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Chapter 2 Principles of Steady-State Converter Analysis

2.1. Introduction 2.2. Inductor volt-second balance, capacitor charge balance, and the small ripple approximation 2.3. Boost converter example 2.4. Cuk converter example 2.5. Estimating the ripple in converters containing twopole low-pass filters 2.6. Summary of key points
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.1 Introduction Buck converter


1

SPDT switch changes dc component


Vg
+

+
2

+ R v(t)

vs(t)

Switch output voltage waveform


Duty cycle D: 0D1

vs(t)

Vg DTs 0 DTs 1 2 D' Ts 0 Ts

t
1

complement D: D = 1 - D
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switch position:

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Dc component of switch output voltage

vs(t)

Vg area = DTsVg 0 <vs> = DVg 0 DTs Ts

Fourier analysis: Dc component = average value


vs = 1 Ts
Ts

vs(t) dt
0

vs = 1 (DTsVg) = DVg Ts
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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Insertion of low-pass filter to remove switching harmonics and pass only dc component
L + + C R v(t)

Vg

vs(t)

v vs = DVg

Vg

0 0 1 D

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Three basic dc-dc converters


a)
1

1 0.8

M(D) = D

Vg

M(D)

Buck

iL(t)
C R

+
0.6 0.4 0.2

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

b)

Vg

M(D)

Boost

iL(t)

4 3 2 1 0 0

1 M(D) = 1 D

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

c)
1 2

0 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

+ C R v

-1

Vg

M(D)

Buck-boost

iL(t)

-2 -3 -4 -5

M(D) = 1D D

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Objectives of this chapter


Develop techniques for easily determining output voltage of an arbitrary converter circuit Derive the principles of inductor volt-second balance and capacitor charge (amp-second) balance Introduce the key small ripple approximation Develop simple methods for selecting filter element values Illustrate via examples

q q

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.2.

Inductor volt-second balance, capacitor charge balance, and the small ripple approximation
Actual output voltage waveform, buck converter
1

iL(t)

L + vL(t) + iC(t) R v(t)

Buck converter containing practical low-pass filter

Vg

Actual output voltage waveform


v(t) = V + vripple(t)

v(t) V Dc component V 0

actual waveform v(t) = V + vripple(t)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

The small ripple approximation


v(t) actual waveform v(t) = V + vripple(t)

v(t) = V + vripple(t)

V Dc component V 0 t

In a well-designed converter, the output voltage ripple is small. Hence, the waveforms can be easily determined by ignoring the ripple:
vripple << V
v(t) V

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Buck converter analysis: inductor current waveform


1

iL(t)

L + vL(t) + iC(t) R v(t)

original converter

Vg

switch in position 1
iL(t) L + vL(t) Vg + C + iC(t) R v(t)

switch in position 2
L + vL(t) Vg + iL(t) C iC(t) R + v(t)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor voltage and current Subinterval 1: switch in position 1


Inductor voltage
vL = Vg v(t)
Vg + iL(t) L + vL(t) C iC(t) R + v(t)

Small ripple approximation:


vL Vg V

Knowing the inductor voltage, we can now find the inductor current via
vL(t) = L diL(t) dt

Solve for the slope: diL(t) vL(t) Vg V = L L dt

The inductor current changes with an essentially constant slope

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor voltage and current Subinterval 2: switch in position 2


Inductor voltage
vL(t) = v(t)
Vg + iL(t) L + vL(t) C + iC(t) R v(t)

Small ripple approximation:


vL(t) V

Knowing the inductor voltage, we can again find the inductor current via
vL(t) = L diL(t) dt

Solve for the slope:


diL(t) V L dt
The inductor current changes with an essentially constant slope

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor voltage and current waveforms


vL(t)
Vg V DTs D'Ts V switch position: 1
iL(DTs) Vg V L DTs
12

t
1
vL(t) = L diL(t) dt

iL(t)
I iL(0) 0

iL V L Ts

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Determination of inductor current ripple magnitude

iL(t)
I iL(0) 0 Vg V L

iL(DTs) V L DTs Ts

iL

(change in iL) = (slope)(length of subinterval) Vg V DTs 2iL = L

V V iL = g DTs 2L

L=

Vg V DTs 2iL

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor current waveform during turn-on transient

iL(t)

iL(Ts) iL(0)=0

Vg v(t) L v(t) L 0 DTs Ts 2Ts

iL(nTs)

iL((n+1)Ts)

nTs

(n+1)Ts

When the converter operates in equilibrium:


iL((n + 1)Ts) = iL(nTs)

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

The principle of inductor volt-second balance: Derivation


Inductor defining relation: di (t) vL(t) = L L dt Integrate over one complete switching period:

iL(Ts) iL(0) = 1 L
Ts

Ts

vL(t) dt
0

In periodic steady state, the net change in inductor current is zero:

0=
0

vL(t) dt

Hence, the total area (or volt-seconds) under the inductor voltage waveform is zero whenever the converter operates in steady state. An equivalent form:
1 s v (t) dt = v 0= L Ts 0 L The average inductor voltage is zero in steady state.
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T

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor volt-second balance: Buck converter example


vL(t) total area t V

Inductor voltage waveform, previously derived:

Vg V

DTs

Integral of voltage waveform is area of rectangles:

=
0

Ts

vL(t) dt = (Vg V)(DTs) + ( V)(D'Ts)

Average voltage is vL = = D(Vg V) + D'( V) Ts Equate to zero and solve for V:


0 = DVg (D + D')V = DVg V
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V = DVg

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

The principle of capacitor charge balance: Derivation


Capacitor defining relation: dv (t) iC(t) = C C dt Integrate over one complete switching period:

vC(Ts) vC(0) = 1 C

Ts

iC(t) dt
0

In periodic steady state, the net change in capacitor voltage is zero:

0= 1 Ts

Ts

iC(t) dt = iC
0

Hence, the total area (or charge) under the capacitor current waveform is zero whenever the converter operates in steady state. The average capacitor current is then zero.

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.3 Boost converter example


L
2

Boost converter with ideal switch

iL(t) Vg +

+ vL(t)
1

iC(t) C R v

D1 + Q1 iC(t) C R v

Realization using power MOSFET and diode

iL(t) Vg +

+ vL(t) +

DTs

Ts

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Boost converter analysis


L iL(t) + vL(t)
1 2

+ iC(t) C R v

original converter

Vg

switch in position 1

switch in position 2
L
+

L iL(t) Vg + + vL(t) iC(t) C R v

iL(t) Vg +

+ vL(t)

+ iC(t) C R v

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Subinterval 1: switch in position 1

Inductor voltage and capacitor current


vL = Vg iC = v / R
Vg + L iL(t) + vL(t) iC(t) C R + v

Small ripple approximation:


vL = Vg iC = V / R

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Subinterval 2: switch in position 2

Inductor voltage and capacitor current


vL = Vg v iC = iL v / R
Vg + L iL(t) + vL(t) + iC(t) C R v

Small ripple approximation:


vL = Vg V iC = I V / R

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor voltage and capacitor current waveforms

vL(t)

Vg DTs D'Ts

t
Vg V

iC(t)
DTs V/R

I V/R D'Ts

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor volt-second balance


Net volt-seconds applied to inductor over one switching period:
Ts

vL(t)

Vg DTs D'Ts

vL(t) dt = (Vg) DTs + (Vg V) D'Ts


0

t
Vg V

Equate to zero and collect terms:

Vg (D + D') V D' = 0
Solve for V:

Vg D' The voltage conversion ratio is therefore V =


M(D) = V = 1 = 1 Vg D' 1 D
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Conversion ratio M(D) of the boost converter

5 4

1 1 M(D) = D' = 1 D

M(D)

3 2 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Determination of inductor current dc component

Capacitor charge balance:


Ts 0

iC(t)
DTs

I V/R D'Ts

iC(t) dt = ( V ) DTs + (I V ) D'Ts R R

t
V/R

Collect terms and equate to zero: V (D + D') + I D' = 0 R Solve for I: I= V D' R Eliminate V to express in terms of Vg: Vg I= 2 D' R
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I (V g / R)
8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

25

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Determination of inductor current ripple


Inductor current slope during subinterval 1: diL(t) vL(t) Vg = = L L dt Inductor current slope during subinterval 2: diL(t) vL(t) Vg V = = L L dt

iL(t)
I Vg L 0 DTs Vg V L Ts iL

Change in inductor current during subinterval 1 is (slope) (length of subinterval): Vg 2iL = DTs L Solve for peak ripple:

iL =

Vg DTs 2L

Choose L such that desired ripple magnitude is obtained


26

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Determination of capacitor voltage ripple


Capacitor voltage slope during subinterval 1: dvC(t) iC(t) V = = C RC dt Capacitor voltage slope during subinterval 2: dvC(t) iC(t) I = = V C C RC dt

v(t)
V V RC 0 DTs I V C RC Ts v

Change in capacitor voltage during subinterval 1 is (slope) (length of subinterval):

2v = V DTs RC
Solve for peak ripple:

v = V DTs 2RC
Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Choose C such that desired voltage ripple magnitude is obtained In practice, capacitor equivalent series resistance (esr) leads to increased voltage ripple
27

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.4 Cuk converter example


L1 C1 + v1
1 2

L2 i2 C2 + v2 R

Cuk converter, with ideal switch


Vg +

i1

Cuk converter: practical realization using MOSFET and diode

L1 i1 Vg +

C1 + v1 Q1 D1

L2 i2 C2 + v2 R

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Cuk converter circuit


with switch in positions 1 and 2

Switch in position 1: MOSFET conducts Capacitor C1 releases energy to output


Vg +

L1 i1 + vL1 v1 +

L2 iC1 + vL2 C1

i2 + iC2 C2 v2 R

i1

L1 + vL1 iC1 + C1 v1

L2 + vL2

i2 iC2 C2 v2 R +

Switch in position 2: diode conducts Capacitor C1 is charged from input


Vg +

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Waveforms during subinterval 1


MOSFET conduction interval
Inductor voltages and capacitor currents:
L1 i1 + vL1 Vg + v1 + L2 iC1 + vL2 C1 i2 iC2 C2 + v2 R

vL1 = Vg vL2 = v1 v2 i C1 = i 2 v i C2 = i 2 2 R

Small ripple approximation for subinterval 1:

vL1 = Vg vL2 = V1 V2 i C1 = I 2 V i C2 = I 2 2 R

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Waveforms during subinterval 2


Diode conduction interval
Inductor voltages and capacitor currents:
i1 L1 + vL1 Vg + C1 iC1 + v1 L2 + vL2 i2 iC2 C2 + v2 R

vL1 = Vg v1 vL2 = v2 i C1 = i 1 v i C2 = i 2 2 R

Small ripple approximation for subinterval 2:

vL1 = Vg V1 vL2 = V2 i C1 = I 1 V i C2 = I 2 2 R

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Equate average values to zero


The principles of inductor volt-second and capacitor charge balance state that the average values of the periodic inductor voltage and capacitor current waveforms are zero, when the converter operates in steady state. Hence, to determine the steady-state conditions in the converter, let us sketch the inductor voltage and capacitor current waveforms, and equate their average values to zero.

Waveforms:
Inductor voltage vL1(t)
vL1(t)

Volt-second balance on L1:


Vg DTs D'Ts t Vg V1

vL1 = DVg + D'(Vg V1) = 0

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Equate average values to zero


Inductor L2 voltage
vL2(t) DTs V1 V2 V2 D'Ts t

Average the waveforms:

Capacitor C1 current
iC1(t) DTs I2 I1 D'Ts t

vL2 = D( V1 V2) + D'( V2) = 0 i C1 = DI 2 + D'I 1 = 0

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Equate average values to zero


Capacitor current iC2(t) waveform
iC2(t) I2 V2 / R (= 0) DTs D'Ts t

i C2 = I 2

V2 =0 R

Note: during both subintervals, the capacitor current iC2 is equal to the difference between the inductor current i2 and the load current V2/R. When ripple is neglected, iC2 is constant and equal to zero.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Cuk converter conversion ratio M = V/Vg


D
0 0 -1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

M(D)

-2 -3 -4 -5

V2 M(D) = = D Vg 1D

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor current waveforms


Interval 1 slopes, using small ripple approximation:
i1(t) I1 i1
Vg L1 Vg V1 L1

di 1(t) vL1(t) Vg = = L1 L1 dt di 2(t) vL2(t) V1 V2 = = L2 L2 dt


Interval 2 slopes:
di 1(t) vL1(t) Vg V1 = = L1 L1 dt di 2(t) vL2(t) V2 = = L2 L2 dt
I2 i2(t)

DTs
DTs
V1 V2 L2 V2 L2

Ts
Ts t

i2

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Capacitor C1 waveform
Subinterval 1:
v1(t) V1 v1
I2 C1 I1 C1

dv1(t) i C1(t) I 2 = = C1 C1 dt
Subinterval 2:

DTs

Ts

dv1(t) i C1(t) I 1 = = C1 C1 dt

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Ripple magnitudes

Analysis results

Use dc converter solution to simplify:

VgDTs i 1 = 2L 1 V + V2 i 2 = 1 DTs 2L 2 I DT v1 = 2 s 2C 1

VgDTs i 1 = 2L 1 VgDTs i 2 = 2L 2 VgD 2Ts v1 = 2D'RC 1

Q: How large is the output voltage ripple?

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.5 Estimating ripple in converters containing two-pole low-pass filters


Buck converter example: Determine output voltage ripple
1

L iL(t) iC(t) C + vC(t) iR(t) R

Vg

Inductor current waveform. What is the capacitor current?

iL(t)
I iL(0) 0 Vg V L

iL(DTs) V L DTs Ts

iL

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Capacitor current and voltage, buck example

iC(t)

Must not neglect inductor current ripple!


If the capacitor voltage ripple is small, then essentially all of the ac component of inductor current flows through the capacitor.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics

total charge q iL Ts / 2 DTs D'Ts t

vC(t) V v v

40

Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Estimating capacitor voltage ripple v


Current iC(t) is positive for half of the switching period. This positive current causes the capacitor voltage vC(t) to increase between its minimum and maximum extrema. During this time, the total charge q is deposited on the capacitor plates, where
q = C (2v)

iC(t) total charge q iL Ts / 2 DTs D'Ts t

vC(t) V v v

(change in charge) = C (change in voltage)

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Estimating capacitor voltage ripple v


The total charge q is the area of the triangle, as shown:
iL Ts / 2 DTs D'Ts t

iC(t) total charge q

q = 1 iL 2

Ts 2

Eliminate q and solve for v:

v =
vC(t) V v v

iL Ts 8C

Note: in practice, capacitor equivalent series resistance (esr) further increases v.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Inductor current ripple in two-pole filters


Example: problem 2.9
Vg
+ L1

iT
+ C1 vC1

Q1

L2

i1

i2
D1 C2 R

+ v

vL(t)

total flux linkage Ts / 2 DTs D'Ts

can use similar arguments, with = L i = inductor flux linkages


i

iL(t) I i

= inductor volt-seconds

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.6 Summary of Key Points


1. The dc component of a converter waveform is given by its average value, or the integral over one switching period, divided by the switching period. Solution of a dc-dc converter to find its dc, or steadystate, voltages and currents therefore involves averaging the waveforms. 2. The linear ripple approximation greatly simplifies the analysis. In a welldesigned converter, the switching ripples in the inductor currents and capacitor voltages are small compared to the respective dc components, and can be neglected. 3. The principle of inductor volt-second balance allows determination of the dc voltage components in any switching converter. In steady-state, the average voltage applied to an inductor must be zero.

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Summary of Chapter 2
4. The principle of capacitor charge balance allows determination of the dc components of the inductor currents in a switching converter. In steadystate, the average current applied to a capacitor must be zero. 5. By knowledge of the slopes of the inductor current and capacitor voltage waveforms, the ac switching ripple magnitudes may be computed. Inductance and capacitance values can then be chosen to obtain desired ripple magnitudes. 6. In converters containing multiple-pole filters, continuous (nonpulsating) voltages and currents are applied to one or more of the inductors or capacitors. Computation of the ac switching ripple in these elements can be done using capacitor charge and/or inductor flux-linkage arguments, without use of the small-ripple approximation. 7. Converters capable of increasing (boost), decreasing (buck), and inverting the voltage polarity (buck-boost and Cuk) have been described. Converter circuits are explored more fully in a later chapter.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
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Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis