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CE 280: Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science Exam 1 – Spring 2009

Closed Book Exam

QUESTIONS (50 points)

1. What part of the federal government has the primary responsibility for developing environmental regulations?

(3 points)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (3 points)

2. Which “Act” regulates drinking water (3 points), and which “Act” regulates hazardous wastes disposed of after 1980 (3 points)?

(6 points)

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (3 points)

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (3 points)

3. State the law of conservation of mass (3 points). State the first law of thermodynamics (i.e., law of conservation of energy) (3 points).

(6 points)

The law of conservation of mass states that “Disregarding nuclear reactions, mass can neither be created nor destroyed”. (3 points)

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (3 points)

4. State the second law of thermodynamics

(3 points)

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There is always inefficiency when energy is converted to work (waste heat is always produced) (3 points)

5. When two objects are at different temperatures, heat will be transferred from the hotter object to the colder one. State the mechanisms of heat transfer.

(6 points)

Conduction (2 points) Convection (2 points) Radiation (2 points)

6. What is the definition and units for Molarity (3 points)? What is the definition and units of Normality (3 points)?

(6 points)

Molarity (M) in mol/L is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. (3 points)

Normality (N) in eq/L is the number of equivalents of solute in one liter of solution. (3 points)

7. Which are the chemical species involved in the carbonate systems (3 points)? These species change forms as a function of what (3 points)?

(6 points)

CO 2 (aq) aqueous carbon dioxide CO 2 dissolved carbon dioxide HCO 3 - bicarbonate ion CO 3 2- carbonate ion H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid (1 point each for a total of 3 points)

As a function of pH (3 points)

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8. Alkanes are the simplest organic compounds. Name the elements, of which the Alkanes are composed of?

(4 points)

Carbon (2 points) Hydrogen (2 points)

9. Draw the chemical structure for propane.

(4 points)

The chemical formula for propane is C 3 H 8 . The chemical structure can be drawn as follows. (4 points)

The chemical structure can be drawn as follows. (4 points) 10. What is a half life

10. What is a half life of a chemical compound.

(6 points)

Half life is time required for the concentration to decay to half its original value (6 points)

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PROBLEMS (50 points)

1. (10 points)

Calculate the volume for one mole of an ideal gas at standard temperature

and pressure (STP) conditions of 1 atmosphere and 0 o C temperature. How much change in volume will occur if the temperature is 30 o C and the pressure is 0.78 atm?

Useful equations:

R = 0.082056 L.atm.K -1 .mol -1

Temperature: 0 o C = 273.15 o K 30 o C = (30+273.15) o K

Ideal gas law: PV=nRT

V

Or

nRT

=

P

V =

1

mol

*0.082056

L

atm

K

mol

*273.15

K

1 atm

Or V = 22.414L

At a temperature of 30 o C and a pressure of 0.78 atmosphere,

V =

1

mol

*0.082056

L

atm

K

mol

*(30

+

273.15)

K

0.78 atm

Or V = 31.891L

Therefore, change in volume = 31.891 L-22.414 L = 9.477 L

2. (20 points)

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A lake with volume of 10 5 m 3 is fed by a pollution-free stream with a flow

rate of 50.0 m 3 /s. The lake also receives inflow from an industrial outfit at a rate of 4.5 m 3 /s that contains a non-conservative pollutant having a concentration of 90

mg/L. Some lab tests indicate that the pollutant decays following the first order kinetics, and has a decay coefficient of 0.21/day. Find the steady state concentration of the pollutant in the lake.

Mass output rate = Mass input rate – Mass decay rate ------(A)

Mass Input rate

=

Q

stream

C

stream

+

Q

waste

C

waste

m

3

sec

=

(50

mg

L

mg

*0

5

waste

+

4.5

m

sec

*90

)

= Q

out

C

out

C

out

3

= 4.55*10

sec Mass Output rate

=

(

Q Q

stream

+

mg

L

)*10

3 L

3

m

Following the assumption of well-mixed condition in lake, the concentration in the outflow (C out ) is the same as concentration in the lake (C lake ). Therefore, we can write:

Mass Output rate

=

)

= Q

out

C

lake

(

Q

stream

+

Q

waste

C

out

= (50

m

3

+

4.5

m

3

)*

sec

sec

C

lake

mg

L

mg

=

sec Mass decay rate

5.45*10

= (

0.21

*

1

4

C

lake

day

= KC

*

1

V

hr

lake

day

24

hr

3600 sec

)*

= 243.05* C

lake

mg

sec

*10

3

C

lake

L

3

m

mg

L

*10

3

L

3

m

*10

5

3

m

Now putting all these values in equation (A) and solving gives the steady state concentration in lake (C lake ) equal to 7.4 mg/L.

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3. (10 points)

Calculate the ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) in mg/L for a solution

containing 30 mg/L of ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH).

Atomic Weights:

H

C

O

= 1.01

= 12.01

= 16.00

The balanced equation for oxidation of ethanol is:

C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 (3 mol)

of ethanol is: C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 (3 mol) 2CO 2 +

2CO 2 + 3H 2 O (2 mol) (3 mol)

(1 mol)

From the balanced equation for the chemical reaction we know that:

For 1 mol of C 2 H 5 OH, O 2 required = 3 mol For 46.08 g of C 2 H 5 OH, O 2 required = 96.0 g For 30 mg/L of C 2 H 5 OH, O 2 required = (96/46.08)*30 = 62.5 mg/L

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4. (10 points)

If a solution has a pH of 4.1, what is the concentration of hydrogen ions

and hydroxide ions in mol/L?

The equilibrium constant for water is: Kw = 10 -14

pH = -log [H + ] => 4.1 = -log [H + ] [H + ] = 10 pH = 10 -4.1 = 7.943 *10 -5

We also know that:

[

[

H

+

][

OH

OH

]

=

1*10

14

]

=

1*10

14

1*10

14

=

[

H

+

]

7.943*10

5

=

1.2589 *10

10

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5. Continuation page (tell us which problem(s) you are continuing, please)