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Purdue e-Pubs

International Compressor Engineering

Conference

School of Mechanical Engineering

1998

Modelling of Screw Compressor Capacity Control

N. Stosic

City University

A. Kovacevic

City University

I. K. Smith

City University

This document has been made available through Purdue e-Pubs, a service of the Purdue University Libraries. Please contact epubs@purdue.edu for

additional information.

Complete proceedings may be acquired in print and on CD-ROM directly from the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at https://engineering.purdue.edu/

Herrick/Events/orderlit.html

Stosic, N.; Kovacevic, A.; and Smith, I. K., "Modelling of Screw Compressor Capacity Control" (1998). International Compressor

Engineering Conference. Paper 1307.

http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec/1307

MODELLING OF SCREW COMPRESSOR CAPACITY CONTROL

Professor Nikola StosiC

Royal Academy of Engineering Chair in Positive Displacement Compressor Technology

City University, Northampton Sq. London EClV OHB, England

Ahmed Kovacevic

Faculty of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

University of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Franjevacka 2, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Professor ian K Smith

Professor of Applied Thermodynamics

City University, Northampton Sq. London EClV OHB. England

ABSTRACT

The main methods of screw compressor capacity control are shaft speed variation, suction throttling and variation

of the suction volume. These have been analysed and are compared by the use of a standard mathematical model which

has been adapted for this purpose. The analysis is based on a .screw compres.sor with 5/6 and 5/7 '' N" rotor profiles

for air and refrigeration compre.ssors. The results are compared with experimental data for variable speed of rotation

and throttling operation obtained from an air compre.ssor.

INTRODUCTION

Screw compressors are used for a variety of applications. For optimum performance from such machines,

a specific design and operating mode is needed for each application. In the case of refrigeration plant, they

are expected to operate efficiently over a wide range of loads for long periods. As was emphasized by Koelet,

1992 and Wang, 1993, capacity control is one of the most important aspects of refrigeration compressor

operation.

The analysis of the compressor behaviour under part load operation has been facilitated by recent

advances in mathematical modelling and computer simulation. By this means, the earlier approach of

process analysis and optimisation by intuitive changes, verified by tedious trial and error testing, can be

eliminated. As a result, the design of screw compressor flow control systems has substantially evolved over

the past few years and is likely to lead to further system performance improvements in the near future. The

use of such methods is reported by Pillis, 1986.

A long term research programme in positive displacement compressor technology at the Mechanical

Engineering Faculty of Sarajevo University, led to the development of a suite of subroutines for predicting

the thermodynamic processes in screw compressors which have been verified by extensive comparison with

experimental measurements. Details of this are given by Hanjalic and Stosic, 1997. Additional features have

been incorporated into this analytical model to study such effects as variable built-in volume and economizer

mode of operation on the capacity control on refrigeration systems. More information of the mathematical

modelling of these effects can be found in Jonson, 1988 and Sjoholm, 1986.

Two rotor configurations of the same main rotor size; namely a 5/6 and 5/7 of 127.5mm diameter,

as shown in Fig. 1, were considered. The 5/6 arrangement was first analysed for the design of an air

compressor which was then built and tested. Once its estimated performance was verified experimentally,

both configurations were used for a study of refrigeration compressor capacity control systems. The rotors

shown are typical members of a family of rack generated involute 'N' profiles designed for the efficient

compression of air, common refrigerants and process gases for which patents Stosic, 1996 have been granted.

The profile is defined on the rotor rack as follows: E - F is a circular arc on the rack, F - G is a straight line

for the upper involute. G - H on the rack is a trochoid generated by a small portion of the arc F

2

- H

2

on

the gate rotor, while H- A on the rack is another trochoid generated by the small portion of the arc A

1

- H

1

on the main rotor. A - B is a parabolic arc on the rack. This ensures both a large rotor displacement and a

low torque on the gate rotor. B - C is another straight line on the rack needed for the lower involute, while

C-D is a circular arc on the rack. Segment D-E is a straight line for the rotor inner/outer circles. This

607

forms a template for a variety of profiles which are a compromise between the needs for full tightness, small

blow-hole area, large displacement, short sealing lines, small confined volumes, involute rotor contact and

appropriate torque distribution, as well as high rotor mechanical rigidity. Further details of these rotors are

given by Stosic and Hanjalic, 1997.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS APPLIED FOR CAPACITY CONTROL

Mathematical Modelling

A set of equations which describe the physics of the complete set of processes in a compressor was used

here to calculate the effects of capacity control on compressor performance. It comprises the conservation

equations for energy and mass continuity, as well as the momentum equation, supported by a number of

differential or algebraic equations, to define leakage, fluid injection and other accompanying phenomena.

By using local fluid properties, supplied from separate routines, for each position in the machine, given the

rotation angle, and incorporating the local values of leakage flows, friction losses and oil-gas interaction,

the modelled equations can be integrated to evaluate all thermodynamic and fluid properties as functions

of the rotation angle. The resulting system of equations, applied over a compressor cycle with appropriate

initial and boundary conditions, is solved by means of the fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method to

include fluid suction, compression and discharge. Due to the iterative nature of the numerical procedure,

several, but usually less than four, iterations are required until the desired convergence is achieved. As a

result, the trapped mass, pressure and temperature in the working chamber are calculated as functions of

the rotation angle. These are then used in further calculations to obtain the p- V diagram, compressor fluid

and oil flow rates, turbulence and heat transfer. The results are then integrated over the cycle to estimate

overall machine performance characteristics such as power input, specific power, volumetric and adiabatic

efficiencies and hence the C.O.P ..

Compressor Measurements

A compressor with a 5/6 rotor configuration, which was designed by the authors for an air compressor

manufacturer, was used as a test vehicle for the modelling and measurement of the air compressor capacity

control. The rotors were machined by a specialist rotor manufacturer while the other components were either

machined by jig and tool manufacturers, who were not specialists in screw compressor technology, or, in the

case of bearings and seals, purchased as standard parts. A full description of this design is given by Stosic

at al, 1997.

A compressor test rig was designed and constructed at the City University Compressor Centre Labo-

ratory and certified by Lloyd's Register as fully compliant with PNEUROP /CAGI 1992, PN2 CPT C1 test

codes for bare displacement air compressors. This uses a 100 kW Diesel engine to meet both the requirements

of variable speed operation and limitations on the laboratory electricity supply and permits the testing of

liquid-flooded air compressors of up to 16 m

3

/min. High accuracy instruments were used to make direct

measurements of atmospheric, suction, discharge and flow orifice plate pressures, orifice plate pressure dif-

ference, suction, discharge, orifice plate and oil injection temperatures together with compressor rotational

speed and torque. These were then recorded and processed in a data logger. By this means two sets of

data were obtained. Measured values were used to calculate the air flow rate, power and specific power.

The oil injection rate was estimated by means of a heat balance. The test results were compared with the

mathematical model values and used to validate and tune the mathematical model.

DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

Air Compressor

Results for a typical capacity control of an oil flooded air compressor are presented. Two methods were

investigated both analytically and experimentally, namely: speed variation and suction throttling. The effect

of slide valve control, which is not typical for air compressors, was also calculated. A comparison between

experimental and calculated results for both speed variation and suction throttling is given in the form of

flow, power and specific power in Figs. 2 and 3 respectively. Fig. 4 shows the influence of inlet volume

variation on screw compressor performance. As can be seen, speed variation and slide valve motion have

608

0\

CuN on. tl<le rock

-v

Rook

E-F" L.ine

F-G Circle

G-H Ln

H-J Troc:hoicl

J-t< Tn:u:lloid

K-A Cir-cle

A-1!11 ?grcboiiCI

B-C Un

c-o crrcl

Rol.o.rs

Fig. 1: 5/6 and 6/7-127.5 mm Rack

Geneated 'N' Screw Compressor Rotors

7

c:

g 6

;:;-..

__ 5

4

0

;;:: 3

2

60

i"5o

c

.. 40

0

0.. 30

c:

201

!OJ

"5

i

6.5

!t

__ 5 bar

__ 7 bor

___ 10 bor

13 bar

7 bar

Air Inlet I bar

Air Outlet 5-13 bar

''

...

.,

' '

; I

' '

' '

/ '

. '

I

ci: 6.0

'' j ...

... ..

0 1000 2000 30 00 4 000 5000 6 000 7 0 0 0

Shall Speod (rpm)

Fig. 2: Air Compressor Performances

?

"5 6

"

!5

!t 4

.2 :3

3i

i .(0

!t

0

c.. JO -A

1

2o.j

i

::: l-

{::

6.5

!t

:6.0

;::: 5.5

o;

Ill

__ 5 bar

__ 7 bar

___ 10 bar

____ 13 bllr

Measurements 7 bar

Shafl Speed 4000 rpm

Air Ou llel 5-13 bar

\

\

4.5l

4.0 . '

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.0

Re altive lnle l Pressure

as a Function of Shaft Rotational Speed

Fig. 3: Air Compressor Performances

as a Function of Suction Throttling

?

c:

"5 6

"

!5

!t 4

0

;;:: 3

2

J::1l

20

-1

101

?

"5 6.0 1

" -

?.5 4

" <

:;: ?.0

3

t 6.51

!t ;

0 ;

6.0]

<.:: 5.5 :[

1

4.5;

j

--5 ba.r

--7 bar'

___ 10 bar

____ 1:3 bar

Air In !eL I bar

Air Oullel 5-13 bar

Shaft Speed 4000 rpm

4.0 ""1 , 1

0.0 0. J 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.? 0.8 0.9 !.0

Relative Inlel Volume

Fig. 4: Air Compressor Performances

as a Function of Inlet Volume

a similar effect, while throttling degrades the compressor performance, especially when the flow is reduced

significantly.

Refrigeration Compressor

A simple refrigeration plant was considered as a test case. The working fluid is R134A. When a

refrigeration plant operates on full load, the condenser and evaporator heat exchange surfaces will be fully

utilized. At part load, the heat transferred will be lower and hence the condensation temperature will

decrease and the evaporation temperature will increase due to the excess area of the heat transfer surfaces.

The compressor operating pressure ratio will therefore increase but since the changes in temperature are

not large, the adverse effect of this on the compressor power will be small. Three different capacity control

methods are analyzed by the mathematical modelling: speed control, throttling by means of a suction control

valve and suction volume variation by means of a compressor slide valve.

A shaft speed of 4SOO rpm and an evaporation temperature of -SC, with unthrottled suction and with

the slide valve fully open were taken as the plant base design parameters. For capacity control purposes, the

speed is varied from 1000-10000 rpm. The suction pressure throttling ratio is varied from 0, corresponding

to total valve closure, to 1, when the valve is fully open. The slide valve is positioned between zero and

full suction volume. Three additional evaporation temperatures were considered, namely: SC, -20C

and -35C. These cover the cases of home and commercial refrigeration and industrial low temperature

refrigeration. 5C superheat for compressor suction and a constant condensation temperature of 35C were

assumed for all cases. A few representative diagrams are presented in this paper while the complete set of

results is given by Kovacevic 1997.

In the case of variable speed capacity control, compressor mass flow and power are almost linear func-

tions of speed. Their departure from linearity is due to variation in the adiabatic efficiency. Volumetric and

adiabatic efficiencies only show significant change at speeds below 30% of the design value, when leakage

losses start to become significant. Thus, variable speed, where achievable, will give the compressor excel-

lent part load characteristics. Unfortunately, variable speed electric motors are still too expensive to be

widely used in refrigeration plant. Nonetheless they are steadily becoming cheaper and Fig. 5 demonstrates

refrigeration capacity and C.O.P as functions of shaft speed for four different evaporation temperatures.

Suction throttling is a convenient and effective means of capacity control. The throttle valve causes

an additional pressure drop during compressor suction. The suction valve variable position is incorporated

in the model by treating suction pressure drop as an input parameter. The suction pressure drop causes a

steep decrease in the mass flow and usually a small decrease in the compressor power. The power is not

proportional to the mass flow, because the suction pressure drop will also increase the compression pressure

ratio which increases the power. Fig. 6 gives the refrigeration capacity and C.O.P as functions of suction

throttling for three different compressor speeds. It should be noted that the power input at zero flow is

about 60% of the full flow power. Suction throttling is effective, but not an economic means of capacity

control. Continuous suction throttling can therefore be recommended only for short operating periods when

flows are not less than 70% of the design value. A preferable throttling control is therefore to operate in

the "on-off'' mode so that the compressor rotates continuously but flow through it is intermittent; especially

since this will not affect the oil flow through the compressor which is governed by the pressure difference

across it.

A simple slide valve causes the compressor built-in volume ratio to change during its operation which

introduces additional thermodynamic losses at all loads other than the design point. Fig. 7 shows refrig-

eration capacity and C.O.P. as functions of slide valve position for three different compressor speeds. An

improvement on this is to use a "variable" built-in volume slide valve which keeps the built-in volume ratio

more or less constant over the whole range of operation and hence minimises part load thermodynamic losses

but this was not considered in the analysis.

A comparison of the effects of all three types of flow control on C.O.P. plotted for one evaporation

temperature, -SC, is shown in Fig. 8. It follows from this and the other analyses considered, that the

effect of capacity control on the screw compressor working process for a single stage refrigeration cycle may

be summarized as: as:

610

0'1

......

g 6.0 3 t,,.=+35 'c 4.o 4.0

1

"' J t,..=-5 'C, t""=+35 'C l

4.0 j lvap=-5 C, lc11 n=+35 C

l

E a3.ot

f" ----------------- L l L, Jj

.

..

... 0 ...

...

...

J

,"" lup=-5

9

C1 lcon=+35 .o-C 0... 2.0

1' ...

'o 2.0 / ---- ----.-- --- ---- ----- 'o j 'o

............................................ 1.0 1 .0 l

.,, "'

0 3 ... s d ' .

1 0

.:1 ,. ---- pee Vanalwn

:::: l ' ---- Slide Valve

8

0 0

/ '"' ..

0 . 0 0 l

U 0 0 i " I " " ' < < < I U U 0 0

. o' ' ' 2000 4000 6000 BOOO 0.0 o.'o

0

.

2

0.4 o.'B o .B l.O ' O.O 0.2 0.4 0.6 O.B 1.0

o.o o.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.c

ii=

,.,.

....

u

"'

"'

u

... .,

]

J

---- t.,,=+5 'c

-5

-20

-35

"' ' u 1

__ -

blJ

;:

...

.,

.. - ... -=n -l

0 i ......

0 2000 4000 6000 BOOO

Shafl Speed {rpm)

Speed 6000 rpm

4500

3000

___________ ... - --

---- Speed 6000 rpm

--- 4500

ii= j ---- 3000 ii=

::.

300

.. 2001 ::: , Q

,./

ns "'., [0

u 100 ... ... ... .--. u

, .............. ""

'- ........ ..... -

<

1 j

0 . .. ' .

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 I. 0 0' 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.,

Relative Inlel Volume Mass Flow (kg/s)

Fig. 5: Refrigeration Capacity and COP

as a Function of Shaft Rotational Speed

Fig. 6: Refrigeration Capacity and COP

Fig. 7: Refrigeration Capacity and COP

as a Function of Inlet Volume

Fig. 8: Refrigeration Capacity and COP

as a Function of Mass Flow Controlled by

the Speed Variation, Suction Throttling,

or Slide Valve Action

as a Function of Suction Throttling

- For air conditioning or heat pump plants, when the evaporation temperature is between -5 and 5C,

the most efficient method of load control is to vary the suction volume by a simple slide valve or

its mechanical equivalent. In the case of high evaporation temperatures, this gives high refrigeration

capacities for any mass flow, together with low specific power and high volumetric and adiabatic

efficiencies.

- For industrial refrigeration plants with evaporation temperatures down to -20C, the effects obtained

with a slide valve capacity control and a speed capacity control are similar. The choice depends only

on the availability and cost of a variable speed drive.

- For low temperature refrigeration with evaporation temperatures of -350, the best results are ob-

tained by variable speed capacity control.

- Suction throttling capacity control can be used for each of these applications if the period of throttling

is not excessive and if the load is not expected to change significantly.

- The use of a number of smaller compressor units instead of a single large unit is not analysed separately

here, but if used properly, it can minimise the energy consumption because it results in the some of

the compressor units operating at close to their design point. In this case, partial load is achieved by

an on-off control for each compressor.

CONCLUSIONS

As screw compressors play an increasing role in refrigeration applications such as air conditioning,

moderate and low temperature refrigeration and heat pumps, it is necessary to analyze their capacity control

in order to use them most efficiently and cost effectively.

In general, it may be concluded that speed variation is the most efficient flow control method for all

applications. Slide valve motion which results in suction volume variation is the next most efficient flow

control method, especially for air conditioning and heat pump applications where the pressure ratios are not

excessively high. Capacity control by suction throttling, is the simplest and cheapest method and can be

used for short periods of throttling or for small load variations.

In the case of refrigeration plant fitted with an economiser, speed capacity control is still the best flow

control method. In this case, a slide valve capacity control is only efficient for small load variations. This

is highly dependent on the position of the economizer port. Suction throttling capacity control gives better

results for economizer plant than it does for a single stage refrigerating compressor system without it but it

is best applicable only for small capacity changes and short periods of throttling.

REFERENCES

Hanjalic K and Stosic N, 1997: Development and Opti-

mization of Screw Machines with a Simulation Model,

Part II: Thermodynamic Performance Simulation and

Design Optimisation, ASME Transactions, Journal of

Fluids Engineering, Vol 119, 664

Jonsson S, 1988: Performance Simulations of Twin-Screw

Compressors with Economizer, Purdue University Com-

pressor Technology Conference, West Lafayette, 884

Koelet P.C, 1992: Industrial Refrigeration, Design and

Applications, Marcel Decker Inc, New York

Kovacevic A, 1997: Analysis of the Capacity Control

Upon the Refrigeration Compressor Process, Thesis for

the degree of MSc, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herze-

govina

Pillis J.W, 1986: Advancement in Refrigeration Screw

Compressors Design, ASHRAE Transaction, Part IB,

219

O'Neill P.A, 1993: Industrial Compressors, Theory and

Equipment, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford

Sjoholm L, 1986: Variable Volume-Ratio and Capacity

Control in Twin Screw Compressors, Purdue University

Compressor Technology Conference, West Lafayette, 494

S t o ~ i c N, 1996: UK Patent Application GB 9610289.2

Stosic N., Hanjalic K., 1997: Development and Optimiza-

tion of Screw Machines with a Simulation Model, Part

I: Profile Generation, ASME Transactions, Journal of

Fluids Engineering, Vol 119, 659

Stosic N, Smith I K, Kovacevic A, Aldis C, 1997: The De-

sign of a Twin Screw Compressor Based on a New Rotor

Profile, Int. Journal of Engineering Design, Vol 8, 389

Wang S.K, 1993: Handbook of Air Conditioning andRe-

frigeration, McGraw-Hill Inc, New York

612

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