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PSYCHROMETRY
AND AIR-CONDITIONING PROCESSES
Moist Air as Mixture of Ideal Gases
Daltons law of additive pressures
Amagats law of additive volumes
Psychometric Chart
Properties of Moist Air
DBT, WBT, DPT, RH
Humidity Ratio w kg H
2
O/kg DA
Specific Enthalpy of moist air h kJ/kg DA
Specific Volume of moist air v m
3
/kg DA
Air-Conditioning Processes
Sensible heating and cooling
Cooling and dehumidifying
Heating and humidifying
Mixing of two air streams
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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T-v DIAGRAM FOR WATER VAPOUR
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.4
in an Air-Water Mixture
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 2
DALTONS LAW OF ADDITIVE PRESSURES
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 3
AMAGATS LAW OF ADDITIVE VOLUMES
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 4
RELATING p, V & T
for Ideal Gas Mixtures
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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p n
R T
V

n number of moles of mixture


R Universal Gas Constant, 8.314 kJ/kmol.K
Dalton Model
p
i
n
i
R T
V

p
i
y
i
p
p
1
j
i
p
i

=
Amagat Model
V
i
n
i
R T
p

V
i
y
i
V
V
1
j
i
V
i

=
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 5
RELATING p, V & T
Moist Air & Partial Pressures of Dry Air and Water Vapour
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Moist Air
p
n R T
V
m R M
1

( )
T
V
n number of moles of mixture
m mass of mixture, kg
M molecular weight of mixture, kg/kmol
each mixture component is considered as if it existed alone in the volume V at the
mixture temperature T while exerting part of the pressure
Partial Pressures of Dry Air and Water Vapour
p
a
n
a
R T
V
m
a
R M
a
1
( ) T
V
p
v
n
v
R T
V
m
v
R M
v
1
( ) T
V
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 6
RELATING p, V & T
Humidity Ratio and Relative Humidity
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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e
m
v
m
a
e
m
v
m
a
M
v
p
v
V R T ( )
1

M
a
p
a
V R T ( )
1

M
v
p
v

M
a
p
a

e 0.622
p
v
p p
v

where p
g
is the saturation pressure of
water at mixture temperature T
|
y
v
y
v.sat
p
v
p
g
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 7
RELATING p, V & T
Enthalpy of Moist Air, Water vapour and Dry Air
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Enthalpy of Moist Air
H H
a
H
v
+ m
a
h
a
m
v
h
v
+ kJ
H
m
a
h
a
m
v
m
a
h
v
+ h
a
e h
v
+
kJ
kg
dry.air
Enthalpy of Water Vapour in the Moist Air
Reference to steam table data or Mollier diagram for water shows that the enthalpy
of superheated water vapour at low vapour pressures is very closely given by the
saturated vapour value corresponding to the given temperature.
h
v
h
g
T ( ) an approximation
kJ
kg
water
Enthalpy of Dry Air
h
a
273.15 K
T
T c
p.a
(
(
]
d
kJ
kg
dry.air
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 8
MOIST AIR COOLED AT CONSTANT PRESSURE
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.6
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 9
DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.6
State of Water for Moist Air Cooled at Constant Mixture Pressure
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 10
ADIABATIC SATURATOR
Moran & Shapiro (2006)
(a) Schematic and (b) Process Representation
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 11
WBT MEASURING DEVICES
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.8
(a) Sling Psychrometer and (b) Aspirating Psychrometer
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 12
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.10
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 13
ME 335 Introduction to Thermal Machines Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Moran & Shapiro (2000)
LINES OF CONSTANT PROPERTY VALUE
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 15
WBT & ENTHALPY LINES
Why are they not Exactly Parallel?
Adiabatic Saturation Process
Adiabatic saturation temperature, t
as
Energy balance
Wet Bulb Temperature
Adiabatic saturation temperature, t
wb
Energy balance
What Contributes to the Deviation?
Contribution of the energy entering the adiabatic saturator with the makeup water is
normally much smaller than that of moist air
Enthalpy of entering moist air is very nearly equal to the enthalpy of the saturated
mixture exiting
This slight effect is ignored in some psychometric chart
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 16
DIRECTION OF INCREASING PROPERTY VALUES
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 17
ASHRAE SUMMER AND WINTER COMFORT CONDITION
ASHRAE Fundamentals 1997, Fig 4, pp 8.21
Air Temperature
22 to 27 C
Mean Radiant Temperature
Air temperature +10 C
Humidity
4.5 to 11 g moisture/kg
DA
Air velocity
0.1 to 0.25 m/s
Summer Design Comfort Conditions
are Higher than that in the Winter
This reduces Air Conditioning Load
and Save Energy
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 18
DEHUMIDIFICATION
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.11
(a) Equipment Schematic and (b) Representation on Psychrometric Chart
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 19
HUMIDIFICATION
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.12
Steam Injection and Water Injection
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 20
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.13
(a) Equipment Schematic and (b) Representation on Psychrometric Chart
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 21
ADIABATIC MIXING OF TWO MOIST AIR STREAMS
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.14
Equipment Schematic
Mass Balance of Dry Air
m
a3
= m
a1
+ m
a2
Mass Balance of Water Vapour
m
a3
w
3
= m
a1
w
1
+ m
a2
w
2
Energy Balance
m
a3
(h
a3
-w
3
h
g3
) = m
a1
(h
a1
-w
1
h
g1
) + m
a2
(h
a2
-w
3
h
g2
)
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 22
ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.34 1 of 2
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 23
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.34 1 of 2
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 24 of 18
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12..48
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 25
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.50 1of 2
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 26
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.50 2 of 2
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 27
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.51 1of 1
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 28
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.52 1of 2
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 29
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.52 2of 2
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 30
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.56 1of 1
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
Heat Pump Laboratory, IITB 31
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
Moran & Shapiro (2006) P 12.58 1of 1
Exploring Psychrometric Principles
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics Lecture Presented by Prof M V Rane at IIT Bombay
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