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Decl.

Decl 1

3 sp.

Latin cant , - v , - tum lab r , - v , - tum numer , - v , - tum ambul , - v , - tum rog , - v , - tum dubit , - v , - tum habit , - v , - tum am , - v , - tum c r , - v , - tum adpropinqu , - v , - tum cl m , - v , - tum l tr , - v , - tum sal t , - v , - tum aedific , - v , - tum puls , - v , - tum oppugn , - v , - tum ad r , - v , - tum narr , - v , - tum laud , - v , - tum serv , - v , - tum super , - v , - tum d , ded , datum pugn , - v , - tum vit , - v , - tum vulner , - v , - tum juv , juv , -j tum voc , - v , - tum err , - v , - tum s gnific , - v , - tum tempt , - v , - tum vast , - v , - tum d m nstr , - v , - tum excit , - v , - tum acc s , - v , - tum l ber , - v , - tum appell , - v , - tum d sp r , - v , - tum par , - v , - tum port , - v , - tum n nti , - v , - tum simul , - v , - tum nat , - v , - tum p blic , - v , - tum vet , vetu , vetitum arm , - v , - tum st , stet , st tum ex stim , - v , - tum triumph , - v , - tum turb , - v , - tum j r , - v , - tum n g , - v , - tum c nfirm , - v , - tum trucid , - v , - tum c nor, c natum (dep) moror, mor tum (dep) repudi , - v , - tum abrog , - v , - tum cre , - v , - tum promulg , - v , - tum imper , - v , - tum +dat hortor, hort tum (dep) r , - v , - tum adopt , - v , - tum arbitror, - tum (dep) occup , - v , - tum ordin , - v , - tum exspect , - v , - tum sp r , - v , - tum c nj r , - v , - tum postul , - v , - tum pr b , - v , - tum pr rog , - v , - tum m ror, m r tum (dep) gr tulor, - tum (dep) +dat accipi , -c p , -ceptum cupi , cup v , cup tum capi , c p , captum d spici , -p x , -pectum faci , f c , factum fugi , f g , fugitum effugi , eff g , effugitum

Verb List English Decl. to sing Decl 2 to work to count to walk to ask to hesitate to live to love to look after to approach to yell to bark to say hi to build to hit to attack to worship to tell to praise to save to conquer to give to fight to avoid to wound to help to call to wander, err to mean to try to devestate to show to disturb to accuse Decl 3 to free to call, name to despair to prepare to carry to announce to pretend to swim to expropriate to forbid to arm to stand to reckon to parade to disturb to swear to deny to strengthen to slaughter to try to delay, wait to reject to take away to elect, create to promulgate to order to urge, exhort to plead, beg to adopt to think to occupy to put in order to await to hope to conspire to demand to (ap)prove to prolong to admire to congratulate to accept to desire to capture to despise to do to flee to escape

Latin doce , docu , doctum r de , r s , r sum r sponde , -pond , -ponsum fle , fl v , fl tum sede , s d , sessum stude , studu d be , d bu , -itum habe , habu , -itum time , timu vide , v d , v sum tace , tacu , -itum jube , juss , jussum licet, licuit, licitum + dat d le , d l v , d l tum mane , m ns , m nsum prohibe , -u , -itum obside , obs d , obsessum terre , terru , -itum invide , inv d , inv sum + dat p re , p ru , p ritum tueor, tuitum (dep) vereor, veritum (dep) auge , aux , auctum persu de , - s , - sum +dat place , placu , placitum +dat polliceor, pollicitum (dep) mone , -u , -itum c nse , c nsu , c nsum videor, v sum (dep) noce , nocu , nocitum + dat remove , rem v , rem tum retine , retinu , retentum gaude , g v sum (dep) bib , bib c d , cess , cessum c nsist , c nstit curr , cucurr , cursum d fend , -fend , -f nsum em , m , mptum p n , posu , positum vend , vendid , venditum d c , d x , dictum mitt , m s , missum cad , cecid , c sum concurr , -curr , -cursum offend , offend , off nsum surg , surr x , surr ctum trah , tr x , tr ctum ag , g , ctum vert , vert , versum l d , l s , l sum quiesc ,qui v , qui tum c nstitu , -stitu , -stit tum leg , l g , lectum d lig , d l g , d l ctum d c , d x , ductum pr mitt , pr m s , pr missum c g , co g , co ctum pell , pepul , pulsum disc d , -cess , -cessum red c , red x , reductum relinqu , rel qu , relictum d p n , -posu , -positum fall , fefell , falsum cond , condid , condtium exc d , excess , excessum occ d , occ d , occ sum vinc , v c , victum opprim , -ress , -ressum v v , v x , victum ger , gess , gestum resist , restit + dat frang , fr g , fractum d d , d did , d ditum mitt , m s , missum corrump , corr p , corr ptum cogn sc , cogn v , cognitum d sist , d stit jung , j nx , j nctum quaer , quaes v , quaes tum redd , reddid , redditum

English to teach to laugh to respond to cry to sit to be eager to have to to have to fear to watch to be quiet to order it is permitted to destroy to remain to prevent to besiege to frighten to envy to obey to defend to fear to increase to persuade to please to promise to warn to assess to seem to harm to remove to retain to rejoice to drink to move to stop to run to defend to buy to place to sell to say to send to fall to run into to crash to get up to pull to interact to turn to play to rest to decide to read to judge to lead to promise to force to push, drive to depart to restore to abandon to put down to decieve to establish to go away to kill to conquer to overpower to live to make, do to resist to break to hand over to lose to corrupt to recognize to cease to join to seek, ask to give back

Declension 1 Latin English pag na page magistra teacher f mina woman discipula student puella girl fenestra window tabula tablet, table, list sella chair j nua door familia family f lia daughter ancilla girl slave domina lady master agricola (m) farmer taberna store via road am ca friend biblioth ca library thermae baths barbara barbarian pec nia money pr vincia province dea goddess fabula story pluvia rain terra earth basilica lawcourt c ria senate house flamma flame aur ga (m) charioteer aqua water cor na crown h ra hour lect ca litter quadr ga chariot sp na middle thing tuba trumpet m ta turning points ar na arena nsula island,apartment r tia net balnea single bath camera room caup na inn ol va olive porta gate raeda carriage v lla estate virga stick, branch, rod c na banquet gl ria glory r g na queen sapientia wisdom nsidiae ambush, plot patria native city sagitta arrow contr versia controversy historia history inim ca enemy inj ria injury lingua language sp nsa fiance lupa she-wolf incola inhabitant inopia dearth, paucity c pia abundance, force causa cause vict ria victory nauta (m) sailor perfuga (m) runaway p r ta (m) pirate po ta (m) poet epistula letter ra altar mina threat v ta life libra pound praeda plunder unda wave vigilia watch (guard)

m/f/n m

No Declensio Latin l dus magister vir discipulus puer nummus liber stilus m rus numerus mar tus l ber f lius servus dominus am cus hortus ager barbarus deus locus circus equus patr nus elephantus leopardus r ti rius autumnus c seus medicus v licus annus inim cus n ntius populus sp nsus lupus fugit vus gladius libertus avus scelestus patricius pl b jus necess rius l g tus socius cibus capt vus trib nus triumphus capillus corvus modus praet rius philosophus candid tus p blic nus veter nus cultellus animus morbus ventus anulus domus (f) scr num saxum s gnum voc bulum p nsum aedificium interrog tum rn mentum v num amphithe trum gymn sium imperium fr mentum oppidum r culum

Other

interfici , -f c , -fectum to kill incipi , inc p , inceptum to begin refici , ref c , refectum to repair jaci , j c , jactum to throw abjici , abj ci, abjectum to throw down recipi , rec p , receptum to receive d fici , d f c , d fectum to desert gredior, -gressum (dep) to leave ingredior, -gressum (dep) to enter progredior, -ssum (dep) to advance tr nsgredior, -ssum (dep) to go across confici , -f c , -fectum to complete patior, passum (dep) to allow aggredior, aggressum to attack morior, mortuum (dep) to die praefici , -f c , -fectum to put in charge adfici , adf c , adfectum to treat, inflict sum, fu to be adsum, adfu to be away absum, fu to be here e , i , itum to go abe , abi , abitum to go away ine , ini , initum to go into tr nse , -i , -itum to go across ade , adi , aditum to go towards Decl 4 exe , exi , exitum to exit fer , tul , l tum to carry vol , volu to want m l , m lu to prefer n l , n lu to not wish possum, potu to be able pere , peri , peritum to die, perish rede , redi , reditum to return aufer , abstul , abl tum to steal c nfer , -tul , -l tum to gather refer , rettul , rel tum to bring back d sum, d fu to be lacking praesum, praefu + dat to command tr nsfer , -tul , -l tum to transfer f , f er , factum (dep) to be done coep , coepisse, coeptum began (past)

suequor, sec tum (dep) to pursue revertor, reversum (dep) to return d cern , d cr v , d cr tum to decree interc d , -cess , cessum to intervene exc d , exc d , exc sum to cut off pet , pet v , pet tum to request cr d , cr did , cr ditum to trust d v d , d v s , d v sum to divide profic sor, profectum (dep) to set out queror, questum (dep) to complain c nsequor, c nsec tum (dep) to overtake parc , peperc /pars , parsum to spare nanc sor,nactum (dep) to get, obtain c nsul , c nsulu , c nsultum to consult distribu , -tribu , -trib tum to distribute expell , expul , expulsum to expel intr d c , -d x , -ductum to introduce minu , minu , min tum to diminish metu , metu to fear tor, sum (dep) + abl to use d mitt , d mis , d missum to dismiss add , addid , additum to add ind c , ind x , inductum to cancel gn sc , gn v , gn tum + dat to forgive audi , - v , -itum to hear dormi , - v , -itum to sleep nesci , - v , -itum to not know p ni , - v , -itum to punish sci , - v , -itum to know veni , v n , ventum to come conveni , conv n , conventum to meet perveni , perv n , perventum to arrive at inveni , inv n , inventum to come upon impedi , - v , -itum to obstruct m ni , - v , -itum to fortify sali , salu to jump, leap aperi , aperu , apertum to reveal adorior, adortum (dep) to attack orior, ortum (dep) to rise (out) experior, expertum (dep) to prove sepeli , sepel v , sepultum to bury

barba beard coll ga colleague mora delay cat na chain c ra care, effort, worry fortuna fortune, luck sententia opinion, sentence militia military service col nia colony, settlement ra anger, wrath gr tia favour, influence summa supreme command invidia envy, unpopularity dict t ra dictatorship absentia absence alea die (dice) anima soul, spirit clementia mercy, clemency j stitia justice statua statue stella star Declension 4 arcus arch magistr tus magistrate sen tus senate manus (f) hand, band exercitus army currus chariot lacus lake apparatus equipment l ctus grief, sorrow c nsul tus consulship status status, state tribus tribe adventus arrival metus fear, dread passus pace (~5 feet) portus harbour, port Declension 5 r s thing aci s pithced battle sp s hope, expectation di s (m) day mer di s (m) noon fid s loyalty, trust Anomolum v s, v s 3rd Decl (f) acc sing - vim abl/dat - v nom - n m acc n minem gen - n llius abl - n ll dat - n min or n ll violence

forum templum horreum trium cubiculum curriculum tabl num unguentum perist lium p mum auxilium bellum c nsilium the trum incendium odium caelum f tum proelium per culum arma bracchium sc tum factum principium sculum testim nium concilium exsilium stipendium vestigium castra argentum aurum pretium t lum ven num talentum milium praesidium aer rium j dicium regnum jugerum meritum praemium ingenium auxilia

no one, nobody

Noun List English m/f/n school, games m/f teacher man student boy coin book stylus wall number husband children son slave master friend garden farm barbarian god location circus, circle horse patron elephant leopard net man fall cheese doctor steward m year enemy messenger people fianc wolf fugitive sword freedman uncle criminal patrician plebian relative legate, envoy ally food captive tribune triumph hair crow method praetorian philosopher candidate tax collector veteran knife, dagger spirit, morale disease wind ring house book case rock sign, statue word thought building question decoration wine amphitheatre gym legislative power grain town oracle Declension 3 Latin English c vis, c vis * citizen uxor, ux ris wife pater, patris father sen tor, sen t ris senator m ter, m tris mother par ns, parentis parents fr ter, fr tris brother soror, sor ris sister senex, senis elders avis, avis * bird canis, canis dog hom , hominis human fur, f ris thief r tor, r t ris speaker sacerd s,sacerd tis priest victor, vict ris winner tigris, tigris * tiger caup , caup nis innkeeper pauper, pauperis beggar hostis, hostis * enemy cust s, cust dis guard scr ptor, scr pt ris writer nf ns, nfantis * infant pr ditor, pr dit ris traitor dux, ducis general j dex, j dicis judge nser, nseris goose conditor, condit ris founder expl r tor, -t ris scout, spy pr praetor, -t ris propraetor cl mor, cl m ris noise merc tor,merc t ris merchant m les, m litis soldier p nis, p nis bread cli ns, clientis * client fl s, fl ris flower f ns, fontis * fountain pr nceps, pr ncipis emporer m ns, montis * mountain r x, r gis king c nsul, c sulis consul f nis, f nis * finish gladi tor,gladi t ris gladiator le , le nis lion mirmill ,mirmill nis fish man pollex, pollicis thumb tr d ns, tr dentis trident adul sc ns, -centis * youth m nsis, m nsis * month imper tor, -t ris general n p s, nep tis descendant labor, lab ris work amor, am ris love m s, m ris custom pastor, past ris shepherd vultur, vult ris vulture hospes, hospitis guest, host p ns, pontis* bridge eques, equitis cavalry-man pedes. peditis infantry-man c nsul ris, -is * consular d ns, dentis * tooth p s, p dis foot venter, ventris belly quaestor, quaest ris quaestor aed lis, aed lis * aedile praetor, praet ris praetor dict tor, -t ris dictator orbis, orbis * sphere, world optim t s, - tium * optimates pontifex, pontificis pontif (religious) praec , praec nis hearald, crier m j r s, m j rum ancestors juvenis, juvenis youth ord , ordinis rank, order comes, comitis companion timor, tim ris fear Thr x, Thracis Thracian honor/hon s, hon ris honor, position Ori ns, Orientis East, Orient

Adjectives and Prepositions Declension 1 & 2 Adj Declension 3 Adj Latin English Latin English malus bad omnis every, all magnus big, important qu lis? what kind of parvus small n bilis noble bellus beautiful Vest lis Vestal bonus good cr d lis cruel longus long gr vis grave, severe l tus wide brevis short novus new facilis easy altus high difficilis difficult laetus happy pl r s more (pl) maestus sad fortis brave fessus tired cer, cris fierce meus my c vilis civil multus much, many turpis disgraceful noster, -ra our m tis gentle callidus clever fer x,- cis fierce paucus few similis + dat similar (to) angustus narrow fid lis loyal inebrius drunk aud x, - cis bold sordidus dirty tr stis sad validus strong pot ns, -entis powerful r tus angry p r, paris equal n dus nude ing ns, -entis huge captus captured triumphalis triumphal c terus rest of t lis such piger lazy superior, - ris higher, former rotundus round celer, celeris fast, quick sacer, -ra sacred compl r s several mortuus dead abs ns, -entis in absentia calidus hot agrestis rural impot ns, lacking c pi sus rich entis self-control fr gidus cold aureus l gneus j cundus paratus cl rus c rus tuus vester, -ra am cus inim cus suus geminus medius f nitimus pl nus +gen sinister disertus summus fut rus praeteritus n tus v rus miser, -era stultus dexter superbus h m nus aequus in quus P nicus mus t tus m lia (n pl) octogent (pl) tr nsmar nus proximus ultimus d cent vic simus cupidus +gen obl tus +gen per tus +gen imper tus aeternus aptus (ad) integer tantus pr v tus golden wooden pleasant prepared brilliant dear your your (pl) friendly hostile his/her/its own twin admist, middle bordering full left-handed eloquent highest future past borne true, real wretched stupid right-handed arrogant human just unjust Punic lowest safe thousand 800 across the sea near final, extreme two hundred twentieth desirous, fond forgetful experienced inexperienced eternal apt, suited whole, unhurt so big, large private

Othe Latin an sed aut quoque tamen pl rumque itaque semper etet nequeneque cur? nunc brev iterum quod subit ubi? fortasse nam s hodi ibi lim qu ? autaut n mine quamquam statim ante dum + impf tenses jam saepe quand ? insati bilis insatiable deinde d plex, -plicis double pr mum inermis unarmed postr m serv lis servile n l + inf, n l te + inf Declension 1 & 2 sp. Adj antequam t tus entire, whole postquam nus one qu modo? s lus alone quamdi ? alius another heu alter, altera the other unde? llus any adh c n llus no, not any praetere Anomoly Adjectives poste du two sc amb both di Prep With Accusative h c, hinc, h c ad to, towards ill c, illinc, ill c in into, onto ubi intr inside n quidem extra outside bis per through -que post after, behind quidem praeter past, except post prope near quot tr ns across fu re circum around tant quant ante before quam celerrim inter among quia propter, ob on account of quotann s contr against alteralter sub go under h cille apud in the ___ of illeh c adversus against r sp blica super over nihil, n l citr on this side of numquam Prep With Ablative tum /ab away, by quam cr delissim cum with j sj randum d about, of atque ex outside ets pr on behalf of long sine without n ndum in in, on vae sub under velut orbis terr rum m recipi etiam pugnand

forum temple grainary family room bedroom race patio perfume peristyle apple help, aid war plan, advice theatre fire hate, hatred heaven, sky fate battle danger, risk weapons arm shield deed beginning kiss evidence meeting exile pay(ment) trace, track camp(s) silver gold price, value spear poison talent ($) thousand protection, guard treasury court, judgement kingdom, reign jugerum of land service, merit reward character reinforcements

car , carnis meat p blicus public, official pars, partis * part aeger, -ra ill, sick vestis, vestis * clothing agr rius agrarian (farm) urbs, urbis * city Gracch nus Gracchan r ti , r ti nis speech cent n hundred each virg , virginis virgin contentus content missi , missi nis mercy hirtus hairy hiems, hiemis winter horridus rough, uncouth n vis, n vis * ship inqui tus restless im g , im ginis ghost pl rusque most, mostly nox, noctis * night sanctus austere, holy mors, mortis * death j dic rius judiciary tempest s, -t tis storm j stus just regi , regi nis region pr scus former, old fam s, famis famine egregius oustanding c vit s, c vitatis citizenship s c rus doing no harm arx, arcis * citadel d gnus + abl deserving nix, nivis snow indignus + abl undeserving p x, p cis peace gr tus popular sal s, sal tis safety st pend rius tribute paying virt s, virt tis courage cr n tus long haired pl bs, pl bis pleb caed s, caedis * massacre obses, obsidis siege condici , condici nis condition g ns, gentis * clan, nation cl d s, cl dis * defeat qui s, qui tis rest servit s, servit tis slavery volunt s, volunt tis goodwill aet s, aet tis age v r s, v rium * resources, might diss nsi , -si nis strife facti , facti nis factio, faction l x, legis law, statute quaesti , -i nis judicial inquiry l bert s, l bert tis liberty multit d , multit dinis crowd legi , legi nis legion pr scr pti , -i nis proscription cr x, cr cis cross loc ti , loc ti nis contract moder ti , -i nis moderation n bilit s, n bilitatis nobility n fl men, fl minis river n men, n minis name os, ossis bone vulnus, vulneris wound iter, itineris journey tempus,temporis time v r, v ris spring carmen,carminis poem, story scelus, sceleris crime caput, capitis head j s, j ris right, law cogn men, -nominis cognomen corpus, corporis body s, ris mouth pondus, ponderis pound, weight foedus, foederis agreement pl s, pl ris more f nus, f neris funeral, death decus, decoris glory, adornment n sp. animal,anim lis * animal mare, maris * sea * genitive plural ends with ium

interim usque (number) + gint (number) + cent (number) + gent pugn tur tam novus hom pr c nsule cunctand paul tim quam qu nqui ns pr m simul ter tot fer , ferm l t nisi tamquam ut pollicend injuss r rsus fr str simul atque / ac vocand paene tertium, quartum, etc obvium quoniam f s (neuter, indecl) interdum intere septi ns, septi s enim igitur satis (indecl pn/adv) cum + subj dum + perfect tense cogn sc in perfect autem

Phrases English or in questions but or also however mostly therefore always bothand neithernor why? now soon again because suddenly where perhaps for if today there once, only to where eitheror named although immediately previously, in the past while already often when? next, then first finally don't (verb) (neg. imp) before after how? (for) how long? alas from where? still besides afterwards thus for a while in, from, to this place in, from, to that place afterwards not even twice and even, indeed afterwards all who they were as as asap because how many years, yearly the onethe other the latterthe former the formerthe latter the republic none never then, at that time as cruelly as possible oath and although (by) far not yet woe like, just as the world to withdraw also, even of fighting Latin ad dextram ad sinistram decem ann s arma capi id quod m vert R mam X ann s n tus currum ag ux rem duc bellum ger vestem ger domum m d d trib nus pl bis h c tibi d est m ll puer duo milia puer rum tibi auxilium fer sum auxili tibi e auxili tibi t time tibi time (d ) bell d sist pugn re d sist ab urbe condit pl s cib Caesare consulibus sum praesidi tibi veni praesidi tibi patr s c nscr pt optim t s tibi hanc rem abrog h c mihi pl cet injuss popul R m n pec niam t pet ab t pet ut h c faci s m s m j rum capite census c nsul + dat tibi obviam + e , veni t exercitu praefici m lle pass s per culum est satis fr ment t hon re adfici te cl de adfici stella cr n ta ad R mam quam pr mum English to the right to the left for ten years I take up arms that which I turn myself to Rome (no ad) 10 years old I drive a chariot I marry I wage war I wear clothing to the house (no ad) I surrender the tribune of the plebs you lack this 1 000 boys 2 000 boys I bring help to you I am of help to you I go to help you I fear you I fear for you I cease form war I stop fighting from the founding of the city more food in the consulship of Caeser I am a protection for you I come to protect you gentlemen of the senate leading faction in the senate I take this from you this pleases me, I like this without Romans' permission I ask you for money I ask you to do this way of ancestors, tradition a man without property to take thought for I go, come to meet you I put you in charge of the army one mile (1000 paces) there is danger enough (of) grain I treat you with honour I inflict a defeat on you comet in / to the vicinity of as soon as possible

meanwhile continuously tens hundreds hundreds there is fighting so, such first consul in a family as proconsul by delaying gradually, little by little than 5 times, for the 5th time at first at the same time three times so many almost wide (adverb) unless, ifnot asas in order that, to, (so) that by promising without the authorization again (3rd, 4th, etc time) in vain as soon as by calling almost for the 3rd, 4th, etc time in the way, to meet (adv) because, since divine law sometimes meanwhile 7 times, for the 7th time for (postpositive) therefore (postpositive) enough, sufficient while, after, because until sci in imperfect tenses however (postpositive)

Pres Inf re re ere ere re Esse re Ferre Velle N lle M lle Posse re re ere ere re re Ferre re re ere ere re Esse re Ferre re re ere ere re Esse re Ferre Velle N lle M lle Posse re re ere ere re re Ferre re re ere ere re Esse re Ferre Velle N lle M lle Posse re re ere ere re re Ferre re re ere ere re Esse re Ferre Velle N lle M lle Posse re re ere ere re re Ferre -re Esse Posse Velle N lle

Ego e i i sum e fer vol nol m l possum or eor or ior ior feror

Tu s s is is s es s fers vs n nvs m vs potes ris ris eris eris ris fereris

Imperative

e e es fer b s b s b s i b s i b s er s b s fer b s vol b s n l b s m l b s poter s b ris b ris b ris i b ris i b ris b ris fer b ris bis bis s i s i s eris bis fer s vol s n l s m l s poteris beris beris ris i ris i ris beris fer ris s e s s i s i s ss e s fer s vel s n ls m ls poss s ris e ris ris i ris i ris e ris fer ris r s ess s poss s vell s N ll s

bam bam bam i bam i bam eram bam fer bam vol bam n l bam m l bam poteram bar bar bar i bar i bar bar fer bar b b am iam iam er b feram volam n lam m lam poter bor bor ar iar iar bor ferar em eam am iam iam sim eam feram velim n lim m lim possim er ear ar iar iar ear ferar rem essem possem vellem N llem

Imperfect Is/Ea/Id N s at mus et mus it imus it imus it mus est sumus it mus fert ferimus vult volumus n n vult n lumus m vult m lumus potest possumus tur mur tur mur itur imur itur imur tur mur itur fertur ferimur et mus eat e mus at mus iat i mus iat i mus sit s mus eat e mus ferat fer mus bat b mus bat b mus bat b mus i bat i b mus i bat i b mus erat er mus bat b mus fer bat fer b mus vol bat vol b mus n l bat n l b mus m l bat m l b mus poterat poter mus batur b mur batur b mur batur b mur i batur i b mur i batur i b mur batur b mur fer batur fer b mur bit bimus bit bimus et mus iet i mus iet i mus erit erimus bit bimus feret fer mus volet vol mus n let n l mus m let m l mus poterit poterimus bitur bimur bitur bimur tur mur i tur i mur i tur i mur bitur bimur fer tur fer mur et eat at iat iat sit eat ferat velit n lit m lit possit tur e tur tur i tur i tur e tur fer tur ret esset posset vellet N llet mus e mus mus i mus i mus s mus e mus fer mus vel mus n l mus m l mus poss mus mur e mur mur i mur i mur e mur fer mur r mus ess mus poss mus vell mus N ll mus

V s tis tis itis itis tis estis tis fertis vultis n n vultis m vultis potestis min min imin imin min ferimin te te ite ite te este te ferte b tis b tis b tis i b tis i b tis er tis b tis fer b tis vol b tis n l b tis m l b tis poter tis b min b min b min i b min i b min b min fer b min bitis bitis tis i tis i tis eritis bitis fer tis vol tis n l tis m l tis poteritis bimin bimin min i min i min bimin fer min tis e tis tis i tis i tis s tis e tis fer tis vel tis n l tis m l tis poss tis min e min min i min i min e min fer min r tis ess tis poss tis vell tis N ll tis

E /Eae/Ea ant ent unt iunt iunt sunt eunt ferunt volunt n lunt m lunt possunt antur entur untur iuntur iuntur euntur * feruntur ent eant ant ian iant sint eant ferant bant bant bant i bant i bant erant bant fer bant vol bant n l bant m l bant poterant bantur bantur bantur i bantur i bantur bantur * fer bantur bunt bunt ent ient ient erunt bunt ferent volent n lent m lent poterunt buntur buntur entur ientur ientur buntur * ferentur ent eant ant iant iant sint eant ferant velint n lint m lint possint entur eantur antur iantur iantur eantur ferantur rent essent possent vellent N llent

Present Pass/Dep

N s V s E /Eae/Ea ist it imus istis runt eram er s erat er mus er tis erant er eris erit erimus eritis erint Perfect Active uses the 3rd part of the verb with different endings Present us sum a es um est sumus ae estis a sunt Past us eram a er s um erat er mus ae er tis a erant us er a eris um erit erimus ae eritis a erunt Future Perfect Passive/Deponent uses 4th part w/ subject agreement & auxiliary Present erim eris erit erimus eritis erint Past issem iss s isset iss mus iss tis issent Subjunctive Perfect Active uses 3rd part of the verb root with endings Present us sim ass um sit s mus ae s tis a sint Past us essem a ess s um esset ess mus ae ess tis a essent Subj Perf Pass/Dep uses 4th part w/ subject agreement & subj auxilliary

Pas/Dep Sub Act Pass/Dep Ind Active

Indicative Present Active

Tense Present Past Future

Ego

Tu

Perfect Is/Ea/Id

Indicative Past Active

Imperf. Present Participle Inf Participle re ns, antis ns, entis re ns, entis ere i ns, ientis ere i ns, ientis re i ns, euntis re vol ns, volentis Velle n l ns, n lentis N lle m l ns, m lentis M lle Ferre fer ns, ferentis x ing Eng. Perf. Passive Participle Same as 4th principle part (having been) x ed Eng. Future Participle Same as 4th principle part with rus at the end ex. veni = vent rus going to x Eng.

Past Pass/Dep

Present Active Past Active Future Active & Future Dep Pres Pass/Dep Past Pass/Dep Future Passive

Indicative Future Active

Infinitives usual infinitive 3rd part root + isse 4th part root + rum esse declines based on subject posse = posse esse = fore (m)orior = (m)orit rum esse 1 - r ; 2 - r ; 3,3 sp. - ; 4 - r re = r ferre = ferr 4th part + esse (declines) 4th part + r (no declining)

Engli to x to have

to be goin

to be x

to have be to be xed

bj Past Active Present Pass/Dep

Subjunctive Present Active

Future Pass/Dep

M lle M llem M ll s M llet M ll mus -re rer r ris r tur r mur re rer r ris r tur r mur Ferre ferrer ferr ris ferr tur ferr mur *Usually found in 3rd person compound words Examples: exeuntur tr ns b tur in buntur

M ll tis r min r min ferr min

M llent rentur rentur ferrentur

Pas/Dep S

Deponents use passive forms, but are translated in active voice

x x ed x

xed x ed

CASE sing nom pl nom sing acc pl acc sing gen pl gen sing abl pl abl sing dat pl dat sing voc pl voc Additions

NOUN ADJECTIVES Decl.1 Decl. 2 Decl. 3 Decl.4 Decl.5 1 / 2 sp 3 pos 3 comp a us/er um - - - us s us/a/um is e ior ius s ia i r s i ra ae a s a ia s s /ae/a am um um em - - um em um/am em e i rem ius s ia i r s i ra s s a s a ia s s s/ s/a ae is s e us is i ris rum rum um/ium uum rum / rum ium i rum e e / i re s s ibus ibus bus s ibus i ribus ae u e i r s s ibus ibus bus s ibus i ribus -us is -e, -ius is - . All else same as nominative Always remains the same as nominative

impf pp ns nt s/ntia ntem/ns nt s/ntia ntis ntium nt /e ntibus nt ntibus

I ego n s m n s me nostr m n bis mihi n bis

PRONOUNS he she it t is ea id v s e eae ea t eum eam id v s e s e s ea tu jus jus jus vestr e rum e rum e rum t e e e v bis e s es es tibi e e e v bis e s es es t v s abl + cum + dem = "the same" = "with x " -mdam --> ndam you

This, He, She, It masc fem neut hc haec h c h hae haec hunc hanc hoc h s h s haec h jus h jus h jus h rum h rum h rum h c h c h c hs hs hs huic huic huic hs hs hs

That, He, She, It masc fem neut ille illa illud ill illae illa illum illam illud ill s ill s illa ill us ill us ill us ill rum ill rum ill rum ill ill ill ill s ill s ill s ill ill ill ill s ill s ill s

Who, What, Which masc fem neut qu quae quod qu quae quae quem quam quod qu s qu s quae c jus c jus c jus qu rum qu rum qu rum qu qu qu quibus quibus quibus cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus

Him/Her/It -self masc fem neut ipse ipsa ipsum ips ipsae ipsa ipsum ipsam ipsum ips s ips s ipsa ips us ips us ips us ips rum ips rum ips rum ips ips ips ips s ips s ips s ips ips ips ips s ips s ips s

-self

Who? quis qu quem qu s c jus qu rum qu quibus cui quibus

What quid quae quid quae

s s s su su s s sibi sibi

+ dam = certain, some -mdam becomes ndam

abl + cum = w/ whom?

ADJECTIVES type

ADVERBS

positive comparitive superlative


Notes

normal -ior issimus

-r -er er/ra ris er/era er/eris rior erior errimus errimus

-lis lis lior llimus

bonus melior optimus

malus p jor pessimus

Anomolies magnus m jor maximus

parva minor minimus

multus pl s/pl r s pl rimus

normal -entis -x, -cis -lis bonus malus parvus magnus / /iter er cter le bene mal paulum magnopere ius Always the neuter comparative adj form magis minus issim Always the superlative adjective with - as the ending

for a while di di tius di tissim

often saepe saepius saepissim

the -lis adjectives only include facilis, difficilis, similis, and dissimilis. All ofther adjectives ending with -lis are normal (ex. crudelis = crudelissimus)

Dat Possession Double Dative Latin Example mihi est liber tibi auxili e Parts of Speech dat to be nom dat dat verb English I have a book I go as your help Notes Neither of these can be in passive voice. All other constructions can.

Ablative Absolute Accusative - Infinitive / Indirect Speech Indirect Command agr s vast t s ubi agr vastate sunt "Puer," inquit po ta, "puellam timet" Po ta dicit puerum puellam tim re hom perfug s inquit, "domum red te" hom rat ut perfugae domum redeant = abl past part abl conj subj past passive nom subj quotes verb subj acc obj verb = subj head verb acc subj acc obj inf verb subj dat obj quotes verb acc obj imperative = subj order verb conj nom subj acc obj subjunctive once, when, after the lands were devastated The poet says, "The boy fears the girl" The poet says that the boy fears the girl. The man says to the runaways, "return home" The man begs the runaways to return home This construction is always translated in the Latin: The pronoun "s " is used to refer to the speaker. Used with command verbs, but neither jube nor vet , which use the accusative-infinitive construction The verb "n g " is used as the head verb when the verb in quotes was negative. "n " is the conjunctive used instead of "ut" in negative command clauses passive voice Follow sequences based on verb in quotes, using present/past/future infinitives If first clause is in past tense, command clause is in past imperfect subjunctive (secondary sequence) English: If the head verb is in present tense, use primary sequence. If it is in past, use 2ary. Voice Sequence head verb tense present past future present/future present aorist future primary is x ing x ed will x says that example Active past imperfect pluperfect conditional secondary was x ing had x ed would x said that example present/future present aorist future primary is being x ed was x ed will be x ed says that example Passive secondary past imperfect pluperfect conditional said that was being x ed had been x ed would be x ed example

Purpose Clause Fear Clause bellum faci quia vol agr s vincere bellum faci ut agr s vincam sper puer s puell s n n turb re time n puer puell s turbent obj verb 1 conj verb 2 obj inf verb = first clause conj acc obj subjunctive acc-inf construct w/ hope verb & n n = fear verb conj subj obj subj I wage war since I want to conquer lands I wage war to conquer lands I hope that boys do not disturb girls I fear lest the boys disturb the girls "ut agr s vincam" is the purpose clause n is always the conjunctive used, and is translated as lest "n " is the conjunctive used instead of "ut" in negative purpose clauses If there is no"n n" in original, "n " and "n n" are needed in fear clause If first clause is past tense, purpose clause is past imperfect (i.e. 2ary sequence) sper & n n more used than neg "I fear lest" is negative, therefore "n " If relinqu , mitt , or d lig are in first clause, use qui, quae, quod instead of ut Many different ways of expressing fear, including "there is fear" (no fear verb) English: alternate purpose clauses: Follow an order of sequences for verb tenses, using subjunctives in order to conquer lands For translations of tenses, refer to accusative-infinitive constructions so that I may conquer lands Sequence fear verb tense present/future past present/future present aorist primary in order that I may past imperfect pluperfect secondary conquer lands