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PHILIP'S MILITARY REFORMS Philip had spent three years in his teens in Thebes as a hostage and had been

very much influenced by the great Theban general Epaminondas. He was leader of the legendary "Sacred Band", the elite corps of the Theban army and a brilliant strategist. Philip probably learned several things here: 1. The importance of an elite corps of brilliant warriors to strike where the enemy is strongest. 2. The weaknesses of a delaying, indecisive democracy, of which he took advantage later on. Philip created the first ever really professional modern army and this was his main legacy to his son. THE INFANTRY (PEZETAIROI OR FOOT COMPANIONS) Up to now the infantry had been the peasant rabble, mostly from the hilly uplands, ill-paid and ill-equipped and of low status. But now Philip formed these tribal people into a highly trained, skilled and disciplined professional force. (For details see handout on Alexander's army). THE HYPASPISTS (SHIELD-BEARERS) These were an elite infantry force drawn from all regions with especial loyalty to Philip and versatile in their skills. They could use the sarissa or the short spear or javelin depending on circumstances. There were probably about 3,000 of them. Their emblem was the Macedonian five pointed star. THE AGRIANIANS These were light-armed northern Macedonians whose main weapon was the javelin. They were used often to harass the enemy and were especially useful on rough terrain. MERCENARIES Used as little as possible, mainly hoplites and sometimes archers. They were flexible and experienced but not always reliable. THE CAVALRY COMPANIONS (HETAIROI) These were the crack troops, Macedonian nobility mostly from the lowlands of the country. But Philip did include some of the men from the hill tribes too. They used a short spear and a

sword but had no shields. They wore linen or metal cuirasses and had strips of leather protecting their thighs and greaves on their shins. They rode with no stirrups. They were used as shock troops designed to break up enemy formations, charging through and allowing the phalanx to follow on. Their two main formations were the WEDGE FORMATION and the RHOMBOID FORMATION.

2. LIGHT-ARMED CAVALRY (PRODROMOI) These were lightly armed cavalry with little or no body armour used as scouts. THESSALIANS AND THRACIANS Philip enlisted a number of cavalry from here used mainly to ward off enemy cavalry or to outflank enemy forces, also used to pursue fleeing enemy troops. Armour and weapons varied according to regional preferences. THE SIEGE ENGINEERS Philip was the first in Greece to use siege engines to capture cities. Up to now the main weapon was starvation which was very slow and often not successful. Now there was a highly trained corps of engineers who revolutionised siege warfare. According to Demosthenes "Summer and Winter are the same to him...he has no particular season for rest" (Third Philippic).