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Climate change: How do we know?

This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements, provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. (Source: NOAA) The Earth's climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earths orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives. The current warming trend is of particular significance proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented in the past 1,300 Earth-orbiting satellites and other technological advances many different types of information about our planet and its collected over many years reveal the signals of a changing Certain facts about Earth's climate are not in dispute: because most of it is very likely human-induced and years.1 have enabled scientists to see the big picture, collecting climate on a global scale. Studying these climate data climate.

The heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19th century.2 Their ability to affect the transfer of infrared energy through the atmosphere is the scientific basis of many JPL-designed instruments, such as AIRS. Increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause the Earth to warm in response. Ice cores drawn from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain glaciers show that the Earths climate responds to changes in solar output, in the Earths orbit, and in greenhouse gas levels. They also show that in the past, large changes in climate have happened very quickly, geologically-speaking: in tens of years, not in millions or even thousands.3

The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling:

Sea level rise Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century.4 Global temperature rise All three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. 5 Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. 6 Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase. 7

Warming oceans The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.8 Shrinking ice sheets The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost about 152 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of ice between 2002 and 2005. Declining Arctic sea ice Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades. 9 Glacial retreat Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa.10

Extreme events The number of record high temperature events in the United States has been increasing, while the number of record low temperature events has been decreasing, since 1950. The U.S. has also witnessed increasing numbers of intense rainfall events.11 Ocean acidification Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent.12,13 This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.14,15 Reaction Paper: An Inconvenient Truth The documentary, An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore is an eye opener and also a wake up call for me. I have heard about global warming before, probably back in grade school but I knew a little about it or I only knew the meaning of the term global warming. The documentary gave me a deeper understanding of what global warming really is and what will be the consequences if we do not do something about it. The way the documentary is presented is very effective. Al Gore defined and described global warming in a way a non-science-loving-environmentalist-geek would understand. Most likely, that would be the reason why it won so many awards. The documentary showed the basic process of global warming which is the greenhouse gases are trapping the sun's heat in the earth's atmosphere which makes the earth warm. The greenhouse gases are caused by producing too much CO2. When Al Gore compared the old and new photos of the same place, the difference was very obvious. I can clearly see that the glaciers

Synopsis/Summary: The documentary was about global warming and on how can we protect our mother earth for future generations. Al Gore shows pictures of the earth and also shows us up-to-date data and statistics, which is also compared by figures in our prior years to show us the degree of damage we have done tour planet earth. The documentary also has elaborate cartoons and diagrams so that people of all intellectual capabilities can understand and relate to the topics under discussion. Added to that, he shows also pictures of the destruction of earth just like comparative photographs from footage of collapsing ice shelves, data on the record numbers of storms, disappearing glaciers around the world, great floods, and other kinds of extreme weather, new diseases which include viruses which hit the people , photos of dying polar bears animations of the effects of rising sea levels, and disappearing coral reefs. It has in depth explanations as to how all this damage has come to occur and why most people fail to respond to all warnings concerning about the planet. It also states that politics and mislead information has been given to most public, so that this issue can be ignored and not resolved as solutions and alternatives can cause a lot of problems and hassles economically. He tells that only political will can make a change and to encourage the people to stand up for saving the earth. One thing more it also shows his defeat with George W. Bush during the presidential election last 2000 in United States of America It shows us that many countries prefer to go with censorship than to spend behind alternatives. He also mentioned about the Kyoto protocol where he showed the nations which signed that said protocol. Al Gore clearly mentioned the fate of the poor scientists who were persecuted for trying to reveal "unwanted" information to the public. He said that many controversies were put up against the Global Warming theory, but the public now has the right shed some light on this matter. He also relates his life story in the documentary just like the death of her sister because of lung cancer and the near-fatal car accident of his son. He also gives solution on how to solve climate crisis:1) Neutralize your 2)remaining emissions 3)Dont waste paper 4)Carry a refillable beverage bottle 5)Modify your diet to eat less meat 6)Buy things that last 7)Pre-cycle reduce before you buy 8 )Vote with your dollars 9) Support an environmental group 10) Telecommute from home. Reaction: The documentary of Al Gore is very interesting, because it does not only give you information about global warming but also it will awaken you to take good care of our mother earth. It clearly showed the environmental conditions our planet is facing. Part of the reason why I like it was that Gore presents a powerful message that combines factual information, humor and, ultimately, hopes. I really like how Al Gore relates his life story with what was happening in the earth, especially global warming. I was shocked that there was already big increase on carbon dioxide emission. I don't like the fact that he put some issues in politics, especially on what happened in 2000 presidential election in America . The global warming issue was properly and well explained by giving so animations, graphics, and video clips. I realized how

much we take our actions for granted, never giving any thought if those actions will have negative impact on the environment. I really like what he said in the documentary, We no longer have much time left to change, but we do have time. I was awakened by the documentary and it made me feel that it's our time to secure our future. I learned that if we are humane enough about the issue of global warming, we must encourage ourselves to make the change. Indeed, An Inconvenient Truth hits sharp and it hits hard. If you love our mother earth, watch it. No wait, don't just watch it, do something. Start making changes, to save the earth for ourselves and the next generation who will inherit it. Prevention for Global Warming Global warming refers to the Earths air and oceans gradually heating up to a point that disrupts balance, a problem that is continually getting worse. It sounds like a problem too massive for any one individual to take on, but it really isnt. Combining any few of these suggestions can make more of a dramatic effect than most people understand. The goal is to emit less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Delicious Reddit Stumble Upon Facebook Google Flag Article Instructions Difficulty: Easy Step 1. Drive less. Take bikes, walk or carpool whenever possible. 2. Consider investing in a hybrid or electric vehicle to help prevent against further global warming.

3. Replace all the lightbulbs in and around your home with energy-efficient fluorescents that use fewer watts for the same
amount of light. 4. Clean or replace your filters monthly. 5. Choose energy-efficient appliances when it's time to buy new ones. 6. Decrease your air travel. 7. Wash clothes in cold water and line-dry whenever possible. 8. Use a low-flow showerhead, which will lessen the hot water used but not drop your water pressure in the shower. 9. Cut down on your garbagebuy fewer packaged materials to prevent further global warming. 10. Unplug electronics when they are not in use, because they still take up energy. At the very least, turn items off when theyre not being used. 11. Run the dishwasher and clothes washer only when you have a full load, and if available, use the energy-saving setting. 12. Insulate your home better, and dont forget to repair or replace worn caulking or weather-stripping. Insulate your water heater. 13. Buy recycled paper products and recycle as much of your waste as possible. 14. Bring your own reusable canvas grocery bags when grocery shopping. 15. Plant a tree. 16. Have an energy audit done on your home so you can find the trouble areas and fix them. 17. Use nontoxic cleaning products. 18. Shop locally for food. A farmers market is an excellent place to visit. And choose fresh food over frozen foods. Fresh takes less energy to produce. 19. Keep your car tuned up, and check tire pressure often to save gas. 20. Eat less meat and more organic foods in your diet to do your part in preventing global warming. Global Warming is one of the most searched terms on Internet. This is the most commonly used word today. Even entertainment industry have not lagged behind in raising this issue. There were some movies which addressed this issue very poignantly like The Day After Tomorrow which addressed the issue of modern ice age. In many of the countries Global warming have acquired a political status. Many of the candidates pursuing the 2008 Presidential race in US have raised Global warming and climate change as prime issues.In reality what is global warming?Scientifically Global warming is defined as process that will lead in rising Earths temperature . This reason for rise in Earth's temperature is attributed to an increase in greenhouse gases. The reason for increase in green house gases is attributed to the human activities. The temperature of Earth is raising at alarming levels.Some may feel that why the slight increase in temperature bother us. Although that is correct but in one season of the year 2003 itself around 30,000 people died in Europe by heat waves. But Bjorn Lomborg controversial figure have been in news in recent times for his comments on Global warming states that more people on Earth die of cold waves than hot waves. So a slight increase in temperature will reduce the no of deaths due to cold spells which are bigger than killer heat. But many fear that increase in temperatures will melt the ice at poles thus increasing the sea level which will cause flooding and leave many homeless.There has been some very serious debates on how does Global warming impact us now. Although we may see many changes in temperature and weather but those changes may not impact us directly sometimes it may only affect the next generation. We may not attribute

these changes to the Global warming. The most desired after effects which our next generation are likely to face is cold snow storms, heat waves, flood, long spell droughts etc.Global warming have been the source of ongoing debate between politicians and scientist worldwide. The nutrition statistics of the country may vary due to its climate, demographics and income. So reducing green house gas emissions from industrial activities means industries being closing down. Which will leave thousands of people jobless. So if we really aspire to cut on greenhouse gases then the need is to find out sources of nutrition which will be 5000 times more effective than spending billions of dollars on cutting greenhouse emissions.Global warming may not necessarily impact our generation but coming generations are obviously going to bear its brunt. So it becomes our moral responsibility to devise the plans which will contribute towards the reducing the Global warming. Although through treaties countries can decide their future plan of action on which they need to work upon but as they say the revolution should begin at home.

Solutions to Slow Down Global Warming


By Raleigh Kung, eHow Contributor

updated March 16, 2011

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Each level of society plays a part in the fight against global warming.

Global warming or climate change is one of the most recognizable problems in the world in 2011. Many scientists and government officials have recognized the signs of the deteriorating environment and have started to act on proactive solutions. Global warming solutions range between all levels of society; both individuals and global efforts play an important role in preserving the environment.

1. Individual
Individuals affect global warming with their daily consumption demands; for example, electricity and energy consumption
leads to higher emissions of carbon dioxide. Guy Dauncey, author of "The Climate Challenge: 101 Solutions to Global Warming," suggests lessening electric consumption and using energy-saving alternatives. Turning off the computer and printer when not in use saves 420kg of carbon dioxide per year. Replacing 20 light bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) reduces 1,000kg of carbon dioxide annually.

Community
Community and local government can utilize shared resources to lessen their environmental impact. Some cities offer
resources and services to encourage public transportation and car pooling. For example, Zipcar is a private car-sharing service located in several U.S. cities, such as San Francisco, Chicago and Boston. Their environmental impact includes decreasing overall crude oil use--90 percent of their members save a cumulative 219 gallons per year from using the

service. Local government can enact transportation laws as well; Dauncey reports that the Washington State Commuter Trip Reduction Law requires all businesses with over 100 employees to reduce trips during peak hours.

Nation
Dauncey suggests that the key to national environmental efforts is to get everyone engaged. This includes increasing
awareness among the public and the schools. Government sponsored documentaries and public environmental awareness events are ways for the government to engage the community. These can highlight the overall trend of global warming and possible solutions to enact in all levels of society. Early education in schools about climate change is also vital; instead of focusing on the negative aftermath of global warming, government could increase the emphasis on proactive solutions, which students can do themselves.

Globe
As a whole, the world can cumulatively protect vital natural resources. For example, countries can create acts to preserve
forests and reduce wood consumption. Tropical rainforests serve a vital function in combating climate change: Dauncey reports that these rainforests alone account for a 16 percent reduction in global carbon dioxide emissions. Other global initiatives include establishing groups dedicated to reducing environmental impact. Examples of existing groups are the International Carbon Action Partnership and the Rainforest Action Network. These groups are collaborative efforts with representatives from various countries