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1R-08

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American Concrete Institute

Advancing concrete knowledge

Copyright by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other distribution and storage media, without the written consent of ACI. The technical committees responsible for ACI committee reports and standards strive to avoid ambiguities, omissions, and errors in these documents. In spite of these efforts, the users of ACI documents occasionally find information or requirements that may be subject to more than one interpretation or may be incomplete or incorrect. Users who have suggestions for the improvement of ACI documents are requested to contact ACI. Proper use of this document includes periodically checking for errata at www.concrete.org/committees/errata.asp for the most up-to-date revisions. ACI committee documents are intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. Individuals who use this publication in any way assume all risk and accept total responsibility for the application and use of this information. All information in this publication is provided as is without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement. ACI and its members disclaim liability for damages of any kind, including any special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages, including without limitation, lost revenues or lost profits, which may result from the use of this publication. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish health and safety practices appropriate to the specific circumstances involved with its use. ACI does not make any representations with regard to health and safety issues and the use of this document. The user must determine the applicability of all regulatory limitations before applying the document and must comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including but not limited to, United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) health and safety standards. Order information: ACI documents are available in print, by download, on CD-ROM, through electronic subscription, or reprint and may be obtained by contacting ACI. Most ACI standards and committee reports are gathered together in the annually revised ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (MCP). American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive Farmington Hills, MI 48331 U.S.A. Phone: 248-848-3700 Fax: 248-848-3701

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ISBN 978-0-87031-280-9

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ACI 421.1R-08

Reported by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 421

Theodor Krauthammer* Chair

* Subcommittee members who prepared this report. The committee would like to thank David P. Gustafson for his contribution to this report.

Tests have established that punching shear in slabs can be effectively resisted by reinforcement consisting of vertical rods mechanically anchored at the top and bottom of slabs. ACI 318 sets out the principles of design for slab shear reinforcement and makes specific reference to stirrups, headed studs, and shearheads. This guide reviews other available types and makes recommendations for their design. The application of these recommendations is illustrated through numerical examples. Keywords: column-slab connection; concrete flat plate; headed shear studs; moment transfer; prestressed concrete; punching shear; shear stresses; shearheads; slabs; two-way slabs.

Chapter 4Punching shear design equations, p. 421.1R-4 4.1Strength requirement 4.2Calculation of factored shear stress vu 4.3Calculation of shear strength vn 4.4Design procedure Chapter 5Prestressed slabs, p. 421.1R-9 5.1Nominal shear strength Chapter 6Tolerances, p. 421.1R-10

CONTENTS Chapter 1Introduction and scope, p. 421.1R-2 1.1Introduction 1.2Scope 1.3Evolution of practice Chapter 2Notation and definitions, p. 421.1R-2 2.1Notation 2.2Definitions Chapter 3Role of shear reinforcement, p. 421.1R-3

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Manuals, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This document is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom. Reference to this document shall not be made in contract documents. If items found in this document are desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.

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Chapter 7Requirements for seismic-resistant slab-column connections, p. 421.1R-10 Chapter 8References, p. 421.1R-10 8.1Referenced standards and reports 8.2Cited references Appendix ADetails of shear studs, p. 421.1R-12 A.1Geometry of stud shear reinforcement A.2Stud arrangements A.3Stud length Appendix BProperties of critical sections of general shape, p. 421.1R-13 Appendix CValues of vc within shear-reinforced zone, p. 421.1R-14

ACI 421.1R-08 supersedes ACI 421.1R-99 and was adopted and published June 2008. Copyright 2008, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

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421.1R-1

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421.1R-2

Appendix DDesign examples, p. 421.1R-17 D.1Interior column-slab connection D.2Edge column-slab connection D.3Corner column-slab connection D.4Prestressed slab-column connection CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE 1.1Introduction In flat-plate floors, slab-column connections are subjected to high shear stresses produced by the transfer of the internal forces between the columns and the slabs. Section 11.11.3 of ACI 318-08 allows the use of shear reinforcement for slabs and footings in the form of bars, as in the vertical legs of stirrups. ACI 318 emphasizes the importance of anchorage details and accurate placement of the shear reinforcement, especially in thin slabs. Section 11.11.5 of ACI 318-08 permits headed shear stud reinforcement conforming to ASTM A1044/A1044M. A general procedure for evaluation of the punching shear strength of slab-column connections is given in Section 11.11 of ACI 318-08. Shear reinforcement consisting of vertical rods (studs) or the equivalent, mechanically anchored at each end, can be used. In this report, all types of mechanically anchored shear reinforcement are referred to as shear stud or stud. To be fully effective, the anchorage should be capable of developing the specified yield strength of the studs. The mechanical anchorage can be obtained by heads or strips connected to the studs by welding. The heads can also be formed by forging the stud ends. 1.2Scope Recommendations in this guide are for the design of shear reinforcement in slabs. The design is in accordance with ACI 318. Numerical design examples are included. 1.3Evolution of practice Extensive tests (Dilger and Ghali 1981; Andr 1981; Van der Voet et al. 1982; Mokhtar et al. 1985; Elgabry and Ghali 1987; Mortin and Ghali 1991; Dilger and Shatila 1989; Cao 1993; Brown and Dilger 1994; Megally 1998; Birkle 2004; Ritchie and Ghali 2005; Gayed and Ghali 2006) have confirmed the effectiveness of mechanically anchored shear reinforcement, such as shown in Fig. 1.1, in increasing the strength and ductility of slab-column connections subjected to concentric punching or punching combined with moment. Stud assemblies consisting of either a single-head stud attached to a steel base rail by welding (Fig. 1.1(a)) or double-headed studs mechanically crimped into a nonstructural steel channel (Fig. 1.1(b)) are specified in ASTM A1044/ A1044M. Figure 1.2 is a top view of a slab that shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement (stirrup legs or studs) in the vicinity of an interior column. ACI 318 requires that the spacing g between adjacent stirrup legs or studs, measured on the first peripheral line of shear reinforcement, be equal to or less than 2d. Requirement for distances so and s are given in Chapter 4.

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Fig. 1.1Stud assemblies conforming to ASTM A1044/ A1044M: (a) single-headed studs welded to a base rail; and (b) double-headed studs crimped into a steel channel.

Fig. 1.2Top view of flat plate showing arrangement of shear reinforcement in vicinity of interior column.

CHAPTER 2NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS 2.1Notation Ac = area of concrete of assumed critical section Av = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement on one peripheral line parallel to perimeter of column section bo = length of perimeter of critical section = clear concrete cover of reinforcement to cb,ct bottom and top slab surfaces, respectively cx,cy = size of rectangular column measured in two orthogonal span directions D = diameter of stud or stirrup d = effective depth of slab; average of distances from extreme compression fiber to centroids of tension reinforcements running in two orthogonal directions db = nominal diameter of flexural reinforcing bars fc = specified compressive strength of concrete fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight-aggregate concrete fpc = average value of compressive stress in concrete in two directions (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section

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421.1R-3

= specified yield strength of shear reinforcement g = distance between adjacent stirrup legs or studs, measured in a parallel direction to a column face h = overall thickness of slab Jc = property of assumed critical section (Eq. (4-4)), defined by ACI 318 as analogous to polar moment of inertia Jx ,Jy = property of assumed critical section of any shape, equal to d multiplied by second moment of perimeter about x- or y-axis, respectively (Appendix B) Jxy = d times product of inertia of assumed shearcritical section about nonprincipal axes x and y (Eq. (B-11)) l = length of segment of assumed critical section = overall specified height of headed stud ls assembly including anchors (Fig. 1.1, Eq. (6-1)) lx ,ly = projections of assumed critical section on principal axes x and y lx1 ,ly1 = lengths of sides in x and y directions of critical section at d/2 from column face lx2 ,ly2 = lengths of sides in x and y directions of critical section at d/2 outside outermost legs of shear reinforcement Mux ,Muy = factored unbalanced moments transferred between slab and column about centroidal principal axes x and y of assumed critical section Mux ,Muy = factored unbalanced moment about the centroidal nonprincipal x or y axis MuOx ,MuOy = factored unbalanced moment about x or y axis through columns centroid O n = number of studs or stirrup legs per line running in x or y direction s = spacing between peripheral lines of shear reinforcement so = spacing between first peripheral line of shear reinforcement and column face = vertical component of all effective prestress Vp forces crossing the critical section = factored shear force Vu vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete in presence of shear reinforcement, psi (MPa) = nominal shear strength at critical section, psi vn (MPa) vs = nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, psi (MPa) vu = maximum shear stress due to factored forces, psi (MPa) x,y = coordinates of point on perimeter of shearcritical section with respect to centroidal axes x and y x,y = coordinates of point on perimeter of shearcritical section with respect to centroidal nonprincipal axes x and y = distance between column face and critical section divided by d

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fyt

s p vx ,vy

= dimensionless coefficient equal to 40, 30, and 20, for interior, edge, and corner columns, respectively = ratio of long side to short side of column cross section = constant used to compute vc in prestressed slabs = factor used to determine unbalanced moment about the axes x and y between slab and column that is transferred by shear stress at assumed critical section = modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete, all relative to normalweight concrete of the same compressive strength = strength reduction factor = 0.75

2.2Definitions drop panelthickened structural portion of a flat slab in the area surrounding a column, as defined in Chapter 13 of ACI 318-08. The plan dimensions of drop panels are greater than shear capitals. For flexural strength, ACI 318 requires that drop panels extend in each direction from the centerline of support a distance not less than 1/6 the span length measured from center-to-center of supports in that direction. ACI 318 also requires that the projection of the drop panel below the slab be at least 1/4 the slab thickness. flat plateflat slab without column capitals or drop panels. shear capitalthickened portion of the slab around the column with plan dimensions not conforming with the ACI 318 requirements for drop panels. shear-critical sectioncross section, having depth d and perpendicular to the plane of the slab, where shear stresses should be evaluated. Two shear-critical sections should be considered: 1) at d/2 from column periphery; and 2) at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement (if provided). stud shear reinforcement (SSR)reinforcement conforming to ASTM A1044/A1044M and composed of vertical rods anchored mechanically near the bottom and top surfaces of the slab. unbalanced momentsum of moments at the ends of the columns above and below a slab-column joint. CHAPTER 3ROLE OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT Shear reinforcement is required to intercept shear cracks and prevent them from widening. The intersection of shear reinforcement and cracks can be anywhere over the height of the shear reinforcement. The strain in the shear reinforcement is highest at that intersection. Effective anchorage is essential, and its location should be as close as possible to the structural members outer surfaces. This means that the vertical part of the shear reinforcement should be as tall as possible to avoid the possibility of cracks passing above or below it. When the shear reinforcement is not as tall as possible, it may not intercept all inclined shear cracks. Anchorage of shear reinforcement in slabs is achieved by mechanical ends (heads), bends, and hooks. Tests (Marti 1990) have shown, however, that movement

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421.1R-4

vu vn

(4-1)

Fig. 3.1Geometrical and stress conditions at bend of shear reinforcing bar. occurs at the bends of shear reinforcement, at Point A of Fig. 3.1, before the yield strength can be reached in the shear reinforcement, causing a loss of tension. Furthermore, the concrete within the bend in the stirrups is subjected to stresses that could potentially exceed 0.4 times the stirrups yield strength fyt , causing concrete crushing. If fyt is 60 ksi (414 MPa), the average compressive stress on the concrete under the bend has to reach 0.4fyt for equilibrium. Because this high stress can crush the concrete, however, slip occurs before the development of the full fyt in the leg of the stirrup at its connection with the bend. These difficulties, including the consequences of improper stirrup details, were also discussed by others (Marti 1990; Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 426 1974; Hawkins 1974; Hawkins et al. 1975). The movement at the end of the vertical leg of a stirrup can be reduced by attachment to a flexural reinforcement bar, as shown at Point B of Fig. 3.1. The flexural reinforcing bar, however, cannot be placed any closer to the vertical leg of the stirrup without reducing the effective slab depth d. Flexural reinforcing bars can provide such improvement to shear reinforcement anchorage only if attachment and direct contact exists at the intersection of the bars (Point B of Fig. 3.1). Under normal construction, however, it is very difficult to ensure such conditions for all stirrups. Thus, such support is normally not fully effective, and the end of the vertical leg of the stirrup can move. The amount of movement is the same for a short or long shear-reinforcing bar. Therefore, the loss in tension is important, and the stress is unlikely to reach yield in short shear reinforcement (in thin slabs). These problems are largely avoided if shear reinforcement is provided with mechanical anchorage. CHAPTER 4PUNCHING SHEAR DESIGN EQUATIONS 4.1Strength requirement This chapter presents the design procedure of ACI 318 when stirrups or headed studs are required in the slab in the vicinity of a column transferring moment and shear. The equations of Sections 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 apply when stirrups and headed studs are used, respectively. Design of critical slab sections perpendicular to the plane of a slab should be based on

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in which vu is the shear stress in the critical section caused by the transfer, between the slab and the column, of factored shearing force or factored shearing force combined with moment; vn is the nominal shear strength (psi or MPa); and is the strength reduction factor. Equation (4-1) should be satisfied at a critical section perpendicular to the plane of the slab at a distance d/2 from the column perimeter and located so that its perimeter bo is minimum (Fig. 4.1(a)). It should also be satisfied at a critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of the shear reinforcement (Fig. 4.1(b)), where d is the average of distances from extreme compression fiber to the centroids of the tension reinforcements running in two orthogonal directions. Figure 4.1(a) indicates the positive directions of the internal force Vu and moments Mux and Muy that the column exerts on the slab. 4.2Calculation of factored shear stress vu ACI 318 requires that the shear stress resulting from moment transfer by eccentricity of shear be assumed to vary linearly about the centroid of the shear-critical section. The shear stress distribution, expressed by Eq. (4-2), satisfies this requirement. The maximum factored shear stress vu at a critical section produced by the combination of factored shear force Vu and unbalanced moments Mux and Muy is V u vx M ux y vy M uy x v u = ----- + ------------------ + -----------------Jx Jy Ac The coefficients vx and vy are given by 1 vx = 1 -------------------------------- 2 1 + -- l y1 l x1 3 1 vy = 1 -------------------------------- 2 1 + -- l x1 l y1 3 (4-2)

(4-3)

where lx1 and ly1 are lengths of the sides in the x and y directions of a rectangular critical section at d/2 from the column face (Fig. 4.1(a)). Appendix B gives equations for Jx, Jy, vx, and vy for a shear-critical section of any shape. For a shear-critical section in the shape of a closed rectangle, the shear stress due to Vu combined with Muy, ACI 318 gives Eq. (4-2) with Mux = 0 and Jy replaced by Jc , which is defined as property of assumed critical section analogous to polar moment of inertia. For the closed rectangle in Fig. 4.1(a), ACI 318 gives l x1 l y1 l x1 l x1 d J c = d ------- + -------------- + ----------6 2 6

3 2 3

(4-4)

The first term on the right-hand side of this equation is equal to Jy; the ratio of the second term to the first is commonly less

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421.1R-5

4.3Calculation of shear strength vn Whenever the specified compressive strength of concrete fc is used in Eq. (4-7a), (4-8a), (4-9a), (4-10a), and (4-12a), its value is in pounds per square inch; when fc is in MPa, Eq. (4-7b), (4-8b), (4-9b), (4-10b) and (4-12b) are used. For prestressed slabs, refer to Chapter 5. 4.3.1 Shear strength without shear reinforcementFor nonprestressed slabs, the shear strength of concrete at a critical section at d/2 from column face, where shear reinforcement is not provided, should be the smallest of 4 v n = 2 + -- f c f c 4 v n = 2 + -- -------- 12 (in.-lb units) (4-7a)

(SI units)

(4-7b)

where is the ratio of long side to short side of the column cross section s d v n = -------- + 2 f c bo f c s d v n = -------- + 2 -------- bo 12 (in.-lb units) (4-8a)

(SI units)

(4-8b)

Fig. 4.1Critical sections for shear in slab in vicinity of interior column. Positive directions for Vu , Mux , and Muy are indicated. than 3%. The value of vu obtained by the use of Jy in Eq. (4-2) differs on the safe side from the value obtained with Jc. When the centroid of the shear-critical section does not coincide with O, the centroid of the column (Fig. 4.2(b) and (c)), the unbalanced moment Mux or Muy about the x- or y-axis through the centroid of shear-critical section is related to the unbalanced moment MuOx or MuOy about the x- or y-axis through O by Mux = MuOx + VuyO; Muy = MuOy + Vu xO

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where s is 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge columns or 20 for corner columns, and vn = 4 f c (in.-lb units) (4-9a) (4-9b)

vn = f c /3 (SI units)

At a critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone vn = 2 f c (in.-lb units) (4-10a) (4-10b)

vn = f c /6 (SI units)

(4-5) Equation (4-1) should be checked first at a critical section at d/2 from the column face (Fig. 4.1(a)). If Eq. (4-1) is not satisfied, shear reinforcement is required. 4.3.2 Shear strength with stirrupsACI 318 permits the use of stirrups as shear reinforcement when d 6 in. (152 mm), but not less than 16 times the diameter of the stirrups. When stirrup shear reinforcement is used, ACI 318 requires that the maximum factored shear stress at d/2 from column face satisfy: vu 6 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /2 [SI units]). The shear strength at a critical section within the shear-reinforced zone should be computed by vn = vc + vs

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where (xO, yO) are the coordinates of O with respect to the centroid of the shear-critical section along the centroidal principal x and y axes. For the shear-critical section in Fig. 4.2(c), the moments about the centroidal nonprincipal axes x and y (Mux and Muy) are equivalent to the moments about the x and y axes (Mux and Muy) that are given by Eq. (4-6). Mux = Muxcos Muysin; Muy = Muxsin + Muycos (4-6)

where is the angle of rotation of the axes x and y to coincide with the principal axes.

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(4-11)

421.1R-6

Fig. 4.2Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shearreinforced zone. in which vc = 2 f c (in.-lb units) (4-12a) (4-12b) so 0.5d s 0.5d (4-14) (4-15)

(4-13)

where Av is the cross-sectional area of the shear reinforcement legs on one peripheral line parallel to the perimeter of the column section, and s is the spacing between peripheral lines of shear reinforcement. The upper limits, permitted by ACI 318, of so and the spacing s between the peripheral lines are

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where so is the distance between the first peripheral line of shear reinforcement and the column face. The upper limit of so is intended to eliminate the possibility of shear failure between the column face and the innermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement. Similarly, the upper limit of s is to avoid failure between consecutive peripheral lines of stirrups. A line of stirrups too close to the column can be ineffective in intercepting shear cracks; thus, so should not be smaller than 0.35d. The shear reinforcement should extend away from the column face so that the shear stress vu at a critical section at d/2 from outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement (Fig. 4.1(b) and 4.2) does not exceed vn, where vn is calculated using Eq. (4-10a) or (4-10b).

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421.1R-7

4.3.3 Shear strength with studsSection 11.4.4 of ACI 318-08 requires that: Stirrups and other bars or wires used as shear reinforcement shall extend to a distance d from extreme compression fiber and shall be developed at both ends according to 12.13. Test results (Dilger and Ghali 1981; Andr 1981; Van der Voet et al. 1982; Mokhtar et al. 1985; Elgabry and Ghali 1987; Mortin and Ghali 1991; Dilger and Shatila 1989; Cao 1993; Brown and Dilger 1994; Megally 1998; Birkle 2004; Ritchie and Ghali 2005; Gayed and Ghali 2006) showed that studs, with anchor heads of area equal to 10 times the cross-sectional area of the shank, clearly satisfied this requirement. Further, the use of the shear device, such as that shown in Fig. 1.1, demonstrated a higher shear capacity. Other researchers (Dyken and Kepp 1988; Gayed and Ghali 2004; McLean et al. 1990; Muller et al. 1984; Ghali et al. 1974) successfully applied other configurations. Based on these results, ACI 318 permits the values given as follows when the shear reinforcement is composed of headed studs with mechanical anchorage capable of developing the yield strength of the rod. The nominal shear strength provided by the concrete in the presence of headed shear studs, using Eq. (4-11), is taken as vc = 3 f c (in.-lb units) (4-16a) (4-16b)

vc = f c /4 (SI units)

instead of 2 f c (in.-lb units) (0.17 f c [SI units]). Discussion on the design value of vc is given in Appendix C. The nominal shear strength vn (psi or MPa) resisted by concrete and steel in Eq. (4-11) can be taken as high as 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]) instead of 6 f c (in.-lb units) (0.5 f c [SI units]). This enables the use of thinner slabs. Experimental data showing that the higher value of vn can be used are included in Appendix C. ACI 318 permits upper limits for s based on the value of vu at the critical section at d/2 from column face

v s 0.75d when ---u 6 f c (in.-lb units) (0.5 f c [SI units]) v s 0.5d when ---u > 6 f c (in.-lb units) (0.5 f c [SI units])

Fig. 4.3Shear capital design. can be developed only over the middle portion of the vertical legs when they are sufficiently long. Section 11.4.2 of ACI 318-08 limits the design yield strength for stirrups as shear reinforcement to 60,000 psi (414 MPa). Research (Otto-Graf-Institut 1996; Regan 1996a; Institut fr Werkstoffe im Bauwesen 1996) has indicated that the performance of higher-strength studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is satisfactory. In this experimental work, the stud shear reinforcement in slab-column connections reached a yield stress higher than 72,000 psi (500 MPa) without excessive reduction of shear resistance of concrete. Thus, when studs are used, fyt can be as high as 72,000 psi (500 MPa). In ASTM A1044/A1044M, the minimum specified yield strength of headed shear studs is 51,000 psi (350 MPa) based on what was commercially available in 2005; higher yield strengths are expected in future versions of ASTM A1044/A1044M. ACI 318 requires conformance with ASTM A1044/A1044M; thus, it limits fyt to 51,000 psi (350 MPa). 4.3.4 Shear capitalsFigure 4.3(a) shows a shear capital whose purpose is to increase the shear capacity without using shear reinforcement. The plan dimensions of the shear capital are governed by assuming that the shear strength at d/2 from the edges of the capital is governed by Eq. (4-7) to (4-9). This type of shear capital rarely contains reinforcement other than the vertical bars of the column because its plan dimensions are small; with or without reinforcement, this practice is not

(4-17)

(4-18)

When stirrups are used, ACI 318 limits s to d/2. The higher limit for s given by Eq. (4-17) for headed shear stud spacing is again justified by tests (Seible et al. 1980; Andr 1981; Van der Voet et al. 1982; Mokhtar et al. 1985; Elgabry and Ghali 1987; Institut fr Werkstoffe im Bauwesen 1996; Regan 1996a,b; Sherif 1996). As mentioned in Chapter 3, a vertical branch of a stirrup is less effective than a stud in controlling shear cracks for two reasons: 1) the shank of the headed stud is straight over its full length, whereas the ends of the stirrup leg are curved; and 2) the anchor heads at the top and the bottom of the stud ensure that the specified yield strength is provided at all sections of the shank. In a stirrup, the specified yield strength

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421.1R-8

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT 1 v n ( ) = ----------------------- 4 f c ; 0.5 < < 4.0 1 + 0.25 f c 1 v n ( ) = ----------------------- -------- ; 0.5 < < 4.0 1 + 0.25 3 v n ( ) = 7.5 4 f c ; 0.5 < < 4.0 ---------------- 7 f c v n ( ) = 7.5 -------- ; 0.5 < < 4.0 --------------- 7 3

(SI units)

(4-19a)

(in.-lb units)

(4-20a)

(SI units)

(4-20b)

Fig. 4.4Variation of: (a) vn and (b) Vn, with the distance between the shear-critical section and the column face (= d).

recommended. Experiments (Megally and Ghali 2002) show that the failure of the shear capital is accompanied by a sudden separation of wedges ABC and DEF from the shear capital and brittle failure of the connection. The volume of concrete within the wedges ABC and DEF is too small to offer significant anchorage of the reinforcement that may be provided in the shear capital to prevent the separation of the wedges. Analyses and finite-element studies indicate that this type of shear capital can be unsafe with a relatively low shear force combined with high unbalanced moment (Megally and Ghali 2002). The plan dimensions of the shear capital should be sufficiently large such that the maximum shear stresses at two critical sections (Fig. 4.3(b)) satisfy Eq. (4-1). The critical sections are at d/2 from the column face within the shear capital, and at d/2 outside the edges of the shear capital. At d/2 from the column, vn is calculated by Eq. (4-7) to (4-9) in absence of shear reinforcement. At d/2 outside the edges of the shear capital, vn is calculated by Eq. (4-10a) or (4-10b). The extent of the shear capital should be the same as the extent of the shear reinforcement when it is used instead of the shear capital. Based on experimental data, Eligehausen (1996) and Dilger and Ghali (1981) proposed Eq. (4-19) and (4-20), respectively, for the shear strength at critical sections at d from the column faces.

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At > 4, the one-way shear strength (Eq. (4-10)) is assumed. Accordingly, as is increased, the shear strength (psi or MPa) drops (Fig. 4.4(a)), while the area of the shearcritical section increases. Figure 4.4(b) shows the variation of the shear strength, Vn = vn()bod for a circular column of diameter c, transferring shearing force without unbalanced moment. Line AB represents Vn when vn (psi) = 4 f c (independent of ); this greatly overestimates Vn compared with line ACDF or EDF calculated by Eq. (4-19) or (4-20), respectively. Line DF represents Vn with vn (psi) = 2 f c . Because within Zone A to D the variation of vn is not established, and the increase in Vn with is not substantial, it is herein recommended to extend the shear capital to the zone where vn is known to be not less than the one-way shear strength. As a design example, consider a circular column of diameter c, transferring a shearing force, Vu (lb) = 6 f c bod, where bo = (c + d) = the perimeter of the critical section at d/2 from the column face in absence of the shear capital. The shear capital that satisfies the recommended design should have an approximate effective depth 1.5d, extending such that = 1.5(c/d) + 2. It can be verified that this design will satisfy Eq. (4-1) at the critical sections at d/2 from the column face and at d/2 outside the edge of the shear capital. For further justification of the recommendations in this section, consider the slab-column connection in Fig. 4.5(a), with a 10 in. square column supporting a 7 in. slab with d = 6 in. Based on the potential crack AB (Fig. 4.5(a)), ACI 318 permits Vn = bod4 f c ; Vn(a) = (348 in.2)4 f c To increase the strength by 50%, the design in Fig. 4.5(b) is not recommended by the present guide. If the Vn equation is applied to the potential crack CD (Fig. 4.5(b)), the predicted strength would be Vn(b) = (576 in.2)4 f c The present guide considers the potential failure at EF, whose slope is any angle 45 degrees. It is obvious that the probability of failure at EF is far greater than at CD in a design that considers the shear strength, Vn = Vn(b) = (576 in.2)4 f c . This is because: 1) EF is shorter than CD;

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421.1R-9

Find the minimum number of headed studs or legs of stirrups per peripheral line; 4. Repeat Step 1 at a trial critical section at d from column face to find the section where (vu/) 2 f c (in.-lb units) (0.17 f c /2 [SI units]). No other section needs to be checked, and s is to be maintained constant. Select the distance between the column face and the outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement to be [d (d/2)]. The position of the critical section can be determined by selection of the number of headed studs or stirrup legs per line, n running in x or y direction (Fig. 4.2). For example, the distance in the x or y direction between the column face and the critical section is equal to so + (n 1)s + d/2. The number n should be 2; and 5. Arrange studs to satisfy the detailing requirements described in Appendix A. The trial calculations involved in the aforementioned steps are suitable for computer use (Decon 1996). CHAPTER 5PRESTRESSED SLABS 5.1Nominal shear strength When a slab is prestressed in two directions, the shear strength of concrete at a critical section at d/2 from the column face where shear reinforcement is not provided, is given by (ACI 318-08): Vp vn = p f c + 0.3fpc + ------- (in.-lb units) bo d f c Vp vn = p --------- + 0.3fpc + ------- (SI units) bo d 12 (5-1a)

Fig. 4.5Potential shear cracks. Examples of connections: (a) without shear capital; and (b) with shear capital. and 2) CD crosses top and bottom flexural reinforcements whose amounts are specified by ACI 318, while EF may not cross any reinforcement. Although that separation of the wedge EFG (at a shearing force < Vn(b)) may not produce collapse, it should not be an acceptable failure. For further justification of recommending against the design in Fig. 4.5(b), consider the potential crack at HI that does not intercept the shear capital. This crack can occur due to high unbalanced moment in a direction that produces compressive stress in the column in the vicinity of H. This guide consistently recommends a shear-reinforced zone of the same size by the provision of shear reinforcement or by shear capital. 4.4Design procedure The values of fc , fyt, Mux, Muy, Vu, h, and d are given. The design of shear reinforcement can be performed by the following steps (see design examples in Appendix D): 1. At a critical section at d/2 from column face, calculate vu and vn by Eq. (4-2) and (4-7) to (4-9). If (vu/) vn, no shear reinforcement or further check is required. If (vu/) > 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]), the slab thickness is not sufficient; when (vu/) 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]), go to Step 2; 2. When (vu/) 6 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /2 [SI units]), ACI 318 permits stirrups or headed studs. When (vu/) > 6 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /2 [SI units]), ACI 318 permits only headed studs. Calculate the contribution of concrete vc to the shear strength (Eq. (4-12) or (4-16)) at the critical section at d/2 from column face. The difference [(vu/) vc] gives the shear stress vs to be resisted by stirrups or headed studs; 3. Select so and s within the limitations of Eq. (4-14), (4-15), (4-17), and (4-18), and calculate the required shear reinforcement area for one peripheral line Av, by solution of Eq. (4-13).

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(5-1b)

where p is the smaller of 3.5 and [(sd/bo) + 1.5]; fpc is the average value of compressive stress in the two directions (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section; and Vp is the vertical component of all effective prestress forces crossing the critical section. Equation (5-1a) or (5-1b) is applicable only if the following are satisfied: 1. No portion of the column cross section is closer to a discontinuous edge than four times the slab thickness h; 2. fc in Eq. (5-1a) (or Eq. (5-1b)) is not taken greater than 5000 psi (34.5 MPa); and 3. fpc in each direction is not less than 125 psi (0.86 MPa), nor taken greater than 500 psi (3.45 MPa). If any of the aforementioned conditions are not satisfied, the slab should be treated as nonprestressed, and Eq. (4-7) to (4-9) apply. Within the shear-reinforced zone, vn is to be calculated by Eq. (4-11); the equations and the design procedure in Sections 4.3.2, 4.3.3, and 4.4 apply. In thin slabs, Vp is small with practical tendon profiles and the slope of the tendon is hard to control. Special care should be exercised in computing Vp in Eq. (5-1a) or (5-1b) due to the sensitivity of its value to the as-built tendon profile. When it is uncertain that the actual construction will match the design assumption, a reduced or zero value for Vp should be used in Eq. (5-1a) or (5-1b). Section D.4 is an example of the design of the shear reinforcement in a prestressed slab.

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421.1R-10

CHAPTER 6TOLERANCES Shear reinforcement, in the form of stirrups or studs, can be ineffective if the specified distances so and s are not controlled accurately. Tolerances for these dimensions should not exceed 0.5 in. (13 mm). If this requirement is not met, a punching shear crack can traverse the slab thickness without intersecting the shear-reinforcing elements. Tolerance for the distance between column face and outermost peripheral line of studs should not exceed 1.5 in. (38 mm). Tests (Dilger and Ghali 1981; Andr 1981; Van der Voet et al. 1982; Mokhtar et al. 1985; Elgabry and Ghali 1987; Mortin and Ghali 1991; Dilger and Shatila 1989; Cao 1993; Brown and Dilger 1994; Megally 1998; Birkle 2004; Ritchie and Ghali 2005; Gayed and Ghali 2006) show that headed studs, anchored as close as possible to the top and bottom of slabs, are effective in resisting punching shear. The designer should specify the overall height of the stud assemblies having the most efficiency ls = h ct cb (6-1)

Fig. 6.1Section in slab perpendicular to shear stud line. This reduced value of vc is based on the experiments mentioned in this section, which indicate that the concrete contribution to the shear resistance is diminished by the moment reversals. This reduction is analogous to the reduction of vc to 0 that is required by ACI 318 for framed members. ACI 421.2R gives recommendations for designing flat platecolumn connections with sufficient ductility to go through lateral drift due to earthquakes without punching shear failure or loss of moment transfer capacity. A report on tests at the University of Washington (Hawkins 1984) does not recommend the aforementioned reduction of vc (Eq. (7-1)). CHAPTER 8REFERENCES 8.1Referenced standards and reports The documents of the various standards-producing organizations, referred to in this document, are listed below with their serial designations. American Concrete Institute 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete 421.2R Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates ASTM International A1044/ Specification for Steel Stud Assemblies for Shear A1044M Reinforcement of Concrete Canadian Standards Association A23.3 Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings The above publications may be obtained from the following organizations: American Concrete Institute P.O. Box 9094 Farmington Hills, MI 48333-9094 www.concrete.org ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Dr. West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 www.astm.org

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where h is the thickness of the member, and ct and cb are the specified concrete covers at top and bottom, respectively. ACI 318 permits a manufacturing tolerance: the actual overall height can be shorter than ls by no more than db/2, where db is the diameter of the tensile flexural reinforcement (Fig. 6.1). In slabs in the vicinity of columns, the tensile flexural reinforcement is commonly at the top; in footings, the tensile flexural reinforcement is commonly at the bottom. CHAPTER 7REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMICRESISTANT SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS Connections of columns with flat plates should not be considered in design as part of the system resisting lateral forces. Due to the lateral movement of the structure in an earthquake, however, the slab-column connections transfer vertical shearing force V combined with reversals of moment M. Experiments (Cao 1993; Brown and Dilger 1994; Megally 1998; Ritchie and Ghali 2005; Gayed and Ghali 2006) were conducted on slab-column connections to simulate the effect of interstory drift in a flat plate structure. In these tests, the column transferred a constant shearing force V and cyclic moment reversals with increasing magnitude. The experiments showed that, when the slab was provided with shear headed stud reinforcement, the connections behaved in a ductile fashion. They could withstand, without failure, drift ratios that varied between 3 and 7%, depending upon the magnitude of V. The drift ratio is defined as the difference between the lateral displacements of two successive floors divided by the floor height. For a given value of Vu, the slab can resist a moment Mu, which can be determined by the procedure and equations given in Chapter 4; the value of vc (Eq. (4-12) or (4-16)), however, should be limited to vc = 1.5 f c (in.-lb units) vc = f c /8 (SI units) (7-1a) (7-1b)

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421.1R-11

Canadian Standards Association 178 Rexdale Blvd. Rexdale, Ontario M9W 1R3 Canada www.csa.ca 8.2Cited references Andr, H. P., 1981, Strength of Flat Slabs Reinforced with Stud Rails in the Vicinity of the Supports (Zum Tragverhalten von Flachdecken mit DbelleistenBewehrung im Auflagerbereich), Beton und Stahlbetonbau, Berlin, V. 76, No. 3, Mar., pp. 53-57, and No. 4, Apr., pp. 100-104. Birkle, G., 2004, Punching of Slabs: Thickness and Stud Layout, PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 152 pp. Brown, S., and Dilger, W. H., 1994, Seismic Response of Flat-Plate Column Connections, Proceedings, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Conference, V. 2, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, pp. 388-397. Cao, H., 1993, Seismic Design of Slab-Column Connections, MSc thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 188 pp, Decon, 1996, STDESIGN, Computer Program for Design of Shear Reinforcement for Slabs, Decon, Brampton, ON, Canada. Dilger, W. H., and Ghali, A., 1981, Shear Reinforcement for Concrete Slabs, Proceedings, ASCE, V. 107, No. ST12, Dec., pp. 2403-2420. Dilger, W. H., and Shatila, M., 1989, Shear Strength of Prestressed Concrete Edge Slab-Columns Connections with and without Stud Shear Reinforcement, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, V. 16, No. 6, pp. 807-819. Dyken, T., and Kepp, B., 1988, Properties of T-Headed Reinforcing Bars in High-Strength Concrete, Publication No. 7, Nordic Concrete Research, Norske Betongforening, Oslo, Norway, Dec. Elgabry, A. A., and Ghali, A., 1987, Tests on Concrete Slab-Column Connections with Stud Shear Reinforcement Subjected to Shear-Moment Transfer, ACI Structural Journal, V. 84, No. 5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 433-442. Elgabry, A. A., and Ghali, A., 1996, Moment Transfer by Shear in Slab-Column Connections, ACI Structural Journal, V. 93, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 187-196. Eligehausen, R., 1996, Bericht ber Zugversuche mit Deha Kopfbolzen (Report on Pull Tests on Deha Anchor Bolts), Institut fr Werkstoffe im Bauwesen, University of Stuttgart, Report No. DE003/01-96/32, Sept. (Research carried out on behalf of Deha Ankersystene, GMBH & Co., Gross-Gerau, Germany) Gayed, R. B., and Ghali, A., 2004, Double-Head Studs as Shear Reinforcement in Concrete I-Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 101, No. 4, July-Aug., pp. 549-557. Gayed, R. B., and Ghali, A., 2006, Seismic-Resistant Joints of Interior Columns with Prestressed Slabs, ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 710-719. Also see Errata in ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 2006, p. 909.

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Ghali, A.; Sargious, M. A.; and Huizer, A., 1974, Vertical Prestressing of Flat Plates around Columns, Shear in Reinforced Concrete, SP-42, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 905-920. Hawkins, N. M., 1974, Shear Strength of Slabs with Shear Reinforcement, Shear in Reinforced Concrete, SP-42, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 785-815. Hawkins, N. M., 1984, Response of Flat Plate Concrete Structures to Seismic and Wind Forces, Report SM84-1, University of Washington, July. Hawkins, N. M.; Mitchell, D.; and Hanna, S. H., 1975, The Effects of Shear Reinforcement on Reversed Cyclic Loading Behavior of Flat Plate Structures, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, V. 2, No. 4, Dec., pp. 572-582. Hoff, G. C., 1990, High-Strength Lightweight Aggregate ConcreteCurrent Status and Future Needs, Proceedings, 2nd International Symposium on Utilization of HighStrength Concrete, Berkeley, CA, May, pp. 20-23. Institut fr Werkstoffe im Bauwesen, 1996, Bericht ber Versuche an punktgesttzten Platten bewehrt mit DEHA Doppelkopfbolzen und mit Dbelleisten (Test Report on Point Supported Slabs Reinforced with DEHA Double Head Studs and Studrails), UniversittStuttgart, Report No. AF 96/6 402/1, Germany, DEHA, 81 pp. Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 426, 1974, The Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete MembersSlabs, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, V. 100, No. ST8, Aug., pp. 1543-1591. Leonhardt, F., and Walther, R., 1965, Welded Wire Mesh as Stirrup Reinforcement: Shear on T-Beams and Anchorage Tests, Bautechnik, V. 42, Oct. (in German) Mart, P.; Parlong, J.; and Thurlimann, B., 1977, Schubversuche and Stahlbeton-Platten, Bericht Nr. 7305-2, Institut fur Baustatik aund Konstruktion, ETH Zurich, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel and Stuttgart, Germany. Marti, P., 1990, Design of Concrete Slabs for Transverse Shear, ACI Structural Journal, V. 87, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 180-190. McLean, D.; Phan, L. T.; Lew, H. S.; and White, R. N., 1990, Punching Shear Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Slabs and Shells, ACI Structural Journal, V. 87, No. 4, July-Aug., pp. 386-392. Megally, S. H., 1998, Punching Shear Resistance of Concrete Slabs to Gravity and Earthquake Forces, PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 468 pp. Megally, S. H., and Ghali, A., 1996, Nonlinear Analysis of Moment Transfer between Columns and Slabs, Proceedings, V. IIa, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Conference, Edmonton, AB, Canada, pp. 321-332. Megally, S. H., and Ghali, A., 2002, Cautionary Note on Shear Capitals, Concrete International, V. 24, No. 3, Mar., pp. 75-83. Mokhtar, A. S.; Ghali, A.; and Dilger, W. H., 1985, Stud Shear Reinforcement for Flat Concrete Plates, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 82, No. 5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 676-683.

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421.1R-12

Mortin, J., and Ghali, A., 1991, Connection of Flat Plates to Edge Columns, ACI Structural Journal, V. 88, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 191-198. Muller, F. X.; Muttoni, A.; and Thurlimann, B., 1984, Durchstanz Versuche an Flachdecken mit Aussparungen (Punching Tests on Slabs with Openings), ETH Zurich, Research Report No. 7305-5, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel and Stuttgart, Germany. Otto-Graf-Institut, 1996, Durchstanzversuche an Stahlbetonplatten mit Rippendbeln und Vorgefertigten Grossflchentafeln (Punching Shear Tests on Concrete Slabs with Deformed Studs and Large Precast Slabs), Report No. 2121634, University of Stuttgart, Germany, July. Regan, P. E., 1996a, Double Headed Studs as Shear ReinforcementTests of Slabs and Anchorages, University of Westminster, London, England, Aug. Regan, P. E., 1996b, Punching Test of Slabs with Shear Reinforcement, University of Westminster, London, England, Nov. Ritchie, M., and Ghali, A., 2005, Seismic-Resistant Connections of Edge Columns with Prestressed Slabs, ACI Structural Journal, V. 102, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 314-323. Seible, F.; Ghali, A.; and Dilger, W. H., 1980, Preassembled Shear Reinforcing Units for Flat Plates, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 77, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., pp. 28-35. Sherif, A., 1996, Behavior of R.C. Flat Slabs, PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 397 pp. Van der Voet, F.; Dilger, W. H.; and Ghali, A., 1982, Concrete Flat Plates with Well-Anchored Shear Reinforcement Elements, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, V. 9, No. 1, pp. 107-114. APPENDIX ADETAILS OF SHEAR STUDS A.1Geometry of stud shear reinforcement Several types and configurations of shear studs have been reported in the literature. Shear studs mounted on a continuous steel strip, as discussed in the main text of this report, have been developed and investigated (Dilger and Ghali 1981; Andr 1981; Van der Voet et al. 1982; Mokhtar et al. 1985; Elgabry and Ghali 1987; Mortin and Ghali 1991; Dilger and Shatila 1989; Cao 1993; Brown and Dilger 1994; Megally 1998; Birkle 2004; Ritchie and Ghali 2005; Gayed and Ghali 2006). Headed reinforcing bars were developed and applied in Norway (Dyken and Kepp 1988) for high-strength concrete structures, and it was reported that such applications improved the structural performance significantly (Gayed and Ghali 2004; Hoff 1990). Another type of headed shear reinforcement was implemented for increasing the punching shear strength of lightweight concrete slabs and shells (McLean et al. 1990). Several other approaches for mechanical anchorage in shear reinforcement can be used (Marti 1990; Muller et al. 1984; Mart et al. 1977; Ghali et al. 1974). Several types are depicted in Fig. A.1. ACI 318 permits stirrups in slabs with d 6 in. (152 mm), but not less than 16 times the diameter of the stirrups. In the stirrup details shown in Fig. A.1(a) (from ACI 318), a bar has to be lodged in each bend to provide the mechanical anchorage necessary for the

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Fig. A.1Shear reinforcement Type (a) is copied from ACI 318. Types (b) to (e) are from Dyken and Kepp (1988), Gayed and Ghali (2004), McLean et al. (1990), Muller et al. (1984), and Ghali et al. (1974). development of fyt in the vertical legs. Matching this detail and the design spacing so and s in actual construction ensure the effectiveness of stirrups as assumed in design. The anchors should be in the form of circular or rectangular plates, and their area should be sufficient to develop the specified yield strength of studs, fyt. ASTM A1044/A1044M specifies an anchor head area equal to 10 times the crosssectional area of the stud. It is recommended that the performance of the shear stud reinforcement be verified before their use. A.2Stud arrangements Shear studs in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. The term peripheral line is used in this report to mean a line running parallel to and at constant distance from the sides of the column cross section. Figure 4.2 shows a typical arrangement of stud shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner columns. Tests (Dilger and Ghali 1981) showed that studs are most effective near column corners. For this reason, shear studs in Fig. 4.2 are aligned with column faces. In the direction parallel to a column face, the distance g between

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421.1R-13

A.3Stud length The studs are most effective when their anchors are as close as possible to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Unless otherwise protected, the minimum concrete cover of the anchors should be as required by ACI 318. The cover of the anchors should not exceed the minimum cover plus one-half bar diameter of flexural reinforcement (Fig. 6.1). The mechanical anchors should be placed in the forms above reinforcement supports, which ensure the specified concrete cover. APPENDIX BPROPERTIES OF CRITICAL SECTIONS OF GENERAL SHAPE Figure B.1 shows the top view of critical sections for shear in slabs. The centroidal principal x and y axes of the critical sections, Vu, Mux, and Muy are shown in their positive directions. The shear force Vu acts at the column centroid; Vu, Mux, and Muy represent the effects of the column on the slab. lx and ly are projections of the shear-critical sections on directions of principal x and y axes. The coefficients vx and vy are given by Eq. (B-1) to (B-6). ACI 318-08 gives Eq. (B-1) and (B-2); Eq. (B-3) to (B-6) are based on finite-element studies (Elgabry and Ghali 1996; Megally and Ghali 1996). Interior column-slab connections (Fig. B.1(a)) 1 vx = 1 --------------------------2 l l 1 + -- y x 3

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(B-1)

Fig. B.1Shear-critical sections outside shear-reinforced zones and sign convention of factored internal forces transferred from columns to slabs.

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lines of shear studs should not exceed 2d, where d is the effective depth of the slab. When stirrups are used, the same limit for g should be observed (Fig. A.1(a)). The stud arrangement for circular columns is shown in Fig. A.2. The minimum number of peripheral lines of shear studs, in the vicinity of rectangular and circular columns, is two.

421.1R-14

(B-2)

y for x and y. Jxy is equal to d times the product of inertia of the perimeter of the critical section about the centroidal nonprincipal x and y axes J xy = d

l -- ( 2x i y i + x i y j + x j y i + 2x j y j ) 6

(B-11)

(B-3) The coordinates of any point on the perimeter of the critical section with respect to the centroidal principal axes can be calculated by Eq. (B-12) and (B-13) x = xcos + ysin y = xsin + ycos (B-12) (B-13)

l 1 vy = 1 --------------------------------- but vy = 0 when --x < 0.2 (B-4) ly 2 l- 0.2 x 1 + -- -3 ly Corner column-slab connections (Fig. B.1(c)) vx = 0.4 (B-5)

l 1 vy = 1 --------------------------------- but vy = 0 when --x < 0.2 (B-6) ly 2 l- 0.2 x 1 + -- -3 ly Equations (B-7) to (B-9) give the values of Ac, Jx , and Jy that determine by Eq. (4-2) the distribution of shear stress vu, whose resultant components are exactly Vu, vx Mux , and vy Muy. Generally, the critical section perimeter can be considered as composed of straight segments. The values of Ac, Jx, and Jy can be determined by summation of the contribution of the segments Ac = d

The x and y coordinates, determined by Eq. (B-12) and (B-13), can now be substituted in Eq. (B-8) and (B-9) to give the values of Jx and Jy. When the maximum vu occurs at a single point on the critical section, rather than on a side, the peak value of vu does not govern the strength due to stress redistribution (Brown and Dilger 1994). In this case, vu may be investigated at a point located at a distance 0.4d from the peak point. This will give a reduced vu value compared with the peak value; the reduction should not be allowed to exceed 15%. APPENDIX CVALUES OF vc WITHIN SHEAR-REINFORCED ZONE This design procedure of the shear reinforcement requires calculation of vn = vc + vs at the critical section at d/2 from the column face. The value allowed for vc is 2 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /6 [SI units]) when stirrups are used, and 3 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /4 [SI units]) when headed shear studs are used. The reason for the higher value of vc for slabs with headed shear stud reinforcement is the almost slip-free anchorage of the studs. In structural elements reinforced with conventional stirrups, the anchorage by hooks or 90-degree bends is subject to slip, which can be as high as 0.04 in. (1 mm) when the stress in the stirrup leg approaches its yield strength (Leonhardt and Walther 1965). This slip is detrimental to the effectiveness of stirrups in slabs because of their relative small depth compared with beams. The influence of the slip is manifold: Increase in width of the shear crack; Extension of the shear crack into the compression zone; Reduction of the shear resistance of the compression zone; and Reduction of the shear friction across the crack. All of these effects reduce the shear capacity of the concrete in slabs with stirrups. To reflect the stirrup slip in the shear resistance equations, refinement of the shear failure model is required. The empirical equation vn = vc + vs, adopted in almost all codes, is not the ideal approach to solve the shear design problem. A mechanics-based model that is acceptable for codes is not presently available. There is, however, enough experimental evidence that use of the empirical equation vn = vc + vs with vc = 3 f c (in.-lb units)

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(B-7)

Jx = d

2 l 2 -- ( y i + y i y j + y j ) 3

(B-8)

Jx = d

2 l 2 -- ( x i + x i x j + x j ) 3

(B-9)

where xi, yi, xj, and yj are coordinates of points i and j at the extremities of a typical segment whose length is l. For a circular shear-critical section, Ac = 2d (radius) and Jx = Jy = d (radius)3. When the critical section has no axis of symmetry, such as in Fig. 4.2(c), the centroidal principal axes can be determined by the rotation of the centroidal nonprincipal x and y axes an angle , given by 2J xy tan 2 = -------------Jx Jy (B-10)

The absolute value of is less than /2; when the value is positive, is measured in the clockwise direction. Jx and Jy can be calculated by Eq. (B-8) and (B-9), substituting x and

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421.1R-15

Table C.1List of references on slab-column connections tests using stud shear reinforcement

Experiment no. 1 to 5 6, 7 8, 9 10 to 15

*

Reference Andr 1981 Footnote* Otto-Graf-Institut 1996 Intitut fr Werkstoffe im Bauwesen 1996

Reference Regan 1996a Regan 1996b Sherif 1996 Van der Voet et al. 1982

Reference Elgabry and Ghali 1987 Mokhtar et al. 1985 Seible et al. 1980

Grenzzustnde der Tragfkigheit fr Durchstanzen von Platten mit Dbelleistein nach EC2 (Ultimate Limit States of Punching of Slabs with Studrails According to EC2), Stuttgart, Germany, 1996, 15 pp.

Table C.2Slabs with stud shear reinforcement failing within shear-reinforced zone

Square column size, fc, psi d, in. Experiment in. (mm) (MPa) (mm) (1) 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30* 39

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Tested capacities Maximum M at critical 2 Vu , kips Mu , kip-in. section centroid, shear stress fyt , ksi Av , in. (kN) (kN-m) kip-in. (kN-m) vu, psi (MPa) (MPa) (mm2) vtest /vcode (6) 214 (952) 47.4 (211) 52.8 (235) 26.0 (116) 27.2 (121) 34.0 (151) 67.0 (298) 67.0 (298) 101 (449) 117 (520) 113 (507) (7) 0 651 (73.6) 730 (82.5) 798 (90.2) 847 (95.7) 1434 (162.0) 1257 (142.0) 1328 (150.1) 929 (105) 0 0 (8) 0 491 (55.5) 552 (62.4) 708 (80.0) 755 (85.3) 1434 (162.0) 1257 (142.0) 1328 (150.1) 929 (105) 0 0 (9) 599 (4.13) 528 (3.64) 590 (4.07) 641 (4.42) 693 (4.78) 570 (3.93) 641 (4.42) 665 (4.59) 673 (4.64) 454 (3.13) 444 (3.06) (10) 64.1 (442) 55.1 (380) 55.1 (380) 55.1 (380) 55.1 (380) 66.7 (460) 66.7 (460) 66.7 (460) 66.7 (460) 40.3 (278) 47.1 (325) (11) 1.402 (905) 0.66 (426) 0.66 (426) 0.66 (426) 0.66 (426) 1.570 (1013) 1.570 (1013) 0.880 (568) 0.880 (568) 1.320 (852) 0.460 (297) (12) 1.00 1.14 1.28 1.39 1.48 1.02 1.06 1.08 1.03 1.02 1.52 1.18 0.17

Remarks (13) Interior column Edge column Edge column Edge column Edge column Interior column Interior column Interior column Interior column Interior column Interior column

(2) 7.87 (200) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250) 9.84 (250)

(3) 5660 (39.0) 4100 (28.3) 4030 (27.8) 4080 (28.1) 4470 (30.8) 4890 (33.7) 5660 (39.0) 5920 (40.8) 6610 (45.6) 5470 (37.7) 4210 (29.0)

(4) 6.30 (160) 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114)

4.49 (114) 0.75 4.49 (114) 0.75 4.49 0.5 and (114) 0.95 4.49 0.5 and (114) 0.97 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114) 0.75 0.88

*

Semi-lightweight concrete; f c is replaced in calculation by fct /6.7; fct is average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggregate concrete; fct used herein = 377 psi (2.60 MPa), determined experimentally. vcode is smaller of 8 f c , psi (2 f c /3, MPa) and (3 f c + vs , psi) ( f c /4 + vs , MPa), where vs = Av fyt /(bo s).

( f c /4 [SI units]) gives a safe design for slabs with shear headed stud reinforcement. This approach is adopted in the Canadian code, CSA A23.3. Numerous test slab-column connections reinforced with headed studs are reported in the literature (Table C.1). In the majority of these tests, the failure is at sections outside the shear-reinforced zone. Table C.2 lists only the tests in which the failure occurred within the shear-reinforced zone. Column 12 of Table C.2 gives the ratio vtest /vcode , where vcode is the value allowed by ACI 318, with vc = 3 f c (in.lb units) ( f c /4 [SI units]) (Eq. (4-16a) or (4-16b)). The values of vtest /vcode greater than 1.0 indicate there is safety of design with vc = 3 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /4 [SI units]). Table C.3 summarizes experimental data of numerous slabs in which the maximum shear stress vu obtained in test, at the critical section at d/2 from column face, reaches or

exceeds 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]). Table C.3 indicates that vn can be safely taken equal to 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]) (Section 4.3.3). Table C.4 gives the experimental results of slabs having stud shear reinforcement with the spacing between headed studs greater or close to the upper limit given by Eq. (4-17). In Table C.4, vcode is the nominal shear stress calculated by ACI 318, with the provisions given in Section 4.3.3. The value vcode is calculated at d/2 from column face when failure is within the shear-reinforced zone, or at a section at d/2 from the outermost studs when failure occurs outside the shear-reinforced zone. The ratio vtest /vcode greater than 1.0 indicates that it is safe to use headed studs spaced at the upper limit set by Eq. (4-17) and to calculate the strength with the provisions in Section 4.3.3.

421.1R-16

Table C.3Tests with maximum vu at critical section of d/2 from column face exceeding 8 f c psi (2 f c /3 MPa) (slabs with stud shear reinforcement)

Column size, in. (mm)* (2) 11.81 sq. (300 sq.) 11.81 sq. (300 sq.) 11.81 sq. (300 sq.) 19.68 cr. (500 cr.) 14.57 sq. (370 sq.) 12.60 cr. (320 cr.) 12.60 cr. (320 cr.) 10.23 sq. (260 sq.) 10.23 sq. (260 sq.) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 9.25 cr. (235 cr.) 9.25 cr. (235 cr.) 9.25 cr. (235 cr.) 7.87 sq. (200 sq.) 7.87 sq. (200 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) fc, psi (MPa) (3) 6020 (41.5) 5550 (38.3) 3250 (22.4) 5550 (38.3) 6620 (45.7) 5870 (40.5) 6020 (41.5) 3120 (21.5) 3270 (22.6) 3310 (22.8) 3260 (22.5) 4610 (31.8) 3050 (21.0) 3340 (23.0) 3160 (21.8) 4630 (31.9) 5250 (36.2) 5290 (36.5) 5060 (34.9) 5660 (39.0) 4100 (28.3) 4030 (27.8) 4080 (28.1) 4470 (30.8) 4280 (29.5) 4890 (33.7) 5660 (39.0) 5920 (40.8) 6610 (45.6) Tested capacities M, kip-in. (2/ f c 3, MPa) V, kips (kN) (kN-m) 8 f c , psi (4) 621 (4.28) 589 (4.06) 456 (3.14) 589 (4.06) 651 (4.49) 613 (4.23) 621 (4.28) 447 (3.08) 457 (3.15) 460 (3.17) 456 (3.14) 543 (3.74) 441 (3.04) 462 (3.19) 449 (3.10) 544 (3.75) 580 (4.00) 582 (4.01) 569 (3.92) 601 (4.14) 513 (3.54) 508 (3.50) 511 (3.52) 535 (3.69) 523 (3.61) 559 (3.86) 602 (4.15) 615 (4.24) 651 (4.49) (5) 476 (2120) 428 (1900) 346 (1540) 665 (2960) 790 (3510) 600 (2670) 620 (2760) 271 (1200) 343 (1530) 142 (632) 350 (1560) 159 (707) 128 (569) 278 (1240) 255 (1130) 207 (921) 216 (961) 234 (1040) 236 (1050) 214 (952) 47.4 (211) 52.8 (235) 26.9 (120) 27.2 (121) 135 (600) (6) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 651 (73.6) 730 (82.5) 798 (90.2) 847 (95.7) 0 Maximum shear M at critical stress vu , psi section centroid, vu /8 f c kip-in. (kN-m) (MPa) (8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 491 (55.5) 552 (62.4) 708 (80.0) 755 (85.3) 0 1434 (162.0) 1257 (142.0) 1328 (150.1) 924 (104) Mean Coefficient of variation

*

Experiment (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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d, in. (mm) (7) 9.06 (230) 8.86 (225) 8.66 (220) 10.51 (267) 11.22 (285) 9.33 (237) 9.33 (237) 8.07 (205) 8.07 (205) 5.83 (148) 9.60 (244) 6.02 (153) 5.91 (150) 9.72 (247) 9.76 (248) 5.94 (151) 6.14 (156) 6.50 (165) 6.30 (160) 6.30 (160) 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114) 4.49 (114) 4.45 (113)

(9) 629 (4.24) 585 (4.03) 488 (3.37) 667 (4.60) 682 (4.70) 934 (6.44) 965 (6.66) 459 (3.17) 582 (4.01) 582 (4.01) 679 (4.68) 623 (4.30) 516 (3.56) 530 (3.66) 482 (3.32) 728 (5.02) 725 (5.00) 725 (5.00) 661 (4.56) 599 (4.13) 528 (3.64) 590 (4.07) 641 (4.42) 693 (4.78) 532 (3.67) 570 (3.93) 641 (4.42) 665 (4.59) 673 (4.64)

(10) 1.07 1.00 1.07 1.13 1.05 1.52 1.55 1.03 1.27 1.26 1.48 1.14 1.17 1.14 1.07 1.34 1.25 1.24 1.16 1.00 1.03 1.16 1.25 1.29 1.02 1.02 1.06 1.08 1.03 1.17 0.13

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23

24 25 26 27 28 29

33.7 (150) 1434 (162.0) 4.49 (114) 67.4 (300) 1257 (142.0) 4.49 (114) 67.4 (300) 1328 (150.1) 4.49 (114) 101 (449) 929 (105) 4.49 (114)

Column 2 gives side dimension of square (sq.) columns or diameter of circular (cr.) columns. Edge slab-column connections. Other experiments are on interior slab-column connections.

421.1R-17

Table C.4Slabs with stud shear reinforcement having s approximately equal to or greater than 0.75d

Tested capacities fc, Exper- Column size, in. iment (mm) psi (MPa) (1) (2) (3)

s/d (5)

M at critical Maximum section M, kip-in. centroid, kip- shear stress (kN-m) in. (kN-m) vu, psi (MPa) (7) (8) (9) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 491 (55.5) 552 (62.4) 708 (80.0) 755 (85.3) 488 (3.37) 623 (4.30) 517 (3.66) 728 (5.02) 725 (5.00) 725 (5.00) 661 (4.56) 528 (3.64) 590 (4.07) 641 (4.42) 693 (4.78) 570 (3.93) 641 (4.42) 454 (3.13) 476 (3.28) 509 (3.51) 509 (3.51) 473 (3.26) 500 (3.45) 444 (3.06) 522 (3.60) 444 (3.06) 492 (3.39) 523 (3.61) 523 (3.61) 419 (2.89)

(vu)outside,|| vtest / ** psi (MPa) vcode (12) (13) 214 (1.48) 1.77 1.42 1.43 1.34 1.26 1.26 1.08 1.07 1.20 1.30 1.38 1.02 1.06 1.02 1.18 0.94 0.95 1.28 1.00 1.35 1.03 1.52 1.94 1.52 1.86 1.93 1.31 0.23

3 12 13 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 26 27 30* 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 43

11.81 sq. (300 sq.) 3250 (22.4) 8.66 (220) 0.55 and 346 (1540) 0.73 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 4610 (31.8) 6.02 (153) 7.48 cr. (190 cr.) 3050 (21.0) 5.91 (150) 9.25 cr. (235 cr.) 4630 (31.9) 5.94 (151) 9.25 cr. (235 cr.) 5250 (36.2) 6.14 (156) 9.25 cr. (235 cr.) 5290 (36.5) 6.50 (165) 7.87 sq. (200 sq.) 5060 (34.9) 6.30 (160) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4100 (28.3) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4030 (27.8) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4080 (28.1) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4470 (30.8) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4890 (33.7) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5660 (39.0) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5470 (37.7) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 3340 (23.0) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5950 (41.0) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5800 (40.0) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4210 (29.0) 4.49 (114) 0.75 0.77 0.66 0.65 0.61 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 159 (707) 128 (569) 207 (921) 216 (961) 234 (1040) 236 (1050) 47.4 (211) 52.8 (235) 26.9 (120) 27.2 (121)

67.6 (466) 1.09 (703) 195 (1.34) 57.6 (397) 1.09 (703) 160 (1.10) 72.5 (500) 1.46 (942) 182 (1.26) 72.5 (500) 1.46 (942) 180 (1.24) 42.5 (293) 1.46 (942) 181 (1.25) 54.1 (373) 1.40 (903) 165 (1.14) 55.1 (380) 0.66 (426) 55.1 (380) 0.66 (426) 55.1 (380) 0.66 (426) 55.1 (380) 0.66 (426) 66.7 (460) 1.57 (1010) 66.7 (460) 1.57 (1010) 40.3 (278) 1.32 (852)

33.7 (150) 1434 (162.0) 1434 (162.0) 67.4 (300) 1257 (142.0) 1257 (142.0) 117 (520) 123 (547) 131 (583) 131 (583) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 637 (72.0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 476 (53.8) 0 0 0 0 0

40.3 (278) 1.32 (852) 136 (0.94) 70.9 (489) 1.32 (852) 145 (1.00) 40.3 (278) 1.32 (852) 145 (1.00) 70.9 (489) 1.32 (852) 166 (1.14) 40.3 (278) 1.32 (852) 143 (0.99) 70.9 (489) 1.32 (852) 178 (1.23) 55.1 (380) 0.66 (426) 47.1 (325) 0.46 (297)

0.75 122 (543) 0.75 and 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5080 (35.0) 4.49 (114) 129 (574) 1.50 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4350 (30.0) 4.49 (114) 0.75 114 (507) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4790 (33.0) 4.49 (114) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4210 (29.0) 4.45 (113) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 4240 (29.2) 4.45 (113) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5300 (36.6) 4.45 (113) 9.84 sq. (250 sq.) 5380 (37.1) 4.45 (113) 12.0 sq. (305 sq.) 4880 (33.7) 4.76 (121) 0.70 0.88 1.00 0.88 0.88 1.00 48 (214) 113 (503) 125 (556) 133 (592) 133 (592) 134 (596)

52.3 (361) 1.74 (1120) 253 (1.74) 49.2 (339) 0.99 (639) 221 (1.52) 49.2 (339) 1.48 (955) 273 (1.88) 73.0 (503) 1.54 (994) 270 (1.86) Mean Coefficient of variation

* Slab 30 is semi-lightweight concrete. f c replaced in calculations by fct/6.7; fct is average splitting tensile strength of lightweight-aggregate concrete; fct used herein = 377 psi (2.60 MPa), determined experimentally. Column 2 gives side dimension of square (sq.) columns, or diameter of circular (cr.) columns. For cube strengths, concrete cylinder strength in Column 3 calculated using f = 0.83f . c cube Column 9 is maximum shear stress at failure in critical section at d/2 from column face. ||(v ) u outside in Column 12 is maximum shear stress at failure in critical section at d/2 outside outermost studs; (vu)outside not given for slabs that failed within stud zone. **v code is value allowed by ACI 318 in Section 4.3.3. vcode calculated at d/2 from column face when failure is within stud zone and at section at d/2 from outermost studs when failure is outside shear-reinforced zone.

APPENDIX DDESIGN EXAMPLES The design procedure, presented in Chapter 4, is illustrated by numerical examples for connections of nonprestressed slabs with interior, edge, and corner columns. Section D.4 is a design example of shear reinforcement for a connection of an interior column with a prestressed slab. D.1Interior column-slab connection The design of headed studs, conforming to ASTM A1044/ A1044M, is required at an interior column (Fig. D.1) based on the following data: column size cx by cy = 12 20 in.2 (305 508 mm2); slab thickness h = 7 in. (178 mm); concrete cover = 0.75 in. (19 mm); fc = 4000 psi (27.6 MPa); yield strength of studs fyt = 51 ksi (350 MPa); and flexural reinforcement nominal diameter = 5/8 in. (16 mm). The factored forces transferred from the column to the slab are:

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Vu = 110 kips (489 kN) and Muy = 600 kip-in. (67.8 kN-m). The five steps of design outlined in Section 4.4 are followed: Step 1The effective depth of slab d = 7 0.75 (5/8) = 5.62 in. (143 mm) Properties of a critical section at d/2 from column face shown in Fig. 4.1(a): bo = 86.5 in. (2197 mm); Ac = 486 in.2 (314 103 mm2); Jy = 28.0 103 in.4 (11.7 109 mm4); lx1 = 17.62 in. (448 mm); and ly1 = 25.62 in. (651 mm). The fraction of moment transferred by shear (Eq. (4-3)) 1 vy = 1 ------------------------------ = 0.36 2 17.62 1 + -- -----------3 25.62

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421.1R-18

Step 2The quantity (vu /) is greater than vn, indicating that shear reinforcement is required; the same quantity is less than the upper limit vn = 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]), which means that the slab thickness is adequate. Stirrups are not permitted by ACI 318 because (vu/) is greater than 6 f c (in.-lb units) ( f c /2 [SI units]). The shear stress resisted by concrete in the presence of headed studs at the critical section at d/2 from column face vc = 3 f c = 190 psi (1.31 MPa) Use of Eq. (4-1), (4-11), and (4-13) gives vu vs ---- vc = 392 190 = 202 psi (1.39 MPa) Av vs bo 202 ( 86.5 ) ---- --------- = ----------------------- = 0.34 in. (8.7 mm) s f yt 51,000 Step 3 so 0.5d = 2.8 in. (71 mm); s 0.5d = 2.8 in. (71 mm) This example has been provided for one specific type of headed shear stud reinforcement, but the approach can be adapted and used also for other types mentioned in Appendix A. Try 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter studs welded to a bottom anchor strip 3/16 x 1 in.2 (5 x 25 mm2). Taking cover of 3/4 in. (19 mm) at top and bottom, the specified overall height of headed stud assembly (having most efficiency) (Eq. (6-1)) ls = 7 2 3 = 5.5 in. (140 mm) - 4 The actual overall height (considering manufacturing tolerance) should not be less than ls 1/2 the diameter of flexural reinforcement bars (5/8 in.) = 5-3/16 in. (132 mm) With 10 studs per peripheral line, choose the spacing between peripheral lines, s = 2.75 in. (70 mm), and the spacing between column face and first peripheral line, so = 2.25 in. (57 mm) (Fig. D.1) Av 10 ( 0.11 ) ---- = -------------------- = 0.40 in. (10.1 mm) s 2.75 This value is greater than 0.34 in. (8.7 mm), indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. Step 4For a first trial, assume a critical section at 4.5d from column face (Fig. 4.1(b)): = 4.5; d = 4.5(5.62) = 25.3 in. (643 mm); lx2 = 62.6 in. (1590 mm); ly2 = 70.6 in. (1793 mm); vy = 0.39 (Eq. (B-2));

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Fig. D.1Example of interior column-slab connection: stud arrangement. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 kip = 4.448 kN.) The maximum shear stress occurs at x = 17.62/2 = 8.81 in. (224 mm), and its value is (Eq. (4-2)) 0.36 ( 600 10 )8.81 v u = 110 10 - + ------------------------------------------------- = 294 psi (2.03 MPa) ---------------------3 486 28.0 10 vu 294 ---- = --------- = 392 psi = 6.2 f c (2.70 MPa = 0.52 f c ) 0.75 The nominal shear stress that can be resisted without shear reinforcement at the critical section considered (Eq. (4-7) to (4-9)) 4v n = 2 + --------- f c = 4.4 f c (or 0.37 f c ) 1.67 40 ( 5.62 ) v n = -------------------- + 2 f c = 4.6 f c (or 0.38 f c ) 86.5 vn = 4 f c (or f c /3)

3 3

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421.1R-19

bo = 209.8 in. (5329 mm); Ac = 1179 in.2 (760.6 103 mm2); Jy = 547.3 103 in.4 (227.8 109 mm4). The maximum shear stress in the critical section occurs on line AB (Fig. 4.1(a)) at: x = 62.6/2 = 31.3 in. (795 mm); Eq. (4-2) gives

110 10 0.39 ( 600 10 )31.3 v u = ---------------------- + ------------------------------------------------- = 107 psi (0.74 MPa) 3 1179 547.3 10

3 3

vu 107 ---- = --------- = 142 psi (0.98 MPa) 0.75 The value (vu/) = 142 psi (0.98 MPa) is greater than vn = 126 psi (0.87 MPa), which indicates that shear stress should be checked at > 4.5. Try 10 peripheral lines of studs; the distance between column face and outermost peripheral line of studs is so + 9s = 2.25 + 9(2.75) = 27 in. (686 mm) Check shear stress at a critical section at a distance from column face d = 27 + d/2 = 27 + 5.62/2 = 29.8 in. (757 mm) 29.8 29.8 = --------- = --------- = 5.3 d 5.62 vu/ = 125 psi (0.86 MPa) vn = 2 f c = 126 psi (0.87 MPa) Step 5The value of (vu/) is less than vn, which indicates that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone, shown in Fig. D.1, is adequate. The value of Vu used to calculate the maximum shear stress could have been reduced by the counteracting factored load on the slab area enclosed by the critical section; this reduction is ignored in Sections D.2 to D.4. D.2Edge column-slab connection Design the studs required at the edge column-slab connection in Fig. D.2(a), based on the following data: column cross section, cx cy = 18 18 in.2 (457 457 mm2); the values of h, ct, d, fc , fyt, D, and db, in Section D.1 apply herein. The connection is designed for gravity loads combined with wind load in positive or negative x-direction. Cases I and II are considered, which produce extreme stresses at Points B and A of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column or at D and C of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig. D.2(a) and (b)). The factored forces, due to gravity load combined with wind load, are given. Case IWind load in negative x-direction Vu = 36 kips (160 kN); MuOy = 1720 kip-in. (194 kN-m);

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Fig. D.2Example of edge column-slab connection: shear-critical sections and stud arrangement. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm.) MuOx = 0 For the shear-critical section at d/2 from column face, xO = 5.17 in., and Eq. (4-5) gives Muy = 1720 + 36(5.17) = 1530 kip-in. (173 kN-m); Mux = 0 Case IIWind load in positive x-direction Vu = 10 kips (44 kN); MuOy = 900 kip-in. (102 kN-m) Muy = 900 + 10(5.17) = 952 kip-in. (107 kN-m) The five steps of design outlined in Section 4.4 are followed. Step 1Properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from column face shown in Fig. D.2(a) are: bo = 65.25 in. (1581 mm); Ac = 367 in.2 (237 103 mm2); Jy = 17.63 103 in.4 (7.338 106 mm4); lx1 = 20.81 in. (529 mm); and ly1 = 23.62 in. (600 mm). The fraction of moment transferred by shear (Eq. (B-4)) 1 vy = 1 ------------------------------------------- = 0.36 2 20.81 0.2 1 + -- -----------3 23.62 The shear stress at Points A and B, calculated by Eq. (4-2) with xA = 14.17 in. or xB = 6.64 in., are given in Table D.1. The maximum shear stress, in absolute value, occurs at Point A (Case I) and |(vu/)A| = 338/0.75 = 451 psi = 7.1 f c (3.13 MPa = 0.59 f c ). The nominal shear stress that can be resisted without shear reinforcement at the shear-critical section, vn = 4 f c = 253 psi ( f c /3 = 1.74 MPa).

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421.1R-20

Table D.1Shear stresses* (psi) due to factored loads; edge column-slab connection (Fig. D.2)

Shear-critical section At d/2 from column face At d/2 from outermost peripheral line of studs

*

vu represents stress exerted by column on slab, with positive sign indicating upward stress. Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi.

Step 2Because the value (vu/) exceeds vn, shear reinforcement is required; the same quantity is less than the upper limit vn = 8 f c , psi (2 f c /3, MPa), indicating that the slab thickness is adequate. The shear stress resisted by concrete in presence of headed studs at the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column face is vc = 3 f c = 190 psi ( f c /4 = 131 MPa) Use of Eq. (4-1), (4-11), and (4-13) gives vu vs ---- vc = 451 190 = 261 psi (1.80 MPa) Av vs bo 261 ( 65.25 ) ---- --------- = -------------------------- = 0.33 in. (8.5 mm) s f yt 51,000 Step 3 so 0.5d = 2.8 in. (71 mm); s 0.5d = 2.8 in. (71 mm) Using 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter studs, arranged as shown in Fig. D.2(b), with so = 2.25 in. (57 mm) and s = 2.75 in. (70 mm) gives: (Av /s) = 9(0.11)/2.75 = 0.36 in. (9.1 mm). This value is greater than 0.33 in. (8.5 mm), indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. Step 4Try nine peripheral lines of studs; the properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs are: bo = 132 in. (3353 mm); Ac = 742 in.2 (479 103 mm2); Jy = 142.9 103 in.4 (59.48 109 mm4); lx2 = 45 in. (1143 mm); ly2 = 72 in. (1829 mm); vy = 0.30 (Eq. (B-4)); xC = 27.6 in. (701 mm); xD = 17.4 in. (445 mm); xO = 18.6 in. (472 mm). The factored shearing force and unbalanced moment at an axis, passing through the centroid of the shear-critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone, are (Eq. (4-5)): Case I: Vu = 36 kips (160 kN); Muy = 1720 + 36(18.6) = 1050 kip-in. (118 kN-m) Case II: Vu = 10 kips (44 kN); Muy = 900 + 10(18.6) = 1090 kip-in. (123 kN-m)

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Fig. D.3Example of corner column-slab connection: shear-critical sections and stud arrangement. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm.)

Equation (4-2) gives the shear stresses at Points C and D, listed in Table D.1 for Cases I and II. The maximum shear stress, in absolute value, occurs at Point D (Case I) and |(vu/)D| = 87/0.75 = 116 psi = 1.8 f c (0.80 MPa = 0.15 f c ). The nominal shear strength outside the shear-reinforced zone, vn = 2 f c = 126 psi (0.17 f c = 0.87 MPa). Step 5The value of (vu /) is less than vn , indicating that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone, as shown in Fig. D.2(b), is adequate. D.3Corner column-slab connection The corner column-slab connection in Fig. D.3(a) is designed for gravity loads combined with wind load in positive or negative x-direction. The cross-sectional dimensions of the column are cx = c y = 20 in. (508 mm) (Fig. D.3(a)). The same values of: h, ct , d, fc , fyt, D, and db, in Section D.1 apply in this example. Two cases (I and II) are considered, producing extreme shear stresses at Points A and B of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column or at C and D of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig. D.3(a) and (b)). The factored forces, due to gravity loads combined with wind load, are given. Case IWind load in positive x-direction Vu = 6 kips (27 kN); MuOy = 338 kip-in. (38 kN-m); MuOx = 238 kip-in. (27 kN-m) For the shear-critical section at d/2 from column face, xO = yO = 7.11 in. (181 mm) and = 45 degrees; thus, Eq. (4-5) and (4-6) give Muy = 338 + 6(7.11) = 381 kip-in.; Mux = 238 + 6(7.11) = 195 kip-in. Muy = 132 kip-in. (15 kN-m); Mux = 407 kip-in. (46 kN-m)

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421.1R-21

Case IIWind load in negative x-direction Vu = 22 kips (97 kN); MuOy = 953 kip-in. (108 kN-m); MuOx = 377 kip-in. (43 kN-m) Muy = 953 + 22(7.11) = 797 kip-in.; Mux = 377 + 22(7.11) = 221 kip-in. Muy = 720 kip-in. (81 kN-m); Mux = 407 kip-in. (46 kN-m) The five steps of design, outlined in Section 4.4, are followed. Step 1Properties of the shear-critical section in Fig. D.3(a) are: bo = 45.63 in. (1159 mm); Ac = 257 in.2 (166 103 mm2); Jx = 22.26 103 in.4 (9.27 109 mm4) and Jy = 5.57 103 in.4 (2.32 109 mm4). The projections of the critical section on the x and y axes are: lx1 = 16.13 in. (410 mm); and ly1 = 32.26 in. (820 mm). The fractions of unbalanced moments transferred by shear are (Eq. (B-5) and (B-6)) 1 vy = 1 ---------------------------------------------------------- = 0.267 ; vx = 0.4 1 + ( 2/3 ) ( l x1 /l y1 ) 0.2 The factored shear stress at Point A (8.07, 16.13 in.) in Case I is (Eq. (4-2))

6 10 0.4 ( 407 10 )16.13 0.267 ( 132 10 ) ( 8.07 ) ( v u ) A = ---------------- + ------------------------------------------------- + --------------------------------------------------------------3 3 257 22.26 10 5.57 10 = 192 psi (1.33 MPa)

3 3 3

Table D.2Shear stresses* (psi) due to factored loads; corner column-slab connection (Fig. D.3)

Shear-critical section At d/2 from column face At d/2 from outermost peripheral line of studs

*

vu represents stress exerted by column on slab, with positive sign indicating upward stress. Note: 1 MPa = 145 psi.

Step 3 so 0.5d = 2.8 in. (71 mm); s 0.5d = 2.8 in. (71 mm) Using 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter studs, arranged as shown in Fig. D.3(b), with so = 2.25 in. (57 mm) and s = 2.5 in. (64 mm) gives: (Av /s) = 6(0.11)/2.5 = 0.26 in. (6.7 mm). This value is the same as that calculated in Step 2, indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. Step 4Try seven peripheral lines of studs; the properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig. D.3(b)) are: xO = yO = 17.37 in. (441 mm); = 45 degrees; bo = 69 in. (1754 mm); Ac = 388 in.2 (251 103 mm2); Jx = 116.9 103 in.4 (48.64 109 mm4); Jy = 9.60 103 in.4 (4.00 109 mm4); lx2 = 15.0 in. (380 mm); ly2 = 56.7 in. (1439 mm); vx = 0.40 (Eq. (B-5)); vy = 0.14 (Eq. (B-6)). The factored shearing force and unbalanced moment about the centroidal principal axes of the shear-critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone (Eq. (4-5) and (4-6)), are: Case I: Vu = 6 kips (27 kN); Mux = 407 kip-in. (46 kN-m); Muy = 218 kip-in. (25 kN-m) Case II: Vu = 22 kips (97 kN); Mux = 407 kip-in. (46 kN-m); Muy = 402 kip-in. (45 kN-m) Use of Eq. (4-2) gives the values of vu at Points C (10.38, 28.33 in.) and D (4.59, 13.36 in.) for Cases I and II, listed in Table D.2. The maximum shear stress, in absolute value, occurs at Point C (Case I) and |(vu /)C| = 89/0.75 = 119 psi = 1.88 f c (0.82 MPa = 0.16 f c ). The nominal shear stress outside the shear-reinforced zone, vn = 2 f c = 126 psi (0.17 f c = 0.87 MPa). Step 5The value of (vu /) is less than vn, indicating that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone, as shown in Fig. D.3(b), is sufficient. D.4Prestressed slab-column connection Design the shear reinforcement required for an interior column, transferring Vu = 110 kips (490 kN) combined with

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Similar calculations give the values of vu at Points A and B (8.07, 0 in.) for Cases I and II, which are listed in Table D.2. The maximum shear stress, in absolute value, occurs at Point B (Case II) and |(vu/)B| = 364/0.75 = 485 psi = 7.7 f c (3.35 MPa = 0.64 f c ). The nominal shear stress that can be resisted without shear reinforcement at the shearcritical section, vn = 4 f c = 253 psi ( f c /3 = 1.74 MPa) (Eq. (4-7) to (4-9)). Step 2Because the value (vu /) exceeds vn, shear reinforcement is required; the same quantity is less than the upper limit, vn = 8 f c (in.-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]), indicating that the slab thickness is adequate. The shear stress resisted by concrete in the presence of headed studs at the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column face is vc = 3 f c = 190 psi ( f c /4 = 1.31 MPa) Use of Eq. (4-1), (4-11) and (4-13) gives vu vs ---- vc = 485 190 = 295 psi (2.03 MPa) Av vs bo ) ---- --------- = 295 ( 45.63 - = 0.26 in. (6.7 mm) -------------------------s f yt 51,000

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421.1R-22

Prestressing tendons are typically placed in bands over support lines in one direction and uniformly distributed in the perpendicular direction. In the current example, the prestressing tendons are banded in the x-direction and uniformly distributed in the y-direction (Fig. D.4(b)). ACI 318 requires that at least two tendons should pass through the column cage in each direction; the arrangement of the tendons as shown in Fig. D.4(b) satisfies this requirement. ACI 318 requires a minimum amount of bonded top flexural reinforcing bars in the vicinity of the column; choose eight bars of diameter db = 1/2 in.; for clarity, the bonded bars are not shown in Fig. D.4. A check that the cross-sectional areas of the bonded and nonbonded reinforcements satisfy the ultimate flexural strength required is necessary, but is beyond the scope of the present report. Punching shear design: Vu = 110 kips (490 kN); Muy = 550 kip-in. (62 kN-m). The five steps of design, outlined in Section 4.4, are followed. Step 1Properties of the shear-critical section at d/2 from the column are: d = h ct db = 7 3/4 1/2 = 5.75 in.; bo = 87 in. (2210 mm); Ac = 500 in.2 (323 103 mm2); Jy = 39.4 103 in.4 (16.4 109 mm4); lx1 = ly1 = 21.75 in. (552 mm); and vy = 0.4 (Eq. (B-2)). The maximum shear stress occurs at x = 21.75/2 = 10.88 in. (276 mm), and its value is (Eq. (4-2)) 110 10 - 0.40 ( 500 10 )10.88 v u = ---------------------- + ---------------------------------------------------- = 281 psi (1.94 MPa) 3 500 39.4 10 vu 281 ---- = --------- = 375 psi = 5.9 f c (2.59 MPa = 0.49 f c ) 0.75 The three conditions, warranting the use of Eq. (5-1a) or (5-1b), are satisfied at the considered connection. Two tendons from each direction intercept the critical section at d/2 from the column; the sum of the vertical components of these tendons at the location of the shear-critical section, Vp = 6 kips (26 kN). It is uncertain that the actual cable profiles, in the x and y directions, will have slopes matching those used in calculating Vp ( 0.02); thus, for safety, assume that Vp = 0. Substituting the values of fpc and Vp in Eq. (5-1a) gives vn = 3.5 4000 + 0.3(194) + 0 = 280 psi (1.93 MPa) Step 2The quantity (vu /) is greater than vn, indicating that shear reinforcement is required; the same quantity is less than the upper limit vn = 8 f c (in-lb units) (2 f c /3 [SI units]), which means that the slab thickness is adequate. The shear stress resisted by concrete in the presence of headed studs at the critical section at d/2 from column face vc = 3 f c = 190 psi ( f c /4 = 1.31 MPa) Use of Eq. (4-1), (4-11), and (4-13) gives vu vs ---- vc = 375 190 = 185 psi (1.28 MPa)

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Fig. D.4Example connection of interior column-prestressed slab. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm.) unbalanced moment Muy = 550 kip-in. (62 kN-m) to a posttensioned flat plate of thickness, h = 7 in. (178 mm). The slab has equal spans 280 x 280 in.2 (7.1 x 7.1 m2). The column size is 16 x 16 in.2 (406 x 406 mm2). The values of ct, fc , fyt , and D, in Section D.1 apply herein. Tendon profiles are commonly composed of parabolic segments, for which the average effective prestress fpc, required to balance a fraction of the self-weight, (hconc) per unit area, plus the superimposed dead load of intensity wsd can be calculated as (Gayed and Ghali 2006) (Fig. D.4(a)) ( 1 2 ) ( conc h + w sd )L f pc = ---------------------------------------------------------------8hh c

2

(D-1)

where L is the panel length, and geometrical parameters: and hc are defined in Fig. D.4(a). Choose the values: = 0.85; = 0.1; conc = 153 lb/ft3 (24 kN/m3); wsd = 27 lb/ft2 (1.3 kPa); L = 280 in. (7.1 m); h = 7 in.; and hc = 3.8 in. Equation (D-1) gives fpc = 202 psi (1.39 MPa). This level of prestressing is closely acquired by ten 0.6 in. seven-wire post-tensioned nonbonded strands per panel. The crosssectional area per strand = 0.217 in.2 (140 mm2); the average value of the effective compressive stress provided by ten tendons in each of two directions is 10 ( 38 10 ) f pc = ------------------------------- = 194 psi (1.34 MPa) 280 ( 7 )

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421.1R-23

Av vs bo 185 ( 87 ) ---- --------- = ------------------- = 0.32 in. (8.0 mm) s f yt 51,000 Step 3(vu /) < 6 f c (psi); thus, stirrups or headed studs can be used. For ease of installation of the prestressing tendons, use studs with s 0.75d. Because the column width is large with respect to d, eight studs per peripheral line will not satisfy the requirement g 2d (Fig. 1.2); choose 12 studs per peripheral line. so 0.5d = 2-7/8 in. (73 mm); s 0.75d = 4-5/8 in. (117 mm) With twelve 3/8 in. studs per peripheral line and spacing s = 4 in. (102 mm), Av 12 ( 0.11 ) ---- = -------------------- = 0.33 in. (8.4 mm) s 4

This value is greater than 0.32 in., indicating that the choice of studs and their spacing are adequate. Step 4Try seven peripheral lines of studs. Properties of critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs (Fig. D.4(b)) are: lx2 = ly2 = 75.5 in.; vy = 0.4 (Eq. (B-2)); bo = 235 in.; Ac = 1351 in.2; and Jy = 848.2 103 in.4. The maximum shear stress in the critical section occurs at: x = 75.5/2 = 37.8 in. (959 mm); Eq. (4-2) gives 110 10 0.40 ( 550 10 )37.8 v u = ---------------------- + ------------------------------------------------- = 91 psi (0.63 MPa) 3 1351 848.2 10 vn = 2 f c = 126 psi (0.17 f c = 0.87 MPa) Step 5The value of (vu /) = 91/0.75 = 121 < 126 psi, indicating that the extent of the shear-reinforced zone, as shown in Fig. D.4(b), is adequate.

3 3

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As ACI begins its second century of advancing concrete knowledge, its original chartered purpose remains to provide a comradeship in finding the best ways to do concrete work of all kinds and in spreading knowledge. In keeping with this purpose, ACI supports the following activities:

The AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE was founded in 1904 as a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to public service and representing the user interest in the field of concrete. ACI gathers and distributes information on the improvement of design, construction and maintenance of concrete products and structures. The work of ACI is conducted by individual ACI members and through volunteer committees composed of both members and non-members. The committees, as well as ACI as a whole, operate under a consensus format, which assures all participants the right to have their views considered. Committee activities include the development of building codes and specifications; analysis of research and development results; presentation of construction and repair techniques; and education. Individuals interested in the activities of ACI are encouraged to become a member. There are no educational or employment requirements. ACIs membership is composed of engineers, architects, scientists, contractors, educators, and representatives from a variety of companies and organizations. Members are encouraged to participate in committee activities that relate to their specific areas of interest. For more information, contact ACI.

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