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Protection Coordination

Analyzing and proposing protection schemes and settings

At a glance

Siemens Power Technologies International (Siemens PTI), the provider of network consult- ing, software solutions and T&D training within Siemens Energy, analyzes protection systems using state-of-the-art methods to optimize op- eration and eliminate weak points. With the aid of system calculations based on national and international standards, and system and protec- tion simulations, we devise a protection system that is:

Selective,

System compliant, and

Technically and economically suited for the customer’s requirements.

The challenge

An electrical power system is intended to oper- ate in a safe manner at all times. However, no matter how well designed, faults will always occur on a power system. Faults are very spe- cial events in the life cycle of a public or indus- trial system, as they can greatly affect or re- strict operation. They may also lead to severe damages of installations and equipment, or may cause personal injuries, including death. There- fore, the arrangement of an adequate protection system is an indispensable and integral part of power system design.

an indispensable and integral part of power system design. Figure 1: Lightning stroke to overhead line

Figure 1: Lightning stroke to overhead line

Our solution

Our team comprises highly skilled experts in all aspects of system and machine protection, from converter design and equipment protection to coordination of low, medium, high and extra- high voltage protection: We can advise and offer you a comprehensive service in the wide area of power system protection.

Application Examples

From a disturbance to an optimized system

When faults occur, they must be cleared as quickly as possible in order to obtain a high level of system availability with minimum failure probability. There are a number of methods available for analyzing the causes and the be- havior of the network and the protection sys- tem:

Analysis of fault records and fault annuncia- tions from protection relays, from substation control and protection systems, and from SCADA systems

Dynamic system and protection equipment simulation

Weak point analysis and development of countermeasures

Verification of the optimized system 30,0 27,5 25,0 22,5 20,0 17,5 15,0 12,5 10,0 7,5
Verification of the optimized system
30,0
27,5
25,0
22,5
20,0
17,5
15,0
12,5
10,0
7,5
5,0
2,5
0,0
-2,5
-5,0
-7,5
-10,0
-12,5
-15,0
-40
-30
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0
10
R/Oh
d
X/Ohm(secondary)

Figure 2: Fault analysis -- Zone 1 trip of distance protec- tion on remote-end due to wrong earth-fault compensa- tion factor settings

Siemens PTI Network Consulting

From the primary system to the protection equipment

The choice of suitable current and volt- age transformers as connection links between the primary and protection systems depends on the steady-state and transient phenomena and the tech- nical requirements of the connected equipment.

Siemens PTI offers the following ser- vices:

Classification according to national and international standards

Dimensioning of instrument transform- ers to suit all common protection equipment

Dimensioning of instrument transform- ers when the specifications of the pri- mary system and protection equip- ment change.

of the pri- mary system and protection equip- ment change. Figure 3: CTDim dynamic simulation With

Figure 3: CTDim dynamic simulation

With our software program CTDim in- strument transformers can be studied and dimensioned. For more details please refer to a separate fast facts sheet from the Siemens PTI Software Solutions portfolio.

sheet from the Siemens PTI Software Solutions portfolio. Figure 4: Example of distance zone protection settings

Figure 4: Example of distance zone protection settings

From the protection equipment to a coordinated system protection

Selective system protection must take into account the system structure, the system elements, different switching conditions and supplier and customer requirements.

Siemens PTI offers the following ser- vices:

Design of protection systems

Selection of suitable relays and fuses

Relay consistent setting calculation

Coordination of all protection equip- ment.

The analysis is based on a comprehen- sive data collection in close cooperation with the customer. Thereby, the system structure, its elements and operational conditions are collected.

E E L1 L1 L1' L1' L3 L3 L2 L2 L2' L2' L3' L3' Circuit
E E
L1
L1
L1'
L1'
L3
L3
L2
L2
L2'
L2'
L3'
L3'
Circuit 1
Circuit 1
Circuit 2
Circuit 2

Figure 5: Short-circuit considerations on OHL

After data collection, instrument trans- formers are checked and / or newly di- mensioned and selected, enabling proper operation of corresponding re- lays. In parallel, an analysis of the pro- tection system concepts is carried out, considering the customer’s require- ments, habits and state-of-the-art.

Based on all these aspects the optimum protection scheme is devised which provides to the customer the technically and economically best solution. Selec- tive protection coordination and relay consistent setting calculations are then

carried out using software aided short circuit and / or system stability calcula- tions.

short circuit and / or system stability calcula- tions. Figure 6: SIGRADE grading path Figure 7:

Figure 6: SIGRADE grading path

stability calcula- tions. Figure 6: SIGRADE grading path Figure 7: SIGRADE grading diagram Published by and

Figure 7: SIGRADE grading diagram

Published by and copyright © 2009:

Siemens Energy, Inc.

For more information, please contact

Phone:

All rights reserved.

Siemens AG Energy Sector

Power Distribution, T&D Service Solutions Siemens Power Technologies International

our Customer Support Center.

Trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of Siemens AG, its affiliates,

E D SE PTI

400 State Street

Fax:

+49 180 524 70 00 +49 180 524 24 71

or their respective owners.

Freyeslebenstrasse 1 91058 Erlangen, Germany

PO Box 1058 Schenectady, NY 12301-1058

(Charges depending on provider) E-mail: support.energy@siemens.com

Subject to change without prior notice. The information in this document contains general descriptions of the technical options available,

www.siemens.com/energy/power-technologies

Siemens Transmission and Distribution Ltd PTI Sir William Siemens House, Princess Road Manchester, M20 2UR

Power Distribution Division Printed in Germany Printed on elementary chlorine-free bleached paper.

which may not apply in all cases. The required technical options should therefore be specified in the contract.

United Kingdom

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