompleks untuk diproduksi spesifikasi untuk kuantitas moderat. With the same design principles and logic, workholding devices can be adapted for limited-production applications. Dengan prinsip-prinsip desain yang sama dan logika, workholding perangkat yang dapat disesuaikan untuk aplikasi-produksi terbatas. The major difference between permanent and temporary workholders is the cost/benefit relationship between the workholder and the process. Some applications require jigs and fixtures solely for speed; others require less speed and higher precision. Perbedaan utama antara permanen dan sementara workholders adalah biaya / manfaat hubungan antara workholder dan proses. Beberapa aplikasi memerlukan jigs dan Fixtures hanya untuk kecepatan; lain kurang memerlukan kecepatan dan ketepatan tinggi. The requirements of the application have a direct impact on the type of jig or fixture built and, consequently, the cost. Persyaratan aplikasi memiliki dampak langsung pada jenis atau berjoget dibangun dan fixture, akibatnya, biaya.

Permanent Jigs and Fixtures Permanen Jigs dan Fixtures Workholders for high-volume production are usually permanent tools. Workholders untuk volume produksi tinggi biasanya alat permanen. These permanent jigs and fixtures are most often intended for a single operation on one particular part. Ini tetap jigs dan Fixtures yang paling sering ditujukan untuk satu operasi pada satu bagian tertentu. The increased complexity of permanent workholders yields benefits in improved productivity and reduced operator decision-making, which result in the tool having a lower average cost per unit or per run. Peningkatan kerumitan tetap memberikan manfaat workholders dalam meningkatkan produktivitas dan mengurangi operator keputusan, yang menyebabkan alat yang lebih rendah rata-rata biaya per unit atau per berjalan. Therefore, more time and money can be justified for these workholders. Karena itu, lebih banyak waktu dan uang dapat dibenarkan untuk workholders. In the case of hydraulic or pneumatic fixtures, inherent design advantages can dramatically improve productivity and, hence, reduce per-unit costs even further, even though the initial cost to construct these fixtures is the most expensive of all fixture alternatives. Dalam kasus hidrolik atau pneumatic Fixtures, melekat keunggulan desain dramatis dapat meningkatkan produktivitas, dan karena itu, mengurangi biaya per-unit bahkan lebih, walaupun biaya awal untuk membangun Fixtures ini adalah yang paling mahal dari semua fixture alternatif. In some cases, where machine-loading considerations are paramount, such as a pallet-changing machining center, even duplicate permanent fixtures may be justified. Dalam beberapa kasus, di mana mesin-memuat pertimbangan yang terpenting, seperti pallet machining pusat-perubahan, bahkan sama permanen Fixtures Mei dibenarkan. Permanent jigs and fixtures are typically constructed from standard tooling components and custom-made parts. Jigs Fixtures permanen dan biasanya dibangun dari standar komponen dan hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat yg dibuat bagian. Figure 1-3 shows a typical permanent workholder for a drilling operation. Gambar 1-3 menunjukkan khas tetap workholder untuk operasi pengeboran.

Figure 1-3 . Gambar 1-3. A permanent workholder used for a drilling operation. J workholder tetap digunakan untuk operasi pengeboran.

Low-volume runs and ones with fewer critical dimensions are often produced with throwaway jigs and fixtures. Rendah volume dan berjalan dengan lebih sedikit yang kritis dimensi sering diproduksi dengan lembaran jigs dan Fixtures. These tools would typically be one-time-use items constructed from basic materials at hand and discarded after production is complete. Biasanya alat ini akan menjadi satu-waktu-item dibangun menggunakan bahan dasar dari dekat dan dibuang setelah produksi selesai. Although throwaway jigs and fixtures are technically permanent workholders, in effect they are actually temporary. Walaupun berguna jigs dan Fixtures teknis yang permanen workholders, berlaku sementara mereka sebenarnya. General-Purpose Workholders Tujuan umum-Workholders In many instances, the shape of the part and the machining to be performed allow for the use of a general-purpose workholder such as a vise, collet, or chuck. Dalam banyak hal, bentuk dan bagian machining dilakukan untuk memungkinkan penggunaan umum-tujuan workholder seperti visa, collet, atau chuck. These workholders are adaptable to different machines and many different parts. Workholders ini adalah adaptable ke berbagai mesin dan berbagai komponen. Since they are not part-specific, their versatility allows for repeated use on a variety of different or limited-production runs. Karena bukan bagian tertentu, fleksibilitas memungkinkan mereka untuk menggunakan diulang di berbagai berbeda-produksi terbatas atau berjalan. The cost of these workholders would usually be averaged over years and might not even be a factor in job-cost calculations. Biaya ini akan workholders biasanya rata-rata lebih dari tahun dan bahkan tidak mungkin menjadi faktor dalam pekerjaan-perhitungan biaya. The general-purpose nature of these workholders necessitates a higher level of operator care and attention to maintain consistency and accuracy. Umum tujuan-sifat ini workholders necessitates tingkat yang lebih tinggi dari operator perawatan dan perhatian untuk menjaga konsistensi dan akurasi. For these reasons, general-purpose workholders are not preferred for lengthy production runs. Untuk alasan ini, tujuan-umum workholders tidak disukai untuk produksi berjalan lama. Modular Fixtures Modular Fixtures Modular fixtures achieve many of the advantages of a permanent tool using only a temporary setup. Modular Fixtures mencapai banyak kelebihan tetap menggunakan alat ini hanya sementara setup. Depicted in Figure 1-4, these workholders combine ideas and elements of permanent and general-purpose workholding. Digambarkan dalam Gambar 1-4, ini workholders menggabungkan ide-ide dan elemen permanen dan tujuanworkholding umum.

Figure 1-4 . Gambar 1-4. Modular workholders combine ideas and elements of both permanent and temporary workholding to make inexpensive-yet-durable workholders. Modular workholders menggabungkan ide dan elemen kedua permanen dan sementara workholding untuk membuat murah-namun-lama workholders. The primary advantage of modular fixtures is that a tool with the benefits of permanent tooling (setup reduction, durability, productivity improvements, and reduced operator decision-making) can be built from a set of standard components. Utama keuntungan dari modular Fixtures adalah sebuah tool dengan keunggulan permanen hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat (setup penurunan, daya tahan, peningkatan produktivitas, dan mengurangi operator keputusan) dapat dibangun dari sejumlah komponen standar. The fixture can be disassembled when the run is complete, to allow the reuse of the components in a different fixture. Fitting yang dapat disassembled ketika menjalankan selesai, untuk membolehkan kembali dari komponen yang berbeda dalam tertentu. At a later time the original can be readily reconstructed from drawings, instructions, and photographic records. Di lain waktu yang asli dapat mudah daripada gambar, instruksi, dan foto catatan. This reuse enables the construction of a complex, high-precision tool without requiring the corresponding dedication of the fixture components. Ulang ini memungkinkan pembangunan kompleks, presisi tinggi tanpa memerlukan alat yang sesuai dedikasi dari komponen fixture. Figure 1-5 shows how modular fixturing fits into the hierarchy of workholding options, ranking below permanent fixturing yet above general-purpose workholders. Gambar 1-5 menunjukkan bagaimana fixturing modular sesuai ke dalam hirarki dari workholding pilihan, peringkat di bawah ini di atas namun tetap fixturing-tujuan umum workholders. Virtually every manufacturer has good applications for each of these three options at one time or another. Hampir setiap produsen memiliki aplikasi yang baik untuk tiap-tiap tiga pilihan pada satu waktu atau yang lain.

Figure 1-5 . Gambar 1-5. The hierarchy of workholding options. Hierarki yang workholding pilihan. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DESAIN Pertimbangan The principal considerations when choosing among workholder varieties fall into three general categories: tooling cost, tooling details, and tooling operation. Pertimbangan utama saat memilih antara workholder varietas jatuh ke dalam tiga kategori umum: hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat biaya, hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat detil, dan hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat operasi. Although each of these categories is separated here, in practice they are interdependent. Meskipun tiap-tiap kategori terpisah di sini adalah, dalam praktiknya mereka saling. The following are some design differences and considerations for permanent, general-purpose, and modular workholders. Berikut adalah beberapa perbedaan desain dan pertimbangan untuk permanen, tujuan-umum, dan modular workholders. Tooling Costs Hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat Biaya The total cost of any jig or fixture is frequently the major area of consideration in many workholder designs. Total biaya apapun berjoget atau fixture sering utama pertimbangan di bidang desain workholder banyak. Although initial cost is a major element, it should

not be the basis for accepting or rejecting any tooling option. Walaupun biaya awal merupakan unsur utama, seharusnya tidak menjadi dasar untuk menerima atau menolak setiap hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat pilihan. A more-proper economic evaluation of the workholder design takes into consideration many other factors. Yang lebih benar-evaluasi ekonomi dari workholder desain mengambil memperhatikan berbagai faktor lainnya. As discussed previously, permanent fixtures have distinct advantages in the production of high-volume and high-precision parts. Sebagaimana dibahas sebelumnya, tetap berbeda Fixtures ada keuntungan dalam produksi tinggi dan volume tinggi presisi bagian. They also typically reduce machine setup time, machine cycle time, and the level of operator skill required to produce satisfactory quality output. Mereka juga biasanya mengurangi waktu setup mesin, mesin siklus waktu, dan tingkat operator keahlian yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan kualitas hasil memuaskan. Over a long production run, or a series of runs in the life of a tool, the average cost of the tool per piece produced can be quite low. Selama produksi berjalan lama, atau serangkaian berjalan dalam kehidupan sebuah tool, yang rata-rata biaya per alat potong yang dihasilkan dapat sangat rendah. General-purpose workholders are more expensive than temporary tools in most cases, but their utility and flexibility often allow these workholders to be regarded as a capital cost to be amortized over a period of time without regard to actual usage. Umum workholders-tujuan yang lebih mahal daripada sementara alat-alat pada umumnya, tetapi mereka sering utilitas dan fleksibilitas ini membolehkan workholders harus dianggap sebagai biaya modal yang akan amortized selama periode waktu tanpa hal yang sebenarnya digunakan. Similarly, modular fixturing is typically a capital investment to be amortized over a set lifespan, with an average cost assigned to usage for each anticipated job. Demikian pula, modular fixturing biasanya modal investasi yang harus lebih dari satu set amortized jangka hidup, dengan biaya rata-rata yang diberikan untuk penggunaan diantisipasi untuk setiap pekerjaan. Another cost to be considered is workholder disposition. Permanent fixtures require storage and maintenance to keep them available for their next use. Biaya lain yang harus diperhatikan adalah workholder disposisi. Permanent Fixtures memerlukan penyimpanan dan pemeliharaan untuk menjaga mereka yang tersedia untuk mereka gunakan selanjutnya. General-purpose tools are reused extensively, but still incur some costs for maintenance and storage. Umum tujuan-alat yang secara reused, tetapi masih mendatangkan beberapa biaya pemeliharaan dan penyimpanan. Similarly, modular fixtures will be disassembled, and the components maintained, stored, and reused frequently. Demikian pula, Fixtures modular akan disassembled, dan komponen dipelihara, disimpan, dan sering reused. Tooling Details Hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat Detail Tooling details are the overall construction characteristics and special features incorporated into the jig or fixture. Hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat rincian keseluruhan konstruksi memiliki karakteristik khusus dan dimasukkan ke dalam berjoget atau fixture.

Permanent workholders are designed and built to last longer than temporary workholders. So, permanent jigs and fixtures usually contain more-elaborate parts and features than temporary workholders. Permanen workholders dirancang dan dibangun untuk lebih lama dari sementara workholders. Jadi, tetap jigs dan Fixtures biasanya berisi lebih rumitkomponen dan fitur dari workholders sementara. There are several other differences between permanent and temporary workholders in this area. Ada beberapa perbedaan antara permanen dan sementara workholders di daerah ini. These include the type and complexity of the individual tooling elements, the extent of secondary machining and finishing operations on the tool, the tool-design process, and the amount of detail in the workholder drawings. Ini termasuk jenis dan kompleksitas masing-masing unsur hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat, di mana dari kedua machining dan menyelesaikan operasi pada alat, alat-proses desain, dan jumlah detail di workholder gambar. Since the elements for modular workholders are usually part of a complete set, or system, only rarely will additional custom components need to be made. Karena elemen untuk modular workholders biasanya bagian dari lengkap, atau sistem, hanya akan jarang tambahan komponen perlu dilakukan. Permanent workholders contain different commercial tooling components based on expected tool usage. Permanen workholders berisi berbagai komponen komersial hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat berdasarkan penggunaan alat diharapkan. Permanent jigs intended for a high-volume drilling operation, for example, often use a renewable bushing and liner bushing together. Jigs untuk tetap tinggi volume operasi pengeboran, misalnya, sering menggunakan penggaris dan diperbaharui paking paking bersama. A throwaway jig for a smaller production run often uses a simple press-fit bushing. J berjoget berguna untuk menjalankan produksi yang lebih kecil sering menggunakan sederhana tekan-muat bos. The secondary operations normally associated with tooling include hardening, grinding, and similar operations to finish the workholder. Usually, permanent workholders are hardened and ground to assure their accuracy over a long production run. Sekunder operasi biasanya termasuk yang berkaitan dengan hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat keamanan, keras, dan operasi yang sama untuk menyelesaikan workholder. Biasanya, permanen workholders tanah yang keras dan untuk memastikan kebenarannya lebih lama produksi berjalan. Since they are intended only for short production runs, throwaway jigs and fixtures do not require these operations. Karena hanya ditujukan untuk produksi berjalan singkat, lembaran jigs dan Fixtures ini tidak memerlukan operasi. Another secondary operation frequently performed on permanent tools, but not temporary tools, is applying a protective finish, such as black oxide, chrome plating, or enamel paint. Kedua operasi lain yang sering dilakukan pada alat permanen, tetapi sementara tidak alat-alat, yang berlaku adalah pelindung selesai, seperti hitam oksida, chrome plating, enamel atau cat. In designing a permanent workholder, the designer often makes detailed engineering drawings to show the toolroom exactly what must be done to build the workholder. Dalam merancang tetap workholder, perancang sering membuat detil gambar teknik untuk menampilkan toolroom apa yang harus dilakukan untuk membangun workholder. With temporary workholders, the design drawings are often sent to the toolroom as

simple freehand sketches. Dengan sementara workholders, desain gambar yang sering dikirim ke toolroom sebagai sketsa yg dibuat sederhana. Permanent tools are normally designed for long-term use. Permanen alat biasanya dirancang untuk penggunaan jangka panjang. This being the case, the drawings and engineering data for the permanent jig or fixture then become a permanent record. Ini yang terjadi, gambar-gambar dan rekayasa data untuk tetap berjoget atau fixture kemudian menjadi catatan permanen. With modular workholders, the designer may either construct drawings or specify building the workholder directly around the part. Dengan modular workholders, perancang bisa membangun atau gambar bangunan yang menentukan workholder langsung sekitar bagian. Here only a parts list and photographs or video tape are kept as a permanent record. Di sini hanya bagian daftar dan foto atau video tape disimpan sebagai catatan permanen. Certain workholding applications require special fixture characteristics. For example, a particularly corrosive environment may require stainless steel components and clamps to deliver a satisfactory life cycle. In other cases, variable workpiece dimensions, as in a casting, necessitate clamping devices which can compensate for these variations. Appearance of a finished part might require the use of nylon, plastic, or rubber contact points to protect the part. Beberapa aplikasi memerlukan workholding fixture karakteristik khusus. Misalnya, lingkungan korosif khususnya mungkin memerlukan komponen stainless steel dan klem untuk menyampaikan siklus hidup yang memuaskan. Dalam kasus lain, variabel workpiece dimensi, seperti dalam sebuah casting, clamping memerlukan perangkat yang dapat memberikan kompensasi untuk variasi. tampilan yang selesai bagian mungkin memerlukan penggunaan nilon, plastik, karet atau kontak poin untuk melindungi bagian. Similarly, the selection of tooling details can enhance the productivity of some permanent tools. Demikian pula, proses pemilihan hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat rincian dapat meningkatkan produktivitas dari beberapa alat permanen. For example, utilizing small hydraulic clamps may allow loading many parts on a workholder due to the compactness of the design. Misalnya, memanfaatkan klem kecil hidrolik Mei membolehkan memuat banyak pada workholder disebabkan kepadatan dari desain. This would enhance productivity by reducing load/unload time as a percentage of total cycle time. Hal ini akan meningkatkan produktivitas dengan mengurangi beban / mencurahkan waktu sebagai persentase dari total siklus waktu. Duplicate fixtures are sometimes justified for machining centers because they allow loading of parts on one pallet during the machining cycle on the other pallet. Duplikat Fixtures kadang dibenarkan untuk machining pusat karena membolehkan loading pada salah satu bagian dari palet selama siklus machining pada pallet lainnya. Tooling Operation Hiasan yg dibuat dgn alat Operasi The performance of any workholder is critical to the complete usefulness of the tool. Kinerja dari setiap workholder adalah penting untuk melengkapi kegunaan dari alat. If the workholder cannot perform the functions desired in the manner intended, it is

completely useless, regardless of the cost or the extent of the detail. Jika workholder tidak dapat melakukan fungsi yang dikehendaki dalam cara yang dimaksudkan, ia benar-benar sia-sia, tanpa memperhitungkan biaya atau mana yang detail. As the performance of a permanent, modular, or general-purpose workholder is considered, several factors about the machine tools must be known. Karena performa tetap modular, atau umum-tujuan workholder dianggap, beberapa faktor tentang mesin alat harus diketahui. These factors include the type, size, and number of machine tools needed for the intended operations. Faktor-faktor ini termasuk jenis, ukuran, jumlah mesin dan peralatan yang diperlukan untuk operasi yang ditujukan. Workholders are sometimes designed to serve multiple functions. For example, it is possible to have a workholder that acts both as a drill jig and a milling fixture. Workholders kadang-kadang yang dirancang untuk melayani berbagai fungsi. Contohnya, adalah mungkin untuk memiliki workholder yang bertindak baik sebagai drill berjoget dan kisaran tertentu. These tools are called combination tools or multiple-function workholders. Alat ini disebut tools atau kombinasi beberapa fungsi-workholders. Figure 1-6 shows a typical temporary workholder for drilling and milling operations on the same part. Gambar 1-6 menunjukkan khas untuk sementara workholder operasi pengeboran dan berdesak-desakan di bagian yang sama. In this example, since the workholder has provisions for both milling and drilling, it is classified as both a drill jig and milling fixture. Dalam contoh ini, karena telah workholder ketentuan untuk kedua penggilingan dan pengeboran, sekarang diklasifikasikan sebagai baik dril berjoget dan kisaran tertentu.

Figure 1-6 . Gambar 1-6. A combination drill jig/milling fixture used for both types of operations on the same part. Kombinasi drill berjoget / penggilingan fixture digunakan untuk kedua jenis operasi pada bagian yang sama. Other machine considerations may come into play as well. Pertimbangan lainnya mesin Mei mulai berlaku juga. On numerically controlled machines, for example, care must be taken in fixture design to position clamps out of the cutting tool's path. Mesin dikontrol pada angka, misalnya, perhatian harus diambil untuk posisi desain fixture klem dari pemotongan perangkat jalur. Pallet machines require different fixtures than other machines. Pallet mesin memerlukan Fixtures berbeda dari mesin lainnya. Obviously, vertical mills would be tooled differently than horizontal mills. Tentunya, vertikal pabrik

akan berbeda dari tooled horisontal pabrik. Likewise, the way parts are loaded onto the fixture has implications for fixture design. Demikian juga, jalan yang dibuka pada fixture memiliki implikasi untuk desain fixture. Despite the workholder design or the size of the production run, every jig or fixture must meet certain criteria to be useful. Meskipun workholder desain atau ukuran produksi berjalan, setiap fixture berjoget atau harus memenuhi kriteria tertentu yang akan berguna. These criteria include accuracy, durability, and safety. Kriteria ini termasuk akurasi, daya tahan, dan keamanan. Accuracy, with regard to jigs and fixtures, is the ability of a workholder to produce the desired result, within the required limits and specifications, part after part, throughout the production run. Akurasi, mengenai jigs dan Fixtures, adalah kemampuan dari workholder untuk memproduksi hasil yang diinginkan, batas waktu yang diperlukan dan spesifikasi, bagian setelah bagian, sepanjang produksi dijalankan. To perform to this minimum level of accuracy, the workholder must also be durable. Untuk melakukan ini minimal tingkat akurasi, workholder yang juga harus tahan lama. So, the jig or fixture must be designed and built to maintain the required accuracy throughout the expected part production. If part production is continuous, year after year, the jig or fixture must be more durable than is necessary for only one production run. Jadi, berjoget atau fixture harus dirancang dan dibangun untuk menjaga akurasi yang diperlukan di seluruh bagian produksi yang diharapkan. Jika bagian produksi yang berkesinambungan, dari tahun ke tahun, atau yang berjoget fixture harus lebih tahan lama daripada yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan hanya satu produksi. The final consideration, safety, is actually the most important. Pertimbangan akhir, keselamatan, sebenarnya yang paling penting. No matter how good the design or construction, or how well it produces the desired accuracy, if the workholder is not safe, it is useless. Tidak peduli seberapa baik desain atau konstruksi, atau seberapa baik itu menghasilkan akurasi yang diinginkan, jika workholder tidak aman, maka sia-sia. Safety is a primary concern in the design of any workholder. Keamanan merupakan keprihatinan utama dalam setiap desain workholder. Safety, as well as speed and reliability of part loading, can often be improved by the use of power clamping, either pneumatic or hydraulic. Keselamatan, serta kecepatan dan kehandalan sebagian dimuat, sering dapat ditingkatkan dengan menggunakan daya clamping, baik pneumatic atau hidrolik. Once set, power clamps will repeatedly clamp with the identical force. Setelah ditetapkan, akan berulang kali daya klem klem identik dengan kekerasan. This is not always true with manual clamps, which depend on operator diligence for the proper application of clamping force. Hal ini tidak selalu benar dengan klem manual, yang tergantung pada operator ketekunan untuk aplikasi yang benar dari clamping kekerasan. In addition, power-clamping systems can have interlocks to the machine control which will shut the machine down if the system loses powera clear safety advantage for both operator and machine tool. Selain itu, kekuatan-clamping sistem dapat memiliki Interlocks ke mesin kontrol yang akan mematikan mesin bawah

jika sistem kehilangan kuasa-keuntungan yang jelas untuk keselamatan kedua operator dan alat-alat. APPLICATIONS FOR JIGS AND FIXTURES APLIKASI UNTUK JIGS DAN Fixtures Typically, the jigs and fixtures found in a machine shop are for machining operations. Biasanya, jigs dan Fixtures ditemukan di sebuah bengkel untuk operasi machining. Other operations, however, such as assembly, inspection, testing, and layout, are also areas where workholding devices are well suited. Lainnya, namun, seperti perakitan, inspeksi, pengujian, dan tata letak, juga tempat workholding perangkat cocok dengan baik. Figure 1-7 shows a list of the more-common classifications and applications of jigs and fixtures used for manufacturing. There are many distinct variations within each general classification, and many workholders are actually combinations of two or more of the classifications shown. Gambar 1-7 menunjukkan daftar yang lebih umum-klasifikasi dan aplikasi jigs dan Fixtures digunakan untuk manufaktur. Ada banyak variasi yang berbeda setiap klasifikasi umum, dan banyak workholders sebenarnya adalah kombinasi dua atau lebih dari klasifikasi ditampilkan.
EXTERNAL-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: EXTERNAL-machining APLIKASI: Flat-Surface Machining Permukaan rata-machining Milling fixtures Milling Fixtures Surface-grinding fixtures Permukaan-pengasahan Fixtures Planing fixtures Planing Fixtures Shaping fixtures membentuk Fixtures Cylindrical-Surface Machining Silinder-Permukaan machining Lathe fixtures Lathe Fixtures Cylindrical-grinding fixtures silinder-pengasahan Fixtures Irregular-Surface Machining Irregular-Permukaan machining Band-sawing fixtures Band-penggergajian Fixtures External-broaching fixtures Eksternal-broaching Fixtures INTERNAL-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: Internal-machining APLIKASI: Cylindrical- and Irregular-Hole Machining Silinder-dan-Irregular Hole machining Drill jigs Drill jigs Boring jigs Boring jigs Electrical-discharge-machining fixtures Elektro-discharge-machining Fixtures Punching fixtures Punching Fixtures Internal-broaching fixtures Internal-broaching Fixtures NON-MACHINING APPLICATIONS: NON-machining APLIKASI: Assembly Majelis Welding fixtures Welding Fixtures Mechanical-assembly fixtures Mechanical-sidang Fixtures (Riveting, stapling, stitching, pinning, etc.) (Menarik, stapling, penyulaman, pinning, dll) Soldering fixtures Soldering Fixtures Inspection Inspeksi Mechanical-inspection fixtures Mechanical-inspeksi Fixtures Optical-inspection fixtures Optical-inspeksi Fixtures Electronic-inspection fixtures Elektronik-inspeksi Fixtures Finishing Painting fixtures Lukisan Fixtures Plating fixtures Plating Fixtures Polishing fixtures upaman Fixtures Lapping fixtures Lapping Fixtures

Honing fixtures Honing Fixtures Miscellaneous Layout templates Layout template Testing fixtures Ujian Fixtures Heat-treating fixtures Heat-memperlakukan Fixtures

Figure 1-7 . Gambar 1-7. Typical applications of jigs and fixtures Typical aplikasi jigs dan Fixtures

MILL FIXTURE BASES


Cast Iron FEATURES: Perfect start for a small-tomedium-size milling fixture. Top surface is ground flat and parallel to the bottom within .002" TIR. Ready to mount on virtually any milling machine, reducing tooling cost and lead time considerably. Thick, reinforced cast iron construction provides excellent rigidity. MOUNTING: Each base is jig bored for two Sure-Lock Fixture Keys. Slotted tangs are useful for fastening to the machine. For mounting on a T-slotted machine table, see Sure-Lock Fixture Keys and T Nuts. SIZES: Available in three standard fixture sizes see Dimensions page for part numbers, and Size Comparison page for a group photo of all sizes: 6 x 9" 8 x 12" 10 x 15" MATERIAL: Gray cast iron, ASTM class 40. This item will no longer be available after our existing inventory is sold.

TOOLING COMPONENTS

MILL FIXTURE BASES

MILL FIXTURE BASE MILL FIXTURE BASE P/N DIMENSIONS (A) (B) (C) (D) 9 (E) (F) 1-1/16 13 1-1/4 1

GANG MILL FIXTURE BASE

168-50 6 168-55 8

12 16 1-3/8 1-1/4 1-5/16

168-60 10 15 19 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-7/16 GANG MILL FIXTURE BASE P/N DIMENSIONS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) 1-1/16 6 10 1-1/4 1

168-75 9 168-80 12

8 12 1-3/8 1-1/4 1-5/16