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Psychiatric Nursing

Group 3

PERSONALITY DISORDER
A personality disorder consists of inflexible and maladaptive personality traits which interfere with day-to-day functioning and may involve subjective unhappiness. There are several general criteria: Behavior that differs from cultural expectations in more than just one of the following areas: cognition, emotion, social functioning, and impulse control Problems that are spread across a broad range of situations; Significant problems in social or work life; Problems that are relatively stable and date

a.k.a Odd or Eccentric Behavior

Cluster A Personality Disorder

Types of Odd or Eccentric: Paranoid PD Schizoid PD Schizotypal PD

Signs: General features for all Cluster A personalities


Fantasy to eccentric Lonely to schizoid Distortion orDelusionto Paranoid Projective identification Projection of guilt (blame someone else)

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)


PPD is a type of psychological personality disorder characterized by an extreme level of distrust, paranoia and suspiciousness of others. Paranoid personalities are generally difficult to get along with, and their combative and distrustful nature often elicits hostility in others. The negative social interactions that result from their behavior then serve to confirm and reinforce their original pessimistic expectations.

Needless to say, those with PPD are unlikely to form many close relationships and are typically perceived as cold and

Causes
The causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, which suggests genes may be involved. However, environmental factors may play a role, as well. The condition appears to be more common in men.

Characteristics
Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her; is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates; is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her; reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events; persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults , injuries, or slights perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack; has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity or spouse or sexual partner.

Treatment
Because of reduced levels of trust, there can be challenges in treating paranoid personality disorder. However, Psychotherapy - treatment of choice. Antidepressants - used to alleviatemood disorders, such asmajor depressionanddysthymia(neurotic depression). Antipsychotics- serves as tranquilizer. Anxiolytic - is adrugused for the treatment ofanxiety, and its related psychological and physical symptoms.

Outlook (Prognosis)
The outlook usually depends on whether the person is willing to accept help. Therapy and medications can reduce paranoia and limit its impact on the person's daily functioning.