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# Instrumentation Principles and Trend

## Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

Definition
Instrumentation

is the science and technology of complete measurement systems with which physical quantities are measured so as to obtain data which can be transmitted to recording and display devices.

Industrial Instrumentation
The application of Instruments to a process for monitoring or measuring its activity to direct or control it.

Measurable Quantity
Possibility of math operation ( +, - , * , / ) Notion of ratio Notion of measure Other Quantity Unit Quantity

measure of that quantity State 1 of the Quantity State 2 of the Quantity Measure 1 Measure 2

Basic Measurands
Mechanical Quantities

Thermal Quantities Magnetic Quantities Electrical Quantities Optical Quantities Molecular Quantities

## Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

## General Instrumentation Principle

A Variable, which is to be measured, in some way affects a property of the instrument causing a change in state. This change in state must be detectable by one of the 5 senses. Measurement is dependent on the relationship of these interactions, .i.e., the physics of the system.

## Some Properties that Change in State

Change in Position Change in Shape Change in Volume Change in Concentration Change in Resistance Change in Conductance Change in Inductance Change in Capacitance Change in Potential Change in Frequency

## Some Physics Principles

Hookes Law Charles and Boyles Law Newtons Law: Force Balance Electric Field and Magnetic Field Laws Refraction and Interferometry Photo voltaic principles

Spring Balance

## Force Balance Null Method

Always Uses horizontal position (null point) to establish the weight Beam Balance

## Silicon Leg Spider Web Bolometer

LMT/GTM Instrumentation

http://www-lmt.phast.umass.edu/ins/continuum/bolometer-gallery.html

## Bolometer Active Element Sensor

LMT/GTM Instrumentation

## Schottky Diode NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio

Sensor/Transducer Measurands
Input Mechanical Output Mechanical Balance Thermal Magnetic Electric Calorimeter Magneto Elastic Resistive Inductive Capacitive Photo electric Interferometer Ultrasonic

Thermal

Magnetic

Electric

## Electromagnetic Currie Meter transducers Transformers

Polarography Photo Electric potentiometry Photo Resistive Electric field Lenses Photographic emulsions spectroscopy chemical indicators

Optic Molecular

Pyranometer Faraday Cell Laser Thermal Dye Paramagnetic Electrolytic Oxygen Cell Cell

Measurement System

Measurand - is the physical quantity to be measured Transducer -converts the physical quantity of one form of energy to another form of energy (usable form) Transmission channel - path over which the signal is conveyed Signal Processing - process of extracting the information form a signal

## Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

## Instrumentation System Elements

Transducers Modifiers Transmitters Receivers Display Record / Storage

## Block Diagram of a Measuring System

Transducer Display Recording

Modifiers

Filtering

Bourdon Gauge

## Bourdon C Gauge Anatomy

Display Output Device

Spring Force Balance Rotary Amplifier Sensor Transmission Link Rotary Converter

Ellipsometer

## Typical Sensors used in Industry

Pressure Sensors Level Sensors Flow Sensors Temperature Sensors Force, Torque, Speed Sensors Analytical Sensors

## Instrumentation Principles and Trend

Definition Principles Elements of an Instrument Trend

Trends
Silicon Technology Based Sensors Instrumentation Networks Virtual Instruments Distributed Control Systems Icon Based v.s. Script Based Programming OLE for Process Control (OPC) System on Chip (SOC)

## Instrumentation Principles and Trend Conclusion

Need Still Higher Efficiency? LOOK TO INSTRUMENTATION Continuous operation and automation - the keys to productivity in chemical process plants. Plants have had to be made not just efficient but competitive -- and not just domestically but worldwide.

Responding to the challenge, engineers have revamped plants wholesale, by replacing processing equipment by upgrading process instrumentation Newer, better instruments have become critical for higher levels of Productivity, Quantity, Quality, and Optimality to meet demands as tighter safety to meet environmental regulations.

To boost operating efficiency in process plants, manufacturers have come up with new and improved sensors, controllers, process computers, distributed controllers, data-acquisition-and-handling systems, tools for enhancing process control

## Instrumentation system facilitates process-control integration

Makes plant-wide communications possible can also reduce installation Costs

Maintenance costs.

The modular architecture allows users: to purchase the functionality just needed to address current needs, to later integrate additional hardware and software, to build up to a plant-wide management and information systems.

## Scientific Instrument Application

As A Means for study As an Object of study