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The Proceedings

of the
7th European Conference
on e-Learning

Grecian Bay Hotel, Agia Napa,


Cyprus

6-7 November 2008

Edited by

Dr Dan Remenyi
Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Copyright The Authors, 2008. All Rights Reserved.

No reproduction, copy or transmission may be made without written


permission from the individual authors.

Papers have been double-blind peer reviewed before final submission to the
conference. Initially, paper abstracts were read and selected by the
conference panel for submission as possible papers for the conference.

Many thanks to the reviewers who helped ensure the quality of the full
papers.

Further copies of this book and previous year’s proceedings can be


purchased from http://academic-conferences.org/2-proceedings.htm

ISBN: 978-1-906638-22-1 Book

Published by Academic Publishing Limited


Reading
UK
44-118-972-4148
www.academic-publishing.org
ECEL 2008

Contents
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Preface xvi
Biographies of Conference Chairs, xix
Programme Chair, Keynote Speaker and
Mini-track Chairs
Biographies of contributing authors xx
BOOK 1
An Ontological Model for Learning Content Giovanni Adorni, Mauro Coccoli, 1
Design Gianni Vercelli and Giuliano Vivanet
University of Genoa, Italy
e-Accessibility of Higher Education Liaqat Ali1, Hamid Jahankhani2 and 8
Websites Hossein Jahankhani1
1
University of East London, UK
2
Middlesex University, London, UK
Artificial Intelligence Tools for Student Paulo Almeida1, Paulo Novais2, 17
Learning Assessment in Professional Eduardo Costa1, Manuel
Schools Rodrigues3 and José Neves2
1
Centro de Formação Profissional
da Indústria de Calçado, São João
da Madeira, Portugal
2
Universidade do Minho, Braga,
Portugal
3
Escola Secundária Martins
Sarmento, Guimarães, Portugal
Letters from the Field: e-Learning Students Annika Andersson 29
Change of Learning Behaviour in Sri Lanka Swedish Business School, Örebro,
and Bangladesh Sweden
Learner’s Support in the Concept map Alla Anohina and Janis 38
Based Knowledge Assessment System Grundspenkis
Riga Technical University, Latvia
e-Pioneering: A Mentoring Approach to Elaine Arici 46
Institutional Technology Adoption University of Nottingham, UK
Prediction of Reading Performance Using Elena Aristodemou1, Tatjana 58
the MAPS (Mental Attributes Profiling Taraszow1, Yiannis Laouris1,
System) Multimodal Interactive ICT Timotheos Papadopoulos2 and
Application Pantelis Makris3
1
Cyprus Neuroscience and
Technology Institute, Nicosia,
Cyprus
2
University of Cyprus, Nicosia,
Cyprus
3
Ministry of Education, Nicosia,
Cyprus
The Skillsoft Growth Model Lelia Ataliani 65
Infotrend Innovations Co. Ltd,
Nicosia, Cyprus
PebblePAD: Big Splashes or Mini Ripples? Darren Awang 73
Reflections on Electronic Portfolio Usage Coventry University, UK
on a Blended Learning Course

i
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Patterns of ICT use in Australian Schools Frank Bate and Dorit Maor 82
by Beginning Teachers: The three Rs Murdoch University, Australia
Using e-Learning Tools to Build a Martin Belgrove, Julia Griffin and 90
Community of Distance Learners: A Brian Makepeace
Progress Review and Call for Collaboration University of East London, UK
Learning to hit the Ground Running – The Adriana Beylefeld and Alwyn Hugo 97
Online Way University of the Free State,
Bloemfontein, South Africa
Evolution of the Roles of the Actors in the Delphine Billouard and Laïd Bouzidi 106
Context of the Implementation of an Université Lyon 3, France
"Environnement Numérique de Travail" in a
University
Mobile City and Language Guides - New Mads Bo-Kristensen¹, Niels Ole 113
Links Between Formal and Informal Ankerstjerne¹, Chresteria Neutzsky-
Learning Environments Wulff² and Herluf Schelde³
¹Resource Centre for Integration,
Vejle, Denmark
²University of Aarhus, Denmark
³Lærdansk, Aarhus, Denmark
Some Factors to Consider When Designing Paul Bouchard 120
Semi-Autonomous Learning Environments Concordia University, Montreal,
Canada
Integrating Web 2.0 Features into a Salim Boulakfouf and Denis 127
Learning Management System Zampunieris
University of Luxembourg, Grand-
Duchy of Luxembourg
“Here Comes Trouble”: A Positive Stephen Bowman 134
Architecture of Disruptive Education Ravensbourne College of Design
and Communication, Chislehurst,
UK
Two-fold Learning: Learning by Developing Cristina Bralia1 and Nadia 139
and Learning By Playing Catenazzi2
1
ICT Tosi, Busto Arsizio, Italy
2
Università degli Studi dell'Insubria,
Varese, Italy
i-learn – Complete Online Delivery for Arts Maggie Carr 147
and Crafts: A Case Study Gorseinon College, Wales, UK
Sowing the Seeds of Learner Autonomy: Fiona Carroll, Rita Kop and Clare 152
Transforming the VLE into a Third Place Woodward
Through the use of Web 2.0 Tools Swansea University, UK
From Hype to Reality: E-Portfolios in Maggie Carson and Anne 160
Nursing Robertson
University of Edinburgh, Scotland,
UK
e-Learning and e-Citizenship Between Antonio Cartelli 169
PKM and PST University of Cassino, Italy
Syllabus Flexibility and Adaptation to the Montserrat Casalprim Ramonet, 178
new European Higher Education Area Virginia Larraz Rada, Miquel
Through the Inclusion of e-Learning Nicolau Vila, Betlem Sabrià
Bernadó and Alexandra Saz
Peñamaría
University of Andorra, Sant Julià de
Lòria, Principality of Andorra

ii
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Game Inspired Tool Support for e-Learning Marie-Thérèse Charles, David 188
Processes Bustard and Michaela Black
University of Ulster, Coleraine,
Northern Ireland
Unified Course Design for European Sami Chatti1, Erman Tekkaya1, Ove 198
Production Engineers Bayard2 and Mihai Nicolescu2
1
Technische Universität Dortmund,
Germany
2
Royal Institute of Technology KTH,
Stockholm, Sweden
Web-Based Learning Using a `Library of Carol Clark and Christine Stevens 203
Activities’ to Assist and Support Students UWE, Bristol, UK
and Mentors
Enhancing the Student Experience Using June Clarke, Jayne Hunter and 208
Web 2.0 Technologies (Wikis, Blogs and Marc Wells
Webcam Recordings) to Encourage Sheffield Hallam University,
Student Engagement and to Develop England, UK
Collaborative Learning: a Case Study
The net Generation’s Engagement With June Clarke and Marc Wells 213
and Expectations of Web 2.0 Technologies Sheffield Hallam University, UK
During HE Studies - Case Studies at
Undergraduate Level in the Faculty of
Organisation and Management
Making Technology Work for you: Why June Clarke and Marc Wells 224
Might Academic Staff Want to Engage With Sheffield Hallam University, UK
and Promote e-Learning? A Case Study
Computer vs. Textbook: Effects on Cathérine Conradty and Franz 231
Motivation and Gain in Knowledge Bogner
University of Bayreuth, Germany
Web 2.0 tools in pre-Service Teacher Clara Pereira Coutinho 239
Education Programs: An Example From Universidade do Minho, Braga,
Portugal Portugal
Exploring a Professional Social Network Paul Coyne1, Anthony, Basiel2 and 246
Environment for Learning and Pauline Armsby2
1
Development Emerald Group Publishing Limited,
Bingley, UK
2
Middlesex University, London, UK
A Best Practice Approach to the Maja Ćukušić1, Andrina Granić1, 253
Enhancement of the Learning Experience Charles Mifsud2 and Marjes
Zammit2
1
University of Split, Croatia
2
University of Malta, Msida, Malta
Distance Reflective Learning in Lithuanian Valentina Dagiene 264
Young Programmers School Institute of Mathematics and
Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania
A Typology for Web 2.0 Christian Dalsgaard and Elsebeth 272
Korsgaard Sorensen
University of Aarhus, Aarhus,
Denmark

iii
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Web Based Interactive Models for Science Valentas Daniūnas, Vygintas 280
Education and Collaboration Gontis, Artūras Acus, Vytautas
Fokas and Gintaras Valiauga
Institute of Theoretical Physics and
Astronomy of Vilnius University,
Lithuania
Bringing Digital Multimedia in Mathematics Ioannis Deliyiannis1, Andreas 290
Education Floros1, Panayiotis Vlamos 1
Michael Arvanitis2 and Tsiridou
Tania1
1
Ionian University, Corfu, Greece
2
Euroscience Greek Regional
Section, Athens Greece
e-Learning as an Opportunity for Virtual Jana Dlouhá and Laura 297
Mobility and Competence Development Macháčková Henderson
Within European Universities Charles University Environment
Center, Prague, Czech Republic
Web 2.0-Mediated Competence – Implicit Nina Bonderup Dohn 308
Educational Demands on Learners University of Southern Denmark,
Kolding, Denmark
The COSMOS Approach for Teaching Nikolaos Doulamis1, Christodoulos 316
Science: An Architecture That Combines Psaltis1, Andreas Georgopoulos1,
IEEE LOM Compatible Content With Multi- Menelaos Sotiriou2 Sofoklis
Lingual Science Educational Vocabularies Sotiriou3 and Ioannis Doxaras2
1
and Rights National Technical University of
Athens, Greece
2
I-Know-How, Athens, Greece
3
Research and Development
Department, Ellinogermaniki Agogi,
Greece
Providing for Autonomous Hands-on Sean Duignan1 and Tony Hall2 326
1
Learning and Learner Mobility Using Virtual Galway-Mayo Institute of
Computer Technologies Technology, Ireland
2
National University of Ireland,
Galway, Ireland
Information Seeking for Lifelong Learning: Barry Eaglestone, Nigel Ford, 334
One Size Doesn’t fit all Andrew Madden and Martin Whittle
The University of Sheffield,
England, UK
Developing Knowledge Together: Involving Laraine Epstein, Gill Ward, and 342
People With Disabilities in Education Using Darren Awang
Webcam Coventry University, UK
Enhancing Business Support to SME's Lorna Everall1, 2, Robert Sanders2 346
Through Continuous Work-Based e- and Canice Hamill3
1
Learning for Business Advisory Coventry University, UK
2
Professionals European Business Innovation
Centre Network, Brussels, Belgium
3
Canice Consulting, County Antrim,
Northern Ireland
Web 2.0: Engaging Those with Learning Sotiris Fanou 354
Disabilities University of the West of England,
Bristol, UK
Youngsters and Industrial Literacy: Why Cláudia Fernandes and Luís Rocha 361
the m-Learning Approach? CATIM, Porto, Portugal

iv
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Business Students’ Perceptions of Nadine Fry and Nia Love 371
Computer-Assisted Learning and Bristol Business School, Bristol, UK
Simulations
Smart e-NoteBook: An Adaptive Shehab Gamalel-Din and Farida 379
Hypermedia Learning Material AL-Saad
Management Environment King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia
Smart Assistant for Adaptive Course Shehab Gamalel-Din and Reem Al- 390
Preparation and Delivery in e-Learning Otaibi
Environments King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia
Feedback Services for Exercise Assistants Alex Gerdes1, Bastiaan Heeren1, 402
Johan Jeuring1, 2 and Sylvia
Stuurman1
1
Open Universiteit Nederland,
Heerlen, The Netherlands
2
Universiteit Utrecht, The
Netherlands
Developing the Capacities of Public Juvy Lizette Gervacio 411
Servants Through e-Learning: Profile and University of the Philippines Open
Interactive Experiences of Public University, Philippines
Management Students
To Podcast or not to Podcast? Students’ Hendrik Geyer, Adriana Beylefeld 419
Feedback on a Different Learning and Alwyn Hugo
Experience in Histology University of the Free State,
Bloemfontein, South Africa
ELDO: An Ontology for the Cataloguing of Marcello Giacomantonio 425
e-Learning Design CERTE Omniacom, Argenta, Italy
Student Vision Regarding an Ideal e-Tutor Maria Goga1 and Nicolae Goga2 435
in Romania 1University of Bucharest, Romania
2
University of Groningen, The
Netherlands
The Role of Meta-Cognition in web Genevieve Gorrell, Andrew 443
Searching to Support Inquiry-Based Madden, Peter Holdridge, Nigel
Learning Ford, Barry Eaglestone
Sheffield University, UK
E-mbedding E-nhancing E-valuating - Susan Graves, Julie Bostock and 451
Students' Perspective on the use of e- Ruth Wilson
Learning to Develop Study/Information Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK
Literacy Skills
Identity Crisis: Who is Teaching Whom Susan Greener 460
Online? University of Brighton Business
School, England, UK
e-Learning and Web 2.0 in the Humanities Brigitte Grote, Harriet Hoffmann and 468
– Development, Testing and Evaluation of Jeelka Reinhardt
Didactic Models Beyond the Distribution of Center for Digital Systems, Freie
Online-Material Universität Berlin, Germany
Use of Internet Resources to Improve Mathias Hatakka 477
Education Delivery - A Case Study in Swedish Business School at Örebro
Bangladesh University, Sweden

v
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
1
Use of International Internet Discussion Elaine Haycock-Stuart , Bobbe Ann 484
Boards to Promote Health and Technology Gray2 and Donna Curry2
1
Knowledge and Skills in Nursing Education The University of Edinburgh,
Scotland, UK
2
Wright State University College of
Nursing and Health, Dayton, Ohio,
USA
Developing Information Literacy Skills by Nina Heinze and Jan-Mathis 492
Using e-Learning Environments in Higher Schnurr
Education Institute for Media und Educational
Technology, Augsburg, Germany
A new Open Source web Statistical Tool Claude Houssemand1, Pierre 499
Valois2, Belkacem Abdous2 and
Stéphane Germain2
1
Université du Luxembourg,
Luxenbourg
2
Université Laval, Québec, Canada
The Teaching Buddy: Speech and Juan Huerta1 and Despina 505
Language Technologies for Assisting and Stylianou2
1
Assessing Instructional Practice IBM T.J Watson Research Center,
New York, USA
2
The City College of The City
University of New York, New York,
USA
Listening to the Learners’ Voices in HE- Ruth Hyde and Amanda Jefferies 516
How do Students Reflect on Their use of STROLL, University of
Technology for Learning? Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
Humanistic Approach to Technology Marko Ivanišin 524
Domination in Technology Enhanced University of Maribor, Slovenia
Learning
The Development of Formal and Informal Jean Johnson and Jonny Dyer 531
Learning Online Through Online Inclusion Trust, Bishops Stortford,
Communities of Practice and Social UK
Networking
A Learning Metronome! An Experience in Richard Jones 538
Vodcasting Buckinghamshire New University,
High Wycombe, UK
Implementing Nationwide e-Learning Radu Jugureanu¹, Olimpius Istrate² 550
Projects - A Guarantee of a Better Future and Ilinca Georgescu¹
¹SIVECO Romania, Bucharest,
Romania
²University of Bucharest, Romania
e-Learning Strategies in Technical Part- Andrea Kelz 557
Time Studies – Constructivist and University of Applied Sciences
Collaborative Approaches to Learning and Burgenland, Campus Pinkafeld,
Teaching Austria
Redesigning the Moodle Interface for use Alexandros Kofteros1, Avraam 564
in Primary Schools With a Ratio of one Triantafillidis2, Antonis Skellas2 and
Computer per Student Anna Krassa3
1
Apoplous Learning, Nicosia,
Cyprus
2
Kalyvia Primary School, Athens,
Greece
3
University of Macedonia,
Τhessaloniki, Greece

vi
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Introducing Adaptivity to e-Lessons to Zivana Komlenov, Zoran Budimac 571
Enhance Student Learning and Mirjana Ivanovic
Faculty of Science, Novi Sad,
Serbia
Design of an e-Learning System for Eugenia Kovatcheva and Roumen BOOK 2
Accreditation of non-Formal Learning Nikolov 1
University of Sofia, Bulgaria
A User Interface for Simultaneous Matthias Krauß 8
Moderation of e-Discussions Fraunhofer Gesellschaft IAIS, Sankt
Augustin, Germany
Kansei Colour Aesthetics in an Interactive Tharangie Kumburuhena, 15
Learning Environment Chandrajith Ashuboda Marasinghe
and Koichi Yamada
Nagaoka university of Technology,
Niigata, Japan
Learning Objects and Virtual Learning Eugenijus Kurilovas and Valentina 24
Environments Technical Evaluation Tools Dagiene
Institute of Mathematics and
Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania
The Teaching and Learning of Marianna Kyprianou 34
Pronunciation in the Language Classroom University of Cyprus, Nicosia,
and the use of Modern Technology Cyprus
Promises, Challenges, and Realities of a Eleni Kyza 44
Design-based Approach to e-Portfolios Cyprus University of Technology,
Limassol, Cyprus
Knowledge Ticket System – A Knowledge Steffi Lämmle, Stefan Klink, Florian 54
Broker for Universities Bernstein, Sabine Rathmayer and
Max Walter
Technische Universität München,
Munich, Germany
Handling Large Classes Using Computer Elizabeth Laws and Gordon Laws 64
Aided Assessment in Blackboard University of Salford, UK
Learner Profile Supports Interaction Duc-Long Le1, An-Te Nguyen2, 70
Between Objects in e-Learning System Dinh-Thuc Nguyen2 and Axel
Hunger3
1
University of Pedagogy, HCM city,
Vietnam
2
University of Natural Sciences,
HCM city, Vietnam
3
University of Duisburg-Essen,
Germany
Enhancing Design Pedagogy Through e- Keelin Leahy and William Gaughran 80
Learning Strategies University of Limerick, Ireland
Integration of e-Learning Systems With José Paulo Leal1 and Ricardo 91
Repositories of Learning Objects Queirós2
1
University of Porto, Portugal
2
Polytechnic Institute of Porto,
Portugal
The Enhancement of Reusability of Course Virginija Limanauskiene and 99
Content and Scenarios in Unified e- Vytautas Stuikys
Learning Environment for Schools Kaunas University of technology,
Lithuania

vii
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Automatic Student Coaching and Isabelle Linden, Hubert Toussaint, 109
Monitoring Thanks to AUTOMATON. The Andreas Classen and Pierre-Yves
Case of Writing a Compiler Schobbens
University of Namur, Belgium
Integrating the in-Classroom use of Mobile Tim Linsey, Andreas Panayiotidis 119
Technologies Within a blended Learning and Ann Ooms
Model Kingston University, UK
e-Accounting at the University of Vienna – Michaela Schaffhauser-Linzatti, 123
Developing Applicable e-Learning Tools for Silvia Pernsteiner, Regina
Large-Scale Accounting Classes Michalski-Karl and Isabella
Hinterleitner
University of Vienna, Austria
What is Your Response? It’s Time to get Jenny Lorimer and Alan Hilliard 128
Personal University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield,
UK
Strategies for Embedding eLearning in Kay Mac Keogh and Seamus Fox 135
Traditional Universities: Drivers and Dublin City University, Ireland
Barriers
Teaching Internet Search Skills: Some Andrew Madden, Barry Eaglestone, 142
Evidence-Based Lessons Nigel Ford, Genevieve Gorrell and
Martin Whittle
University of Sheffield, Sheffield,
UK
e-Learning in Greece: Application in the Eleonora Ioulia Malama, Fotini 148
Area of e-Marketing Patsioura, Vicky Manthou and Maro
Vlachopoulou
University of Macedonia,
Thessaloniki, Greece
Using a Blended-Learning Approach to Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris1, 155
Support Parent Education in Math and Efstathios Mavrotheris2 and Efi
Science Paparistodemou1
1
European University Cyprus,
Nicosia, Cyprus
2
Open University of Cyprus,
Nicosia, Cyprus
Web-Based Discussion as a Supervision Sari Mettiäinen and Kristiina 161
Method in Nursing Students’ Clinical Vähämaa
Training Pirkanmaa University of Applied
Sciences, Tampere, Finland
Learning English Through Game-Based Bente Meyer 169
Design – Reflections on Performance and University of Aarhus, Denmark
Teacher/Learner Roles
Applying Internet-Based tele-operation Ionnis Michaelides and Polyvios 178
Technologies to Remote Engineering Eleftheriou
Experimentation in Solar Energy Cyprus University of Technology,
Engineering Lemesos, Cyprus
e-Learning: Strengths and Weaknesses George Mouzakitis 188
Pros and Cons in a Global Education and Educational Organization E-DEKA,
Training Methodology Korinthos, Greece
Conversion and Delivery of Courses via a Ezra Mugisa and Carl Beckford 197
Course Management System University of the West Indies,
Jamaica, West Indies

viii
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
The Challenges in the Secondary School e- Nikolina Nikolova, Atanas Georgiev 205
Learning Process and George Gachev
Sofia University, Bulgaria
Evaluating the Impact of Video-Based Panagiota Nikopoulou-Smyrni and 214
Versus Traditional Lectures on Student Christos Nikopoulos
Learning Brunel University, West London, UK
Demand Led e-learning to Support Small Shamima Nooruddin and John 222
Businesses Heap
Grimsby Institute of Further and
Higher Education, Grimsby, UK
Education in your Face(Book)! Annette Odell, Peter Nevin and 231
Hedley Roberts
The University of East London, UK
Case Study – Using a Wiki to Teach Timothy Olson 240
Information Decision Science University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, USA
Introducing a Model for Creative e-Learning Tanja Oraviita¹ and Satu 247
Pedagogy - Case Craftopolis Lautamäki²
¹University of Art and Design,
University of Vaasa, Finland
²University of Applied Sciences,
Vaasa, Finland
The Use of e-Learning in Adult Learning: A Yiola Papadopoulou1, Elena 255
Comparative Study Between Six European Aristodemou2 and Yiannis Laouris2
1
Countries Cyprus University of Technology,
Nicosia, Cyprus
2
Cyprus Neuroscience and
Technology Institute, Nicosia,
Cyprus
Supporting Teachers’ Pedagogical and Efi Paparistodemou1, Maria 264
Content Knowledge of Statistics through Meletiou-Mavrotheris1 and
Distance Learning Efstathios Mavrotheris2
1
European University Cyprus,
Nicosia, Cyprus
2
Open University of Cyprus,
Nicosia, Cyprus
Specifying and Analyzing Strategies using Harrie Passier 270
Petri Nets Open Universiteit Nederland,
Heerlen, The Netherlands
An Empirical Investigation of User Andriani Piki1, Guido Kuehn2, Mirja 281
Experience in e-Learning Environments Lievonen1, Duska Rosenberg1 and
Ralf Doerner3
1
Royal Holloway, University of
London, UK
2
Electronic Arts GmbH, Cologne,
Germany
3
Wiesbaden University of Applied
Sciences, Germany

ix
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
The “Living Museums” project Alfredo Pina1, Lore Huizi1, Jon 289
Legarrea1, Jose Miguel Correa2,
Lorea Fernández2, Alex Ibañez2,
Estibaliz Jiménez de Aberasturi2,
Margari León2, Elia Fernández2,
Luis Gutierrez2, Sandra
Baldassarri3, Eva Cerezo3 and
Pablo Orensanz 3
1
Public University of Navarra,
Pamplona, Spain
2
University of the Basque Country,
San Sebastian, Spain
3
University of Zaragoza, Spain
DZEMUj: A Tool for Mining in e-Learning Luboš Popelínský, Mária Briatková 299
Tests. Description and Experience and Zdeněk Kedaj
Masaryk University, Brno, Czech
Republic
Who Supports the Support Workers? e- Christopher Power, Helen Petrie, 304
Learning for Support Workers of Students David Swallow and Monia Sannia
With Disabilities University of York, UK
School Transfer from Primary to Secondary Iacovos Psaltis 313
Education Middlesex University Institute of
Work Based Learning, Nicosia,
Cyprus
Enhancing English Language Learning Stella Psaroudaki and Anne McKay 322
Through ICT Technical University of Crete,
Chania, Greece
Blended Learning in Teaching Operating Lucyna Pyzik 330
Systems University of Information
Technology and Management,
Rzeszow, Poland
IT Competence Perfection Applying the Janina Radvilaviciute 337
Applying Distance Teaching System Vilnius Gediminas Technical
University, Lithuania
Effective e-Learning Tricks or Strategies in Prakash Ranganathan 342
Online and Hybrid Courses University of North Dakota, Grand
Forks, USA
Practically-Oriented e-Learning Quality Jeelka Reinhardt and Marc Heinitz 352
Assurance. Empirical Findings and Making Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany
use of These for the Promotion of e-
Learning Quality in Everyday University
Teaching
Information Literate Through Blended Inge Reubzaet and Frans van Hoek 360
Learning CINOP, Hertogenbosch, The
Netherlands
Developing a Screen-Capture Reusable Julian Robinson 366
Learning Object for Undergraduates University College Birmingham, UK
Learners’ Preferences on Visual Elements Rishi Ruttun1 and Sabah Khalid2 376
1
in Web-Based Instruction: An Individual Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK
2
Approach Queen Mary School of Medicine,
London, UK

x
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Experts on e-Learning: Insights Gained Malcolm Ryan, Wendy Cealey 386
From Listening to the Student Voice! Harrison and Rita Headington
University of Greenwich, London,
UK
Enhancing Blended Learning – Developing Thomas Ryberg1, Elke Brenstein2, 394
a Community Based Methopedia Lehti Pilt3, Rafal Moczadlo4,
Christian Niemczik2 and Lone
Dirckinck-Holmfeld1
1
Aalborg University, Denmark
2
University of Applied Sciences,
Wildau, Germany
3
University of Tartu, Estonia
4
Maria Curie-Sklodowska
University, Lublin, Poland
Automatic Verbalization of Mathematical Teresa Sancho-Vinuesa1, César 405
Formulae for web-Based Learning Córcoles1, Antònia Huertas1, Antoni
Resources Pérez-Navarro1, Daniel Marquès2
and Joana Villalonga2
1
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya,
Barcelona, Spain
2
Maths for More, Barcelona, Spain
e-Learning Network for Language Training Tom Savu1 and Judit Vitai2 415
1
Politehnica University, Bucharest,
Romania
2
Supra Vita Language School,
Eger, Hungary
Tagging Electronic Resources for Modules Guy Saward and Lynette Pye 422
– A Case Study in Web 2.0 People and University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield,
Technology UK
Learning-by-Doing Gender Dominique Schirmer1, Peter 431
Bruestle2, Dominik Haubner2,
Matthias Holthaus1, Bernd
Remmele1, Britta Schinzel1
1
Center for Applied Further
Education Research Lahr, Germany
2
University Freiburg Germany
Understanding the Experience of non Kathy Seddon1, Keith 436
Contributory Online Participants (Readers) Postlethwaite2 and Geoff Lee
1
in NCSL Communities NCSL, Nottingham, UK
2
Exeter University, UK

Modelling of Qualitative Technology Based Maija Sedleniece and Sarma 446


e-learning Course Development Cakula
Vidzeme University College,
Valmiera, Latvia
Structural Steel Design e-Learning Portal Miguel Serrano1, Carlos López- 454
Colina1, Sue Armstrong2, Jörg
Lange3 and Fernando González3
1
University of Oviedo, Gijón, Spain
2
University of Sheffield, UK
3
Fachgebiet Stahlbau T. U.
Darmstadt, Germany
Motivations and Perceived Usefulness of Munacinga Simatele 460
Technology in Higher Education University Of Hertfordshire, Hatfield,
UK

xi
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
1
Improving the Matching Process of e- David Simmonds and Anne Marie 469
Mentoring in Luxury Hotels Zammit Lupi2
1
University of Westminster, London,
UK
2
Starwood Hotels and Resorts,
London, UK
e-Academy for International Development Cees Smit Sibinga1 and Ron de 479
of Transfusion Medicine – A Unique Gunst2
1
Institution Academic Institute IDTM,
Groningen, the Netherlands
2
Exencia Ltd, Gouda, the
Netherlands
Blended Learning in Action Lorenzo Sommaruga1 and Kylene 485
De Angelis2
1
University of Applied Sciences of
Southern Switzerland, Manno,
Switzerland
2
Training 2000, Mondavio, Italy
e-Learning and Digital Dialogue – From Elsebeth Korsgaard Sorensen and 491
Speech Acts to Collaborative Knowledge Bo Fibiger
Building University of Aarhus, Denmark
e-Portfolio in Primary School: Children’s Laura Spinsanti1 and Elisabetta 499
Self-Awareness Through Digital Tools Bertini2
1
ISTI CNR, Pisa, Italy
2
University of Pisa, Italy
The art of Learning in a Virtual World: Ioana Andreea Stănescu and 511
Sculpting Zeros and Ones Antoniu Ştefan
Advanced Technology Systems,
Targoviste, Romania
The Development of Models for Identifying Mark Stansfield1, Thomas 520
and Promoting Best Practice in e-Learning Connolly1, Antonio Cartelli2,
and Virtual Campuses Athanassios Jimoyiannis3, Hugo
Magalhães4 and Katherine Maillet5
1
School of Computing University of
the West of Scotland, UK
2
University of Cassino, Italy
3
University of Peloponnese, Greece
4
Sociedade Portuguesa de
Inovação, Portugal
5
Institut National des
Telecommunications, France
Teaching the Content “Globalization” Christopher Stehr 530
Evaluation of an Established e-Learning University of Ulm, Germany
Course
“But surely it’s harmless?” Developing a Terry Mark Stewart and Mark 540
Multimedia Ethical Misadventure for web Brown
Delivery Massey University, Palmerston
North, New Zealand
Ontology Based Cross-Sectorial and Socio- Dragan Stokic and Ljubiša Urošević 549
Cultural Transfer of Proven e-Learning Institute for Applied Systems
Solutions Technology, Bremen, Germany
Employing Web 2.0 Tools to Enhance Vasso Stylianou and Angelika 555
Active Learning in Courses Requiring Kokkinaki
Group Projects University of Nicosia, Cyprus

xii
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
Cooperation Models for National e- Ene Tammeoru, Jüri Lõssenko, 562
Learning Development in Estonia (Example Kerli Kusnets and Marit Dremljuga
of the Estonian e-Learning Development Estonian e-Learning Development
Centre) Centre; Tallinn; Estonia
How much Personal and Sensitive Tatjana Taraszow, Aysu Arsoy, 871
Information do Cypriot Teenagers Reveal Georgina Shitta, and Yiannis
in Facebook? Laouris
Cyprus Neuroscience and
Technology Institute, Nicosia,
Cyprus
Enhancing e-Learning Environments with Nikos Tsianos1, Panagiotis 877
Users’ Cognitive Factors: The Case of Germanakos1, 2, Zacharias Lekkas1,
EKPAIDEION Constantinos Mourlas1, Mario Belk2,
Eleni Christodoulou2, George
Spanoudis2 and George Samaras2
1
National and Kapodistrian
University of Athens, Athens, Hellas
2
University of Cyprus, Nicosia,
Cyprus
A Research Study About “e-Learning Nazime Tuncay and Hüseyin 590
Training Needs” of Vocational High School Uzunboylu
Teachers in North Cyprus Near East University, Nicosia, North
Cyprus
Blended Learning as a Means to Michaela Tureckiová1, Jaroslav 599
Differentiate and Optimise Corporate Veteška2 and Alena Vališová1
1
Training Charles University, Prague, Czech
Republic
2
Jan Amos Komensky University,
Prague, Czech Republic
Content Development within a European e- Aimilia Tzanavari1, Elena 607
Learning Project: Guidelines, Results and Papanastasiou1 and George
Reflections Papadopoulos2
1
University of Nicosia, Cyprus
2
University of Cyprus, Nicosia,
Cyprus
Content and Intense Cooperation, not Henri Verhaaren 616
Technology, are Essential for Quality Ghent University, Belgium
Outcomes in e-Learning
e-Learning in a Course on Animal Welfare Morris Villarroel 623
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
Spain
How can a Blind Engineer Access the Sue Walmsley and Jennifer Bottom 630
Curriculum? University of Reading, UK
Adoption of Web 2.0 Technologies in Rod Ward, Pam Moule and Lesley 636
Education for Health Professionals in the Lockyer
UK: Where are we and why? University of the West of England,
Bristol, UK
WELL: Web-Based Learner Library for e- Hadas Weinberger 643
Learning 2.0 Holon Institute of Technology,
ISRAEL
How Reproducible Research Leads to non- Patrick Wessa 651
Rote Learning Within a Socially K.U.Leuven Association, Belgium
Constructivist e-Learning Environment
Narratives of Student Experience Roy Williams 659
University of Portsmouth, UK

xiii
Paper Title Author(s) Page No.
The Implications of SCORM Conformance Gabrielle Witthaus 667
for Workplace e-Learning New Leaf Training Network Ltd,
Paphos, Cyprus
Assessment of the Growth of Knowledge in Andras Benedek Abstract
Collaborative Learning Networks Information Technology Learning Only
Center for Culture of Application of
Microelectronics and Institute for
Philosophical Research, Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, Budapest,
Hungary

xiv
Preface 
The 7th European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL 2008, hosted by the University of
Cyprus once again demonstrates the interest in this important subject. More than a
hundred and fifty papers have been chose for presentation from nearly three
hundred submissions. As usual the papers range across a very wide spectrum of
issues, all of which are pertinent to the successful use of e-Learning applications. It
is clear that the role being played by e-Learning in the pedagogical process is
considerable and that there is still ample scope for further development in this area.
One might says that in this field of study we have only just begun to realise its
potential and we are still scratching the surface.

The range of researchers from various universities and institutions in different


countries is impressive. It is clear from the research being done all over the world
that the role which e-Learning plays today and may play in the future is truly global.
The really important outcome of this global reach is that research and new ideas
may easily be shared among both the academic community and those practitioners
in other organisations who wish to be informed of the most recent thinking in the
field.

ECEL 2008 promises to be a special event and the University of Cyprus have
arranged for this conference to be held at Agia Napa which is one of the many
outstanding locations in Cyprus. I look forward to exchanging ideas with you there.

Dr Dan Remenyi
Trinity College Dublin
Ireland 

 
Conference Executive:
Dr Joan Ballantine, Queen’s University Belfast, UK
Dr Ann Brown, CASS Business School, London, UK
Dr Mike Hart, University of Winchester, UK
Roz Graham, University of Winchester, UK
Misha Hebel, CASS Business School, London, UK
Dr Pam Moule, University of West England, UK
Professor Julian Newman, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
Dr Rikke Orngreen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Dr George Papadopoulos, University of Cyprus, Cyprus
Professor Dan Remenyi, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Professor Chris Turner, University of Winchester, UK
Karin Tweddell Levinsen, Danish University of Education, Denmark
Dr Roy Williams, University of Portsmouth, UK,

Conference Committee:
The conference programme committee consists of key people in the e-learning community around the world.
The following people have confirmed their participation:

Ariffin Abdul Mutalib (University Utara Malaysia); Shafqat Ali (University of Western Sydney, Australia);
Abdallah Al-Zoubi (Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Jordan); Jane Ardus (Stevenson College,
Edinburgh, UK); Mohamed Arteimi (7th of April University, Tripoli, Libya); William Ashraf (University of
Sussex, UK); Anders Avdic (Orebro University, Sweden); Simon Bachelor (Gamos, Reading, UK); Joan
Ballantine (Queen's University Belfast, UK); Trevor Barker (University of Hertfordshire, UK); Orlando Belo
(University of Minho Campus de Gualtar, Portugal); David Benito (Public University of Navarre, Pamplona
Spain); Yongmei Bentley (University of Luton, UK); Daniel Biella (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany);
Radu Bilba (George Bacovia University, Romania); Eric Bodger (University of Winchester, UK); Stephen
Bowman (Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication, UK); Willem-Paul Brinkman (Delft University
of Technology Netherlands); Ann Brown (CASS Business School, London UK); Norrie Brown (Napier
University, UK); Mark Brown (Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand); Joan Burgess (University
of Winchester, UK); Elizabeth Campbell-Page (Equinexus LLC, Washington, DC, USA); Jose-Raul Canay Pazos
(Universidade de Santiago de Compestela, Spain); Giuseppe Cannavina (University of Sheffield, UK); Sven
Carlsson (Lund University, Sweden); James Carr (University of Newcastle, UK); Maggie Carson (Edinburgh
University, UK); Antonio Cartelli (University of Cassino, Italy); Maria Celentano (University of Lecce, Italy);
Satyadhyan Chickerur Sona College of Technology, Salem, India); Barbara Class (University of Geneva,
Switzerland); Lynn Clouder (Coventry University, UK); Thomas Connolly (University of West of Scotland,
UK); Ken Currie (Edinburgh University, UK); Valentina Dagiene (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics,
Vilnius, Lithuania); Christopher Douce Institute of Educational Technology, Walton Hall, UK); Yanqing Duan
(University of Luton, UK); Colin Egan (University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK); Bulent Gursel Emiroglu
(Başkent Üniversitesi,Turkey); Ariwa Ezendu (London Metropolitan University, UK);Bekim Fetaji (South East
European University, Tetovo, Macedonia); Andrea Flora, (Ionian University, Corfu, Greece); Tim Friesner
(University College, Chichester, UK); Martin Graff University of Glamorgan, UK); Roz Graham (University of
Winchester, UK); David Guralnick (Kaleidoscope Learning, New York, USA); Richard Hall (De Monfort
University, Leicester, UK); Martin Harrison (Loughborough University, UK); Mike Hart (University of
Winchester, UK); Patricia Harvey (Greenwich University, London, UK); Paul Haslam (University of
Winchester, UK); Misha Hebel (Dogwhistle Ltd, London and Cass Business School, UK); Alan Hilliard
(University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK) Uwe Hoppe (Bildungswerk der Sächsischen Wirtschaft, Germany);
Cathy Horricks (University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand); Stefan Hrastinski (Uppsala University,
Sweden); Akbar Ali Jaffar Ali (Majan College, University College, Muscat, Oman); Amanda Jefferies
(University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK); Noraini Jones (University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, UK);
Paul Jones (University of Glamorgan, UK); Michail Kalogiannakis (School of Pegadogical and Technicological
Education, Crete); Jana Kapounova (University of Ostrava, Czech Republic); Harald Kjellin (Stockholm
University, Sweden); Jasna Kuljis (Brunel University, UK); Sunaina Kumar (Indira Gandhi National Open
University, New Delhi, India); Eleni Kyza (Cyprus University of Technology, Lemesos, Cyprus); Maria
Lambrou (University of the Aegean Business School, Greece); Andy Lapham (Thames Valley University, UK);
Mona Laroussi (Institut National des Sciences, Appliquées et de la Technologie, Tnis and Lille, Tunisia); Fotis
Lazarinis (Applied Informatics in Management and Finance, Greece); Denise Leahy (Trinity College, Dublin,

xvi
Ireland); Kate Lennon (Glasgow Caledonian University, UK); Karin Levinsen (Danish University of Education,
Denmark); Mariana Lilley (University of Hertfordshire, UK); Henrik Linderoth (Umeå School of Buinsess and
Economics, Sweden); Jorgen Lindh (Jonkoping International Business School, Sweden); Lorna Lines (Brunel
University, UK); Ying Liu (Cambridge University, UK); Sam Lubbe (University of South Africa); Francis
Maietta (Real Thinking Company, UK); Christina Mainka (University of Napier, Edinburgh, UK); Chittaranjan
Mandal (School of IT, Kharagpur, India); Stan Marek (Napier University, Edinburgh, UK); Augostino Marengo
(University of Bari, Italy); Sephanos Mavromoustakos (Cyprus College); Erika Mechlova (University of
Ostrava, Czech Republic); Jaroslava Mikulecka (University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic); Peter
Mikulecky (University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic); Mike Mimirinis (Middlesex University, London, UK);
Ali Moeini (University of Tehran, Iran); Peter Monthienvichienchai (Insitute of Education, London, UK); Suzie
Moon (Henley Management College, UK); Pam Moule (University of the West of England, Bristol, UK);
Radouane Mrabet (ENSIA, Morocco); Mirjan Nadrljanski (Universtiy of Novi Sad, Sombor, Serbia); Minoru
Nakayama (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan); Julian Newman (Glasgow Caledonian University, UK);
Abel Nyamapfene, (University of Exeter, United Kingdom); Sinead O’Neill (Waterford Institute of Technology,
Ireland); Rikke Orngreen (Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark); Kutluk Ozguven (Dogus
University, Turkey); Ecaterina Pacurar Giacomini (Louis Pasteur University, France); George Papadopoulos
(University of Cyprus); Stefanie Panke (Knowledge Media Research Center, Tuebingen, Germany); Vivien
Paraskevi (University of Geneva, Switzerland); Paul Peachey University of Glamorgan, UK); Arna Peretz (Ben
Gurion Univeristy of the Negev, Omer, Israel); Christine Perry (University of the West of England, Bristol,
UK); Pit Pichappan (Annamalai University, India); Selwyn Piramuthu (University of Florida, Gainesville,
USA); Michel Plaisent (University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada); Muhammad Abdul Qadir (Mohammad Ali
Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan); Susannah Quinsee (City University, London, UK); Liana Razmerita
(Copenhagen Business School, Denmark); Christopher Reade (Kingston University, UK); Vivien Rolfe (De
Monfort University, Leicester, UK); David Rush (University of Winchester, UK); Florin Salajan (University of
Toronto, Canada); Gilly Salmon (University of Leicester, UK); David Sammon (Univesity College Cork,
Ireland); Venkat Sastry (Defence College of Management and Technology, Cranfield University, UK); Brian
Sayer (University of London, UK); Jeanne schreurs (Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium); Jane Secker
(London School of Economics, UK); Aileen Sibbald (Napier University, Edinburgh, UK); Petia Sice (University
of Northumbria, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK); Gurmeet Singh (The University of The South Pacific, Suva , Fiji);
Keith Smyth (Napier University, Edinburgh, UK); Bent Soelberg (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark);
Yeong-Tae Song (Towson University, Maryland, USA); Michael Sonntag (FIM, Johannes Kepler University,
Linz, Austria); Rumen Stainov (University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, Germany); John Stav (Sor-Trondelag
University College, Norway); Chris Stokes (University of Sheffield, UK); Roxana Taddei (Université Clermont
Ferrand 2, Montpellier, France); Yana Tainsh (University of Greenwich, UK); Heiman Tali (The Open
University, Israel); Bénédicte Talon (Université du Littoral, France); Bryan Temple (Glasgow Caledonian
University, UK); John Thompson (Buffalo State College, USA); Claudine Toffolon (University of Lemans,
France); Saba Khalil Toor (Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan); Chris Turner (University of
Winchester, UK); Aimilia Tzanavari (University of Nicosia, Cyprus); Huseyin Uzunboylu (Near East University,
Cyprus); Linda Van Ryneveld (Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa); Carlos Vaz de
Carvalho (Porto Polytechnic, Portugal); Andreas Veglis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece); Bruno
Warin (Université du Littoral, Calais, France); Fahad Waseem (University of Northumbria, Middlesbrough,
UK); Garry Watkins (University of Central Lancashire, UK); Mike Webb (Big World, UK); Peter Westerkamp
(University of Muenster, Germany); Nicola Whitton (Manchester Metropolitan University, UK); Pauline Wilcox
(University of Manchester, UK); Roy Williams (University of Portsmouth, UK); Shirley Williams (University of
Reading, UK); Panagiotis Zaharias (University of the Aegean, Greece); Peter Zentel (Knowledge Media
Research Center, Germany); Chris Zielinski (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland); Anna Zoakou
(Ellinogermaniki Agogi, Greece)

xvii
Biographies of Conference Chairs, Programme Chair and
Keynote Speaker
Conference Chair

Dr George Papadopoulos (Ph.D.) holds the (tenured) rank of Professor in the


Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus. Professor
Papadopoulos' research interests include component-based systems, mobile
computing, multimedia systems, open and distance learning, parallel
programming and high performance computing, GRID technologies,
cooperative information systems and service oriented computing. He has
published more than 100 papers as book chapters or in internationally refereed
journals and conferences. Furthermore, he serves in the Editorial Board of 5
international journals and has served as a Co-Chairman, Steering or Program
Committee member in more than 70 international conferences and workshops.
Professor Papadopoulos is a recipient of an 1995 ERCIM-HCM scholarship
award. He has been involved or is currently participating, as coordinator or partner, in over 30 internationally
and nationally funded projects (total budget for his participation more than 4 MEURO), including 9 FP5 and
FP6 IST (in the areas of tele-medicine, component-based systems, bioinformatics, e-learning and Internet
technologies), 3 EUMEDIS (in Open and Distance Learning), 1 INCO-DC, 1 eTen (in tele-medicine) and 7
LEONARDO ones (in vocational training). He is the Director of the Software Engineering and Internet
Technologies Laboratory

Programme Chair
Dr Roy Williams designs learning spaces and knowledge management
applications at the Flexible Learning Studio in the Faculty of Technology at the
University of Portsmouth, and he is also the e-learning coordinator for the
Faculty. He researches and published widely on e-learning, knowledge
management, both on the practical design and application, and on the theory of
learning and knowledge management. He currently has a grant from the Higher
Education Academy in the UK to apply the theories of complex adaptive systems
and ecological affordances to learning. He is actively involved in the European
and International Conferences on e-learning, knowledge management, and
business research methods and has edited the Electronic Journal of e-learning.
He has held posts of Professor and Chair of Communication, Visiting Professor of Education, Visiting
Examiner, Executive Board member of the IBA, the South African Broadcast regulator, and set up the joint-
venture publishing company, Sached Books Pty Ltd

xviii
The “Living Museums” project
Alfredo Pina1, Lore Huizi1, Jon Legarrea1, Jose Miguel Correa2, Lorea
Fernández2, Alex Ibañez2, Estibaliz Jiménez de Aberasturi2, Margari León2, Elia
Fernández2, Luis Gutierrez2, Sandra Baldassarri3, Eva Cerezo3 and Pablo
Orensanz 3
1
Public University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
2
University of the Basque Country, San Sebastian, Spain
3
University of Zaragoza, Spain
{pina, lore.huizi, jon.legarrea}@unavarra.es
{jcorrea}@ehu.es
{sandra, ecerezo}@unizar.es

Abstract: We present the characteristics of an ongoing project “Living Museums”, which involves non-
technological and technological researchers; we propose to use different Web 2.0 tools with an open
methodology which assures social participation, reduces digital divide and invite people to think about what could
be a “Living Museum” for a citizen.

The development of learning projects based on the heritage capital from the different communities of the
members that participate and the possibilities of learning in social networks. The main conclusions focus on
participants´ satisfaction, the learning of technological competencies and the discovery of the social network as a
learning environment.

Keywords: Web 2.0, social networks, digital life, museums, education

1. Introduction
This project is based on the development of technological and educative proposals which can
promote the collaboration and participation through social networks in the construction and recovery
of heritage collections. We see a “Living Museum” as an open digital repository of stories based on a
topic and constructed through a technological platform in a socially & collaboratively way. We propose
to use technologies integrated within the Web 2.0 as framework support, as the way to communicate
and to induce social and digital interaction. Using the technological support the users may organise
snippets of information, digital stories, narratives or other significant objects for them.

“Living museums” is also an open program based on the shared construction of knowledge, memories
and meanings. For us a long term target is the technical literacy, it means to decrease the information
gap between the elite and the technical poor. But our main objective until now has been to combine
technology possibilities (in particular those related with building social networks), with the
development of the personal and social creativity, the implication in social networks and communities;
and this avoiding the social exclusion of the less favoured culturally and technologically.

“Living Museums” mission should be to invite communities to collect pieces from past times or daily
livings nowadays, to digitise them, allowing historic memory recovery (spoken word, written word,
pictures, movies) and searching the heritage meanings of these communities. A digital narrative is the
basic item used to build a “Living Museum” is. A digital narrative is a meaningful digital construct
which can be a fixed image, a video, a sound, a text, a combination of them, etc….We try to recover a
past stories or one from the present time, real or animated, with fixed images or with movies, past or
present snippets with meaning for the users.

The “Living Museum” provides a set of technological resources (maybe integrated in one single
platform) that allow the construction of the digital narratives and the access to them; the minimum
available features should allow the users:

ƒ To organise themselves creating groups if necessary, with different criteria like subject or location
ƒ To upload their productions in one web platform,
ƒ To share their materials,
ƒ To see materials of other users, to interpret them, to make comments, to improve the digital
creations of others
ƒ To organize all the uploaded materials with tags and taking into account spatio-temporal
information
This project (http://www.museosvivos.es/) is being funded by the Pyrenees Work Community and the
different partners are the Basque Country University (San Sebastian), the Public University of Navarra
(Pamplona), the University of Zaragoza (Zaragoza), the museum of History & Art of Zarauz
(Gipuzkoa), the Sciences Society “Aranzadi” (San Sebastian) and the Planetarium of Pamplona, all, of
them in the north of Spain.

The rest of this paper is organised as follows. To the end of this first section we describe the main
ideas around technology, museums and education. We outline also some experiences that can help
the reader to understand our idea of “Living museums”. The second section explains what the “Living
museums” project is. Section 3 gives details about the methodological approach. Section 4 presents
some experiences carried out. Section 5 describes the evaluation tools needed and designed for the
project and section 6 gives some conclusions.

1.1 Technology and museums

1.1.1 Digital technologies and museums


In the short time tour of the narrow relation between technology and museums, several and different
designs and tools have been used to organise virtual museums, in parallel to the face-to-face ones,
trying to create a support to the undertaken activities in museums.

The presence and use of the digital Technologies in museums and heritage collections spaces is
more and more intensive; we see three fundamental functions behind this, communication,
information and support for teaching-learning processes. The work done by Hawkey (Hawkey 2002)
shows how this kind of functions are implemented in museums and what technologies are used for
that.
Technology (in museums) promotes scientific attitudes; systematic enquiry-based activities about
related questions with objects and collections from expositions of museums or meaningful learning
through different pathways that help in reconstructing scientific knowledge are two clear examples.
But another key question in mixing off technology and museums is that we bring close to the citizens
a very important question which is the extension and social presence of technology. Many authors
about technology and museums are coincident in this fact (Falk and Dierking 2000) (Hein 1998)
(Hooper-Greenhill 1999) (Marsick and Watkins 2001) (Brooks, Nolan and Gallagher 2000).

In any case since the appearance of the first museum Web sites, most museums have established
some presence on the World Wide Web. Museums have much to learn from each other, and from
developers using the Web for other applications. To facilitate this exchange of information, Archives &
Museum Informatics organises an annual international conference devoted exclusively to Museums
and the Web (http://www.archimuse.com/).

1.1.2 Museums for educational purposes


If we have to define what a museum is, we could say that it is an entity that tries to explain us things,
showing us selections of products with a clear cultural value; but above all, a museum is an institution
that holds means to promote experiences, to transmit multiple sense messages, to relive sensations
or feelings, to produce perplexity or contradictions, to nag at the conscience; we do not have to forget
also, that small and local museums are quite near from the museums nearby citizens.
The contents of a museum, objects, pictures, experiments, technical presentations, demos or
expositions, are resources with we can develop learning experiences, some times within a regular
curriculum, some times not, and the most important: these experiences are implemented as activities
that will be carried out (successfully) and that could be the finally responsible of the success of the
“Meaning of the life” of a museum.

According to the curricular (or not curricular) arguments we can state that a museum and such
heritage presentation spaces are in a different context that the scholastic ones, different, with different
characteristics, but also with similarities. Asensio (Asensio 2001) (Asensio 2002) tell us that museums
and expositions gather conceptual information, put forward interpretations, transmit theories or
explanatory models, sometimes more adjusted to the referred disciplines, sometimes not; this fact
reproduces the dilemmas of the scholastic knowledge, dilemmas that are between the dichotomy
between the unrevealed curricula and the explicit one, like the intended table of contents, the
compromise with concrete perspectives, given scientific or technological selections, etc…..

1.1.3 Social networks and museums


Social networks can help us to reach some educational and social objectives of the so-called
“Information society”; the 3 C’s, “Communication” (help us in sharing knowledge), “Community” (help
us to detect/find/integrate communities) and “Cooperation” (help us to make things together).

There is an increasing demand to promote social participation and collaboration with digital
technologies among the “normal” citizens building bridges between them and “the innovation” an at
the same time trying to go beyond the digital divide. Enjoying and valuing heritage is related with
diffusion, creation and expression of the inside subjective values it contains. Some concrete
technologies (like a Wiki for example) allow to share this legacy, to express and build meanings.

One of the most powerful features of the digital technology is the easiness to make possible
collaboration. Learners benefit from an open access to the resources and ideas of other learners,
even from other geographical areas, from different conceptual schemas or from different subjects.
The collaborative aspects in learning get priority attention in a museum context. In (Brown et al 2002)
they present one study of one collaboration between real learners (face to face exposition), virtual
learners (on line) and a third group in a 3D Virtual Reality ambiance. The system allows visitors to
share their location and orientation, communicate over a voice channel, and jointly navigate around a
shared information space. Their work explores the social context for learning, in such a way that it
makes the bridge or minimises the limits between close and far visitors, and between digital and real
artefacts. The main purpose is to make possible for the learners to create associations in a museum
collection, converting them in resources for later visitors or visits.

1.2 Similar approaches


There are many similar approaches within this subject area, museums and technology. We outline
some of them which shows different features exposed in the previous sections. The understanding of
these approaches will help the reader to understand what a “Living Museum” is (or could be).

The experience carried out by Elisa Giaccardi (http://www.thesilence.org/) which enables participants
to map and annotate the soundscape of urban and natural environments. The project promotes a
model of virtuality that empowers the active and constructive role of local communities in the
interpretation, preservation, and renewal of natural quiet as an important element of the natural
heritage. The project combines multiple technologies and social practices in a cross-media interaction
comprising: (a) data catching (i.e., capturing sounds from the natural environment); (b) data
description (i.e., mapping the soundscape on the Web); and (c) data interpretation (i.e., creating a
shared ideal soundscape in the public space).

Culture Online (http://www.cultureonline.gov.uk/) has been set out to build a digital bridge between
learning and culture. The project “Every Object Tells a Story”, is a good example
(http://www.cultureonline.gov.uk/projects/in_production/every_object_tells_a_story/index.html).
Everyone has a particular object which means something special to them. Every Object Tells A Story
allows people to share their stories and to explore the stories of others on an easy-to-use website.

We may find some more specific Websites and experiences. For example in
http://nomada.blogs.com/jfreire/2008/05/canal-accesible.html the reader can find a very interesting
example of collaborative art and urban denunciation. The main purpose is to give a “digital” voice to
all the citizens in different European and Latin-American cities: courier workers, cab drivers,
handicapped people, prostitutes, gipsy communities, etc…..

Another nice example is a Spanish experience (http://www.archivodelaexperiencia.es/) which the


main purpose in this case is to get together young and elder people, through the living experiences of
elder people.
The next section tries to give to the reader a more precise idea of what is a “Living Museum”, but the
reader can already imagine what for us, a “Living museum” is.
2. The “Living Museums” project
The “Living Museums” project (http://www.museosvivos.es/, Web site in progress, still in Spanish) is
an open program based on the shared construction of knowledge, stories and meanings. Apart from
offering a multidisciplinary approach, among its main objectives are the Digital alphabetisation and the
Social participation.

Figure 1: Current layout of the “Living Museums” CMS


The main purpose is to merge Technologies (more precisely all the social network related technology)
and the possibilities which arise with the use of them, to develop personal and social creativity, to
promote participation in networks and communities, and this avoiding hierarchies & social exclusion
due to economic, cultural or Digital Divide matters.

The project has three main stages; the first one leads to a first definition of “Living Museums” and their
potential “end users”; in the second one we provide them with the necessary means to tell things and
to share them through the Web (making some real experiences); during the third one, we have to
evaluate the “product”, the experiences and the sustainability of such kind of community beyond the
lifespan of the project.

The main features of our project we would like to point out are:

ƒ To work on the existing gap between Technologies and citizens


ƒ To try to involve and integrate when possible, young and elder people (elder people have stories
to tell, young people know how to digitise them….)
ƒ To work on the combination Museums and Education
ƒ To promote Social participation
ƒ To obtain Community work starting form individual works
ƒ To show the importance of local territory with such social technologies (it is important to share
with people far from us, but it is as well as important, or more, to interact through the net with local
people about local problems or thoughts)
ƒ To be Aware of working to diminish the digital divide
ƒ The evolution in the time of all these features
3. Methodological approach
In this section we outline the most important methodological aspects, divided in three main blocks.
First of all we define the pedagogical characteristics, then we give some details of the used
technology, and at the end we describe the activities a user may (and should) make.

3.1 Pedagogical approach


“Living Museums” as it has been stated is based on a social participation strategy. It allows us a
special and decisive role: to share a valuable thing (from our point of view). For that we propose to
construct a “Living Museum” from two points of view or two axes:
ƒ On one side we have a historic scenario: how we have evolved and changed, and how our
environment has evolved until present time: our habits and customs (for example markets), our
institutions (for example the school), our leisure time (for example sport clubs, entertainment
possibilities), jobs and professions (fishing, agriculture, industry, etc….). We can imagine
ourselves gathering (historical) pictures from our town, quarter, city, or from our school, and then
we can try to find the real “key players” of these pictures and to ask to them about the stories
behind this pictures…..
ƒ But there is another possible scenario, the environmental one, which locates us at the present
time, and that shows us the reality as we can see, touch and understand it. This is a multiple
scenario, not limited, versatile….it can be a natural landscape, a historic monument, a social
event, a cultural custom, a social mobilisation, etc….
The digital creations of individuals starting from one of these two scenarios, the social interaction
between them, the exchange of points of views and the evolution in time, gives us two kind of
itineraries, one individual of every person and one collective. The last one, the collective, with all the
obtained productions, the different kinds of interactions, etc….is a “Living museum”. The first one, the
individual one, is the personal learning pathway, which can be of different type for everyone (from
technological or communication skills to historical or self-aware consciousness).

We try as well to articulate every (possible) experience following a Project Based Learning (PBL)
paradigm. This means we are using enquiry based techniques like Web quests and we share the
responsibility within the teaching-learning process. This is particularly applied to the experiences
carried out with students (of different educational levels).

3.2 Technological support


Our main interest was not to develop “yet another platform” to support our project. Maybe in a future it
could be possible, but for the moment we do not see the need. The main purpose behind the choice
of the technological tools is to choose open and free licence software, and not to be conditioned by
the choice in our pedagogical approach (which is not always so evident….)

We may distinguish at this stage two important set of tools.


ƒ First of all we (the users) need to create, produce, capture, etc…our digital pieces that will make
our digital narratives. For that we are using normally different Web 2.0 tools, and in general,
depending of the profile of the end-users we may choose one set of tools or another, of course
taking into account what kind of digital piece we need.
ƒ Then we need to allow the users to “upload” their productions somewhere, to show them, to share
them, and to allow others to talk about them, and if possible to make them evolve.
At this stage we see clearly that two approaches should be taken into account. The first one is to use
already existing on-line platforms, based on Web 2.0 tools, with no need of administration. The
second one is to set up a server with some Content Management System (CMS) and to adapt it to the
needs of the experience. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; in the first case it is
much easier to start working than in the second case, whereas in the first case the size, format or
publicity limitations can be annoying whereas in the second case they can be easily solved.

Figure 2: Designing of a main entrance to the different “Living Museums

Figure 3: Current layout of one of the “Living Museums” experiences, based on the “Drupal” platform
We are experimenting with several current options; platforms Elgg or Ning have been used for some
of the experiences; we use the CMS Drupal for other experiences.
We believe that the right combination of such approaches would be the right set of tools needed for
creating “Living museums”. We relieve that we have to organise the “Living museums” Project in a
way that the user can make a clear difference between these 3 main things:
ƒ the general portal (Web site) of “Living museums” (possibly with forums and other tools to discuss
at this level),
ƒ the “factory” site, which is the workshop where every user can construct his digital narratives,
ƒ The different experiences carried out (for the moment we are “inducing” them, but in the future it
would be desirable to study how they can be triggered by users initiative and how such a kind of
system is sustainable)
Figure 2 shows a draft design of the main entrance to the project, while Figure 3 shows the current
layout of one of the experiences we are carrying out (in this case, the factory and the CMS, Drupal,
are integrated).

3.3 Users tools and activities to be carried out


To finish this section we summarize what the users should be able to make with what tools;
depending on the profile of the end-users (computer confident or not, individual or group, academic or
not, younger or older, etc….) they need some support in order to (actively) participate in a Living
Museum. In the experiences described in the next section, we have tried to organise activities well
adapted to the profiles. For that the experimental final users have been provided of:
ƒ An adequate set of tools, tutorials and training courses program to coach them in their own
narrations construction (made of text, images, videos, links, etc…)
ƒ Some recommendations on methodological issues in order to give them some clues to start
working
ƒ A technological platform (in fact we are experimenting with Ning-http://museobiziak.ning.com-,
Elgg-http://pirinet.i2bask.es/ and Drupal: http://nada.cps.unizar.es/museosvivos) to allow them to
store and share their narrations.
ƒ A specific tutoring system (blended learning) to advice and help the users to set up their ideas
and also to follow and support them, once they have started.
4. The experiences
Actually, we have organised several experiences with at least four kinds of communities.
ƒ About 250 undergraduate students (from Education related degrees) at the Basque Country
University are working in order to express what a “Living Museum” is for them.
ƒ A group of postgraduate students are working with the Sciences Society “Aranzadi”
(http://www.aranzadi-zientziak.org/) to construct a “Living Museum” about the Spanish Civil War.
ƒ A reduced group of 14 selected elderly citizens are working on a “Blended” project at the local
Museum of Zarautz (http://www.menosca.com/), with the aim of constructing a “Living Museum”
about how was the life at the town at the beginning of the century; this experience uses Face-to-
Face sessions at the museum (open to the citizenship) and with the selected 14 citizens, where
the goal is to make “Jam sessions” starting from several pictures of the beginning of the century;
the project uses as well the Web to upload and share the results of the “Jam sessions” and to
construct in this way the “Living Museums”.
Finally a group of school-age children in a small town of the Basque Country (Bergara) are working on
a “Living Museum” (based on the perception they have of their own town) which relates two subjects,
English language and Arts & Crafts.

In the next section we give some details about one of the experiences, the one with the 250
undergraduate students.

4.1 A “Living Museum” to understand what is/could be a “Living Museum”


The main explicit idea we tried to transmit to our students with this experience (About 250
undergraduate students, from Education related degrees, at the Basque Country University working in
order to express what is a “Living Museum” for them) is that all of us are active participants in “Living
museums”…all of us have something to tell, something that others will find interesting.

To focus the task orientation and to try to have some tools to gather together the future different
experiences we propose to the students several guidelines to choose among:
ƒ Change, social and/or cultural innovation.
ƒ The woman identity (with an historical perspective); this offers an opportunity to make a reflection
about the constitutive keys of the feminine role and to understand the woman of the XXI century.
ƒ Nature itineraries
ƒ Day to day Cultural heritage
The result of this experience is a set of deliverables that have been uploaded to one of our “Living
museums” platform (http://museobiziak.ning.com) as it can be seen in figure 4.

Figure 4: Current layout of one of the “Living Museums” experiences, based on the Web 2.0 platform
“Ning”
For three main groups the main task has been to produce a digital movie (between 3 & 5 minutes)
about one of the community-interested subjects presented previously. For the fourth group the
deliverable was either a movie either an artefact developed with different materials (2D or 3D):
posters, t-shirts, installations, collages, etc…..all these artefacts were digitised to upload them into the
platform.
Most of the chosen subjects have been related with historic aspects or with environmental problems.
Participants have used several devices like digital cameras, mobile phones, video cameras, etc…and
different software programs to work on the captured materials (Movie maker, photo story or Kaltura).
Most of the people have participated in the forums, making interesting comments, have customised
their personal spaces, etc…..

The feelings behind the stories are quite different; some are hard stories with a strong social
compromise and protest, others are sad ones, others are romantic, etc…..

Our feeling (the teachers) is that we appreciate a lot and we are so very satisfied because they have
conclude, presented and shared their video or object; and as well they have accessed to a community
where we “see each other” (personal pictures and real names) and where we are capable of “reading”
and comment (always positively) the work of our colleagues.
5. Evaluation tools
At this moment we are carrying out all these experiences and we are preparing a set of tools and
assessment criteria to evaluate the “Living Museums” (analytical tools, individual and Group feedback
of the different level users, etc…).

For the moment we are designing two kinds of assessment tools.

From the end-user point of view, we are interested in developing a usability set of tests. This should
help us in defining what a user (individual or group) needs to build the “living Museum” (kind of
platform, type of interface, etc…).

But the main point is to be able to evaluate what happened with a “Living Museum”; in fact we may
need to answer to questions like: From whom the initiative to create a “Living Museum” starts? How
long lasts a “Living Museum”? How should be the social participation in a “living Museum”, etc….and
for that we need to make quantitative and qualitative analysis of the different experiences in order to
have some arguments to answer to these questions?

Figure 5: Quantitative results from Google analytics for http://museobiziak.ning.com


6. Conclusions
Beyond that the fact that we believe that all the work we are doing is interesting to understand what is
behind this concept of “Living museums” and thus justifies our project, we would like to present in
these section several reflections about our experience.

The first reflection we can make is to point out is that the created contents that arise of such build
“Living museums” are interesting for two main reasons. In some cases, the contents are new ones, as
they were not “reachable” through the web; this is the case of the fourteen selected elderly citizens
working on a project at the local Museum of Zarautz (of course the pictures were there, but all the
inter-related comments of the elderly citizens were not anywhere). In other cases, the comments on
diary aspects made by young people in scholastic contents are quite interesting, as we do not make
this kind of activity in such contexts; and therefore is a kind of “new content” (and also an interesting
new activity for them, that in most of the cases involves the collaboration of more people like parents,
grand-parents and so on) .

Other reflections are on the educational possibilities of such experiences.


The approach we are using is related with our teaching strategies as we are using a project based
learning methodology, specially in the experiences with students we are carrying out.
It seems also very important to make educational experiences out of the normal curricula; this is true
for our students, but it is also true for the citizens, in the called “Life Long Learning” panorama.

From a social point of view we see that the “Social Learning Environments” that have been created for
the experiences enable us to practice the 3 C’s learning pointed out at the beginning of this paper.

In the next months we should be able to give a complete definition of what “Living Museums” is and to
answer to questions like, is it useful? Is it sustainable? Etc….
Acknowledgements
This paper was partly based on work done in the frame of the project “Museos Vivos” funded by the
“Comunidad de Trabajo de los Pirineos” (CTP, http://www.ctp.org/), (Pyrenees Work Community),
agreements CTP-06-P1.A (Basque Country), CTP-P02/2006 (Aragon) and CTP-06-P3 (Navarra).
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