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# Chapter 2 Principles of Steady-State Converter Analysis

2.1. Introduction 2.2. Inductor volt-second balance, capacitor charge balance, and the small ripple approximation 2.3. Boost converter example 2.4. Cuk converter example 2.5. Estimating the ripple in converters containing twopole low-pass filters 2.6. Summary of key points
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
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1

Vg
+

+
2

+ R v(t)

vs(t)

## Switch output voltage waveform

Duty cycle D: 0D1

vs(t)

## Vg DTs 0 DTs 1 2 D' Ts 0 Ts

t
1

complement D: D = 1 - D
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switch position:

vs(t)

## Fourier analysis: Dc component = average value

vs = 1 Ts
Ts

vs(t) dt
0

vs = 1 (DTsVg) = DVg Ts
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## Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Insertion of low-pass filter to remove switching harmonics and pass only dc component
L + + C R v(t)

Vg

vs(t)

v vs = DVg

Vg

0 0 1 D

a)
1

1 0.8

M(D) = D

Vg

M(D)

Buck

iL(t)
C R

+
0.6 0.4 0.2

b)

Vg

M(D)

Boost

iL(t)

4 3 2 1 0 0

1 M(D) = 1 D

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

c)
1 2

0 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

+ C R v

-1

Vg

M(D)

Buck-boost

iL(t)

-2 -3 -4 -5

M(D) = 1D D

## Objectives of this chapter

Develop techniques for easily determining output voltage of an arbitrary converter circuit Derive the principles of inductor volt-second balance and capacitor charge (amp-second) balance Introduce the key small ripple approximation Develop simple methods for selecting filter element values Illustrate via examples

q q

## Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

2.2.

Inductor volt-second balance, capacitor charge balance, and the small ripple approximation
Actual output voltage waveform, buck converter
1

iL(t)

Vg

## Actual output voltage waveform

v(t) = V + vripple(t)

v(t) V Dc component V 0

## The small ripple approximation

v(t) actual waveform v(t) = V + vripple(t)

v(t) = V + vripple(t)

V Dc component V 0 t

In a well-designed converter, the output voltage ripple is small. Hence, the waveforms can be easily determined by ignoring the ripple:
vripple << V
v(t) V

1

iL(t)

## L + vL(t) + iC(t) R v(t)

original converter

Vg

switch in position 1
iL(t) L + vL(t) Vg + C + iC(t) R v(t)

switch in position 2
L + vL(t) Vg + iL(t) C iC(t) R + v(t)

## Inductor voltage and current Subinterval 1: switch in position 1

Inductor voltage
vL = Vg v(t)
Vg + iL(t) L + vL(t) C iC(t) R + v(t)

## Small ripple approximation:

vL Vg V

Knowing the inductor voltage, we can now find the inductor current via
vL(t) = L diL(t) dt

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## Inductor voltage and current Subinterval 2: switch in position 2

Inductor voltage
vL(t) = v(t)
Vg + iL(t) L + vL(t) C + iC(t) R v(t)

## Small ripple approximation:

vL(t) V

Knowing the inductor voltage, we can again find the inductor current via
vL(t) = L diL(t) dt

## Solve for the slope:

diL(t) V L dt
The inductor current changes with an essentially constant slope

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## Inductor voltage and current waveforms

vL(t)
Vg V DTs D'Ts V switch position: 1
iL(DTs) Vg V L DTs
12

t
1
vL(t) = L diL(t) dt

iL(t)
I iL(0) 0

iL V L Ts

## Determination of inductor current ripple magnitude

iL(t)
I iL(0) 0 Vg V L

iL(DTs) V L DTs Ts

iL

## (change in iL) = (slope)(length of subinterval) Vg V DTs 2iL = L

V V iL = g DTs 2L

L=

Vg V DTs 2iL

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iL(t)

iL(Ts) iL(0)=0

iL(nTs)

iL((n+1)Ts)

nTs

(n+1)Ts

## When the converter operates in equilibrium:

iL((n + 1)Ts) = iL(nTs)

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## The principle of inductor volt-second balance: Derivation

Inductor defining relation: di (t) vL(t) = L L dt Integrate over one complete switching period:

iL(Ts) iL(0) = 1 L
Ts

Ts

vL(t) dt
0

## In periodic steady state, the net change in inductor current is zero:

0=
0

vL(t) dt

Hence, the total area (or volt-seconds) under the inductor voltage waveform is zero whenever the converter operates in steady state. An equivalent form:
1 s v (t) dt = v 0= L Ts 0 L The average inductor voltage is zero in steady state.
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T

## Inductor volt-second balance: Buck converter example

vL(t) total area t V

Vg V

DTs

=
0

Ts

## Average voltage is vL = = D(Vg V) + D'( V) Ts Equate to zero and solve for V:

0 = DVg (D + D')V = DVg V
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V = DVg

## The principle of capacitor charge balance: Derivation

Capacitor defining relation: dv (t) iC(t) = C C dt Integrate over one complete switching period:

vC(Ts) vC(0) = 1 C

Ts

iC(t) dt
0

## In periodic steady state, the net change in capacitor voltage is zero:

0= 1 Ts

Ts

iC(t) dt = iC
0

Hence, the total area (or charge) under the capacitor current waveform is zero whenever the converter operates in steady state. The average capacitor current is then zero.

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L
2

## Boost converter with ideal switch

iL(t) Vg +

+ vL(t)
1

iC(t) C R v

D1 + Q1 iC(t) C R v

iL(t) Vg +

+ vL(t) +

DTs

Ts

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## Boost converter analysis

L iL(t) + vL(t)
1 2

+ iC(t) C R v

original converter

Vg

switch in position 1

switch in position 2
L
+

iL(t) Vg +

+ vL(t)

+ iC(t) C R v

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## Inductor voltage and capacitor current

vL = Vg iC = v / R
Vg + L iL(t) + vL(t) iC(t) C R + v

## Small ripple approximation:

vL = Vg iC = V / R

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## Inductor voltage and capacitor current

vL = Vg v iC = iL v / R
Vg + L iL(t) + vL(t) + iC(t) C R v

## Small ripple approximation:

vL = Vg V iC = I V / R

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vL(t)

Vg DTs D'Ts

t
Vg V

iC(t)
DTs V/R

I V/R D'Ts

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## Inductor volt-second balance

Net volt-seconds applied to inductor over one switching period:
Ts

vL(t)

Vg DTs D'Ts

0

t
Vg V

## Equate to zero and collect terms:

Vg (D + D') V D' = 0
Solve for V:

## Vg D' The voltage conversion ratio is therefore V =

M(D) = V = 1 = 1 Vg D' 1 D
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## Conversion ratio M(D) of the boost converter

5 4

1 1 M(D) = D' = 1 D

M(D)

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Ts 0

iC(t)
DTs

I V/R D'Ts

## iC(t) dt = ( V ) DTs + (I V ) D'Ts R R

t
V/R

Collect terms and equate to zero: V (D + D') + I D' = 0 R Solve for I: I= V D' R Eliminate V to express in terms of Vg: Vg I= 2 D' R
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I (V g / R)
8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

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## Determination of inductor current ripple

Inductor current slope during subinterval 1: diL(t) vL(t) Vg = = L L dt Inductor current slope during subinterval 2: diL(t) vL(t) Vg V = = L L dt

iL(t)
I Vg L 0 DTs Vg V L Ts iL

Change in inductor current during subinterval 1 is (slope) (length of subinterval): Vg 2iL = DTs L Solve for peak ripple:

iL =

Vg DTs 2L

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## Determination of capacitor voltage ripple

Capacitor voltage slope during subinterval 1: dvC(t) iC(t) V = = C RC dt Capacitor voltage slope during subinterval 2: dvC(t) iC(t) I = = V C C RC dt

v(t)
V V RC 0 DTs I V C RC Ts v

## Change in capacitor voltage during subinterval 1 is (slope) (length of subinterval):

2v = V DTs RC
Solve for peak ripple:

v = V DTs 2RC
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Choose C such that desired voltage ripple magnitude is obtained In practice, capacitor equivalent series resistance (esr) leads to increased voltage ripple
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L1 C1 + v1
1 2

L2 i2 C2 + v2 R

Vg +

i1

L1 i1 Vg +

C1 + v1 Q1 D1

L2 i2 C2 + v2 R

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## Cuk converter circuit

with switch in positions 1 and 2

## Switch in position 1: MOSFET conducts Capacitor C1 releases energy to output

Vg +

L1 i1 + vL1 v1 +

L2 iC1 + vL2 C1

i2 + iC2 C2 v2 R

i1

L1 + vL1 iC1 + C1 v1

L2 + vL2

i2 iC2 C2 v2 R +

Vg +

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## Waveforms during subinterval 1

MOSFET conduction interval
Inductor voltages and capacitor currents:
L1 i1 + vL1 Vg + v1 + L2 iC1 + vL2 C1 i2 iC2 C2 + v2 R

vL1 = Vg vL2 = v1 v2 i C1 = i 2 v i C2 = i 2 2 R

## Small ripple approximation for subinterval 1:

vL1 = Vg vL2 = V1 V2 i C1 = I 2 V i C2 = I 2 2 R

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## Waveforms during subinterval 2

Diode conduction interval
Inductor voltages and capacitor currents:
i1 L1 + vL1 Vg + C1 iC1 + v1 L2 + vL2 i2 iC2 C2 + v2 R

vL1 = Vg v1 vL2 = v2 i C1 = i 1 v i C2 = i 2 2 R

## Small ripple approximation for subinterval 2:

vL1 = Vg V1 vL2 = V2 i C1 = I 1 V i C2 = I 2 2 R

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## Equate average values to zero

The principles of inductor volt-second and capacitor charge balance state that the average values of the periodic inductor voltage and capacitor current waveforms are zero, when the converter operates in steady state. Hence, to determine the steady-state conditions in the converter, let us sketch the inductor voltage and capacitor current waveforms, and equate their average values to zero.

Waveforms:
Inductor voltage vL1(t)
vL1(t)

## Volt-second balance on L1:

Vg DTs D'Ts t Vg V1

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## Equate average values to zero

Inductor L2 voltage
vL2(t) DTs V1 V2 V2 D'Ts t

## Average the waveforms:

Capacitor C1 current
iC1(t) DTs I2 I1 D'Ts t

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## Equate average values to zero

Capacitor current iC2(t) waveform
iC2(t) I2 V2 / R (= 0) DTs D'Ts t

i C2 = I 2

V2 =0 R

Note: during both subintervals, the capacitor current iC2 is equal to the difference between the inductor current i2 and the load current V2/R. When ripple is neglected, iC2 is constant and equal to zero.

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## Cuk converter conversion ratio M = V/Vg

D
0 0 -1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

M(D)

-2 -3 -4 -5

V2 M(D) = = D Vg 1D

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## Inductor current waveforms

Interval 1 slopes, using small ripple approximation:
i1(t) I1 i1
Vg L1 Vg V1 L1

## di 1(t) vL1(t) Vg = = L1 L1 dt di 2(t) vL2(t) V1 V2 = = L2 L2 dt

Interval 2 slopes:
di 1(t) vL1(t) Vg V1 = = L1 L1 dt di 2(t) vL2(t) V2 = = L2 L2 dt
I2 i2(t)

DTs
DTs
V1 V2 L2 V2 L2

Ts
Ts t

i2

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## Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Capacitor C1 waveform
Subinterval 1:
v1(t) V1 v1
I2 C1 I1 C1

dv1(t) i C1(t) I 2 = = C1 C1 dt
Subinterval 2:

DTs

Ts

dv1(t) i C1(t) I 1 = = C1 C1 dt

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## Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Ripple magnitudes

Analysis results

## Use dc converter solution to simplify:

VgDTs i 1 = 2L 1 V + V2 i 2 = 1 DTs 2L 2 I DT v1 = 2 s 2C 1

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## 2.5 Estimating ripple in converters containing two-pole low-pass filters

Buck converter example: Determine output voltage ripple
1

Vg

## Inductor current waveform. What is the capacitor current?

iL(t)
I iL(0) 0 Vg V L

iL(DTs) V L DTs Ts

iL

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iC(t)

## Must not neglect inductor current ripple!

If the capacitor voltage ripple is small, then essentially all of the ac component of inductor current flows through the capacitor.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics

vC(t) V v v

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## Estimating capacitor voltage ripple v

Current iC(t) is positive for half of the switching period. This positive current causes the capacitor voltage vC(t) to increase between its minimum and maximum extrema. During this time, the total charge q is deposited on the capacitor plates, where
q = C (2v)

vC(t) V v v

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## Estimating capacitor voltage ripple v

The total charge q is the area of the triangle, as shown:
iL Ts / 2 DTs D'Ts t

q = 1 iL 2

Ts 2

v =
vC(t) V v v

iL Ts 8C

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## Inductor current ripple in two-pole filters

Example: problem 2.9
Vg
+ L1

iT
+ C1 vC1

Q1

L2

i1

i2
D1 C2 R

+ v

vL(t)

## can use similar arguments, with = L i = inductor flux linkages

i

iL(t) I i

= inductor volt-seconds

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## 2.6 Summary of Key Points

1. The dc component of a converter waveform is given by its average value, or the integral over one switching period, divided by the switching period. Solution of a dc-dc converter to find its dc, or steadystate, voltages and currents therefore involves averaging the waveforms. 2. The linear ripple approximation greatly simplifies the analysis. In a welldesigned converter, the switching ripples in the inductor currents and capacitor voltages are small compared to the respective dc components, and can be neglected. 3. The principle of inductor volt-second balance allows determination of the dc voltage components in any switching converter. In steady-state, the average voltage applied to an inductor must be zero.

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## Chapter 2: Principles of steady-state converter analysis

Summary of Chapter 2
4. The principle of capacitor charge balance allows determination of the dc components of the inductor currents in a switching converter. In steadystate, the average current applied to a capacitor must be zero. 5. By knowledge of the slopes of the inductor current and capacitor voltage waveforms, the ac switching ripple magnitudes may be computed. Inductance and capacitance values can then be chosen to obtain desired ripple magnitudes. 6. In converters containing multiple-pole filters, continuous (nonpulsating) voltages and currents are applied to one or more of the inductors or capacitors. Computation of the ac switching ripple in these elements can be done using capacitor charge and/or inductor flux-linkage arguments, without use of the small-ripple approximation. 7. Converters capable of increasing (boost), decreasing (buck), and inverting the voltage polarity (buck-boost and Cuk) have been described. Converter circuits are explored more fully in a later chapter.
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