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Subject name/code: Engg. Chemistry Lab (CH-103) Semester: 1st (2010-2011) Class: B.Tech (C.SE/E.C.E) Staff name: Arunima Gautam


AIM: To determine the total hardness of water sample by EDTA method. REQUIREMENTS: i. ii.

0.1 M EDTA. (500 ml) EBT (Eriochrome Black-T)- 2/3 drops. NH3/NH4Cl buffer. Hard water sample (500 ml)


The property of water which prevents the formation of lather with soap is called hardness. The soaps which are sodium salts of higher fatty acids will not form lather with water till all the hardness causing cations are lost from the water in the form of calcium and magnesium soaps. Hardness of water is of 2 types :
1. Temporary hardness- it is caused by the presence of CO32- and HCO3- of Ca and

Mg and is removed on boiling of water.

2. Permanent hardness- it is caused by Cl- and SO42- of Ca and Mg and cant be

removed by boiling. In a hard water sample the total hardness can be determined by titrating the Ca2+ and Mg2+ present in a aliquot of the sample at pH 10 with EDTA using EBT as indicator. EDTA method: When Eriochrome Black-T indicator is added to hard water at pH 10 along with 2/3 drops of NH3, it gives wine-red colour with Ca2+ and Mg2+ of water sample. Ca2+/ Mg2+ + EBT [Ca2+/ Mg2+- EBT] complex wine-red colour.

Scheme 1.1 Formation of metal- indicator complex When this wine-red coloured unstable complex is titrated against EDTA solution, the clour of the complex changes from wine-red colur to blue colour due to the liberation of free EBT from unstable complex. Ca2+/ Mg2+ + EDTA [Ca2+/ Mg2EDTA] complex + EBT colourless Scheme 1.2 Formation of metal- EDTA complex. blue


Took 20 ml of standard hard water in a conical flask. Added 2 ml of buffer solution and 2/3 drops of EBT indicator, the colour of the solution turned wine-red. Titrated the solution against 0.1 M EDTA from the burette until the colour changed from wine-red to blue at the end point. Took three concordant readings. Let the volume of EDTA used be V ml.

OBSERVATIONS: Table 1.1 Volumetric recording of the amount of EDTA consumed. S.No. 1 2 3 Initial volume(ml) Final volume (ml) Volume of EDTA consumed (ml)

CALCULATIONS: 1000 ml of 1 molar EDTA = 1 mole of CaCO3 = 100 g of CaCO3 1 ml of 0.1 M EDTA = 0.01 g of CaCO3 = 10 mg of CaCO3

Now; 20 ml of hard water contains = x mg of CaCO3 1000 ml of hard water contains= x *1000/20 mg of CaCO3 = y Mg/L or ppm

1. All the solutions should be freshly prepared. 2. The reaction mixture should be briskly shaken during titration.

3. The end point should be observed correctly. 4. pH 10 should be maintained during the titration.
5. The glassware should be properly rinsed with distilled water.