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Playgrounds and Prejudice: Elementary School Climate in the United States

A Survey of Students and Teachers

A Report from the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network glsen.org

Pla aygro ds a oun and P udic Prej ce: Ele ntary Sch emen y hool Clim mate in t Unite St s the U ed tates
A Sur rvey of Teachers and Stude f d ents
Conducte on behalf of GLSEN (the Gay, Le ed f esbian & Str raight Educa ation Network)

by Harris Interactive, Inc. s ,

About GLSEN GLSEN,theGay,Lesbian&StraightEducationNetwork,istheleadingnationaleducationorganization focusedonensuringsafeschoolsforallstudents.Establishedin1990,GLSENenvisionsaworldinwhich everychildlearnstorespectandacceptallpeople,regardlessofsexualorientationorgender identity/expression.GLSENseekstodevelopschoolclimateswheredifferenceisvaluedforthepositive contributionitmakestocreatingamorevibrantanddiversecommunity.ForinformationonGLSEN's research,educationalresources,publicpolicyadvocacy,studentorganizingprogramsandeducator traininginitiatives,visitwww.glsen.org. NationalHeadquarters DCPolicyOffice 90BroadStreet,SecondFloor 101214thStreet,NW,Suite1105 NewYork,NY10004 Washington,DC20005 Ph:2127270135Fax:2127270254 Ph:2023477780Fax:2023477781 About Harris Interactive HarrisInteractiveisoneoftheworldsleadingcustommarketresearchfirms,leveragingresearch, technology,andbusinessacumentotransformrelevantinsightintoactionableforesight.Knownwidely fortheHarrisPollandforpioneeringinnovativeresearchmethodologies,Harrisoffersexpertiseina widerangeofindustriesincludinghealthcare,technology,publicaffairs,energy,telecommunications, financialservices,insurance,media,retail,restaurant,andconsumerpackagegoods.Servingclientsin over215countriesandterritoriesthroughourNorthAmericanandEuropeanofficesandanetworkof independentmarketresearchfirms,Harrisspecializesindeliveringresearchsolutionsthathelpusand ourclientsstayaheadofwhatsnext.Formoreinformation,pleasevisitwww.harrisinteractive.com. HarrisInteractive,Inc. 161AvenueoftheAmericas NewYork,NY10013 Copyright2012,Gay,Lesbian&StraightEducationNetworkandHarrisInteractive,Inc.Allrights reserved. 9781934092095 GLSENandHarrisInteractive(2012).PlaygroundsandPrejudice:ElementarySchoolClimateinthe UnitedStates,ASurveyofStudentsandTeachers.NewYork:GLSEN. Coverphotography:KateTerHaarunderCreativeCommonslicense Insidephotography:pp.21,35,83and117ConradVentur;p.1HunterMcIntosh,firstplaceprimary winnerofthe2007NoNameCallingWeekCreativeExpressionContest,p.55BartEversonunder CreativeCommonslicense,p.103StudentsfromHeatherFountainskindergartenclass,JacksonRoad ElementarySchool

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Table of Contents
Preface........................................................................................................................................ xii Executive Summary ................................................................................................................... xiv Survey Method ....................................................................................................................... xvi Key Findings ........................................................................................................................... xvi Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. xxi About the Research ...................................................................................................................xxii Survey Methods .....................................................................................................................xxii A Note on Reading the Tables and Figures ...........................................................................xxii Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations Used in Report .......................................................... xxiii Project Responsibility and Acknowledgements ..................................................................... xxiv Public Release of Survey Findings ........................................................................................ xxiv Chapter 1: Biased Language at School ....................................................................................... 1 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 2 Section 1. Students Reports on Biased Language at School ................................................... 2 Biased Remarks .................................................................................................................... 3 Remarks Related to Not Conforming to Traditional Gender Norms ...................................... 7 Section 2. Teachers Reports on Biased Language at School ................................................ 11 Addressing Student Use of Biased Language ..................................................................... 15 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 19 Chapter 2: Incidents of Bullying and Name-Calling at School ................................................... 21 Overview ................................................................................................................................. 22 Section 1. Incidents of Bullying and Name-Calling Witnessed by Students ........................... 23 Reasons Other Students Are Bullied or Called Names at School ....................................... 23 Section 2. Incidents of Bullying and Name-Calling Witnessed by Teachers .......................... 28 Reasons Students Are Bullied or Called Names at School ................................................. 30 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 33 Chapter 3: Students Feelings of Safety and Their Personal Experiences with Bullying and Name-Calling at School .............................................................................................................. 35 Overview ................................................................................................................................. 36 Feelings of Safety at School .................................................................................................... 37 Experiences of Bullying and Name-Calling at School ............................................................. 40

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Relational Bullying and Cyberbullying ..................................................................................... 40 Reasons Students Experience Bullying and Name-Calling at School ..................................... 44 Bullying and Name-Calling of Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms . 45 Where Do Bullying and Name-Calling Occur at School? ........................................................ 47 Reporting Personal Incidents of Bullying or Name-Calling to School Personnel ..................... 48 Impact of Bullying and Name-Calling ...................................................................................... 51 Lessons about Bullying, Name-Calling and Respect at School............................................... 53 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 53 Chapter 4: Teachers Attitudes and Efforts about Gender and Sexual Orientation ................... 55 Overview ................................................................................................................................. 56 Section 1: Teachers Attitudes, Efforts and Responses to Students Who Are or May Be LGBT ................................................................................................................................................ 57 Teachers Perspectives on the Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who Are or May Be LGBT ...................................................................................................................... 57 Teachers Comfort Addressing LGBT Issues ...................................................................... 59 Teachers Comfort Intervening in Homophobic Name-Calling and Bullying ........................ 61 Section 2: Teachers Attitudes, Efforts and Responses Regarding Gender Non-Conforming Students .................................................................................................................................. 63 Teachers Attitudes Regarding Gender Non-Conforming Students ..................................... 63 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts Addressing GenderRelated Issues ..................................................................................................................... 63 Teachers Feelings of Obligation and Helpfulness of Efforts to Ensure a Safe and Supportive Learning Environment for Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms ..................................................................................................................... 68 Teachers Efforts for Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms ........... 69 Teachers Responses to Bullying, Name-Calling, or Harassment towards Gender NonConforming Students ........................................................................................................... 73 Lessons about Gender Equality at School........................................................................... 79 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 80 Chapter 5: Teachers Attitudes, Efforts and Responses to Students from Families with LGBT Parents........................................................................................................................................ 83 Overview ................................................................................................................................. 84 Teachers Perspectives on the Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who Have LGBT Parents .......................................................................................................................... 85 Teachers Perspectives on the Comfort Level of LGBT Parents of Elementary School Students .................................................................................................................................. 85 iv

Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts Addressing Families with LGBT Parents .......................................................................................................................... 87 Teachers Feelings of Obligation to Ensure a Safe and Supportive Learning Environment for Families with LGBT Parents .................................................................................................... 87 Teachers Responses to Bullying, Name-Calling or Harassment towards Students from Families with LGBT Parents .................................................................................................... 95 Teaching and Learning about Different Family Types at School ............................................. 96 Chapter 6: School-Wide Anti-Bullying and Harassment Efforts ............................................... 103 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 104 Anti-Bullying and Harassment Measures at School .............................................................. 105 Components of School Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies ........................................... 107 Impact of Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies on Bullying, Name-Calling, Biased Comments and Comfort Level at School ........................................................................... 109 Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies and Teachers Attitudes and Efforts........................ 113 Summary ............................................................................................................................... 115 Chapter 7: Teacher Professional Development ....................................................................... 117 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 118 Teachers Professional Development Background................................................................ 119 Areas for Further Professional Development ........................................................................ 122 Impact of Teachers Professional Development .................................................................... 123 Summary ............................................................................................................................... 125

List of Tables and Figures


Figure 1.1 Table 1.1 Figure 1.2 Table 1.2 Figure 1.3 Table 1.3 Figure 1.4 Table 1.4 Table 1.5 Figure 1.5 Table 1.6 Table 1.7 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7 Table 1.8 Table 1.9 Figure 1.8 Figure 2.1 Table 2.1 Figure 2.2 vi Hearing Biased Remarks from Other Students at School ..................................... 3 Frequency of Hearing Biased Remarks from Other Students at School by School Type and School Location ..................................................................................... 5 Students Who Reported Ever Hearing Biased Remarks from Teachers and Other Adults at School .................................................................................................... 6 Differences by Grade Level of Students Who Reported Ever Hearing Biased Remarks from Teachers and Other Adults at School ............................................ 6 Frequency of Hearing Remarks Related to Students Gender Expression from Other Students at School ...................................................................................... 8 Frequency of Hearing Remarks Related to Students Gender Expression from Other Students at School by School Type and School Location ........................... 9 Students Who Reported Ever Hearing Remarks Related to Students Gender Expression from Teachers and Other Adults......................................................... 9 Hearing Remarks Related to Students Gender Expression from Teachers and Other Adults at School and Differences by Grade Level and School Location ... 10 Hearing Remarks Related to Students Gender Expression from Other Students at School by Hearing Teacher Encourage Traditional Gender Norms ................ 10 Frequency of Biased Remarks Teachers Hear Students Make at School .......... 12 Frequency of Biased Remarks Teachers Hear Students Make at School by Grade Level Taught and School Location ........................................................... 13 Frequency of Teachers Hearing Biased Remarks by Years of Teaching Experience. ............................................................................................... 14 Number of Students Teachers Hear Making Biased Remarks ............................ 15 Frequency With Which Teachers Address Biased Remarks Made by Students . 16 Frequency With Which Teachers Address Biased Remarks Made by Students by School Location ................................................................................................... 17 Frequency at Which Teachers Address Biased Remarks Made by Students by Years of Teaching Experience ............................................................................ 18 Frequency of Teachers Hearing Biased Remarks from Other Teachers or School Staff ..................................................................................................................... 19 Frequency of Student Reports of Bullying and Name-Calling at School ............. 24 Frequency of Student Reports of Bullying and Name-Calling at School by School Type and School Location ................................................................................... 24 Reasons Other Students are Bullied or Called Names at School ....................... 25

Table 2.2 Figure 2.3 Table 2.3 Figure 2.4 Table 2.4

Reasons Other Students are Bullied or Called Names at School by Grade Level, School Type and School Location ....................................................................... 26 Family-Related Reasons Other Students are Bullied or Called Names at School ............................................................................................................................ 27 Family-Related Reasons Other Students are Bullied or Called Names at School by Grade Level, School Type and School Location............................................. 27 Teachers Perceptions on Seriousness of Bullying or Name-Calling at School .. 28 Teachers Perceptions on Seriousness of Bullying or Name-Calling at School by School Location and School Type ...................................................................... 29

Table 2.5 Table 2.6

Teachers Perceptions on Seriousness of Bullying or Name-Calling at School by Grade Level Taught ............................................................................................ 29 Teachers Perceptions on Seriousness of Bullying or Name-Calling at School by Years of Experience ............................................................................................ 30 Teachers Perception on Reasons Students Are Bullied or Called Names At School ................................................................................................................. 31 Teachers Perception on Reasons Students Are Most Often Bullied or Called Names at School ................................................................................................ 32 Students Feelings of Safety at School ............................................................... 37 Students Feeling of Safety at School by Gender and Race/Ethnicity ................. 38 Students Feeling of Safety at School by School Type and School Location ...... 38 Reasons Students Feel Unsafe or Afraid at School ............................................ 39 Frequency of Personally Being Bullied and Called Names at School ................. 41 Frequency of Personally Being Bullied and Called Names at School by Race/Ethnicity, School Location and School Type ............................................. 41 Students' Personal Experiences With Other Forms of Bullying .......................... 42 Ways Students Were Left Out or Ignored by Other Students.............................. 43 Students Personal Experiences with Other Forms of Bullying by Feelings of Safety at School .................................................................................................. 43 Reasons Students Experience Bullying or Name-Calling at School.................... 44 Profile of Students Who Do and Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms . 46 Locations Where Bullying or Name-Calling Occurs at School............................. 47 Frequency and Helpfulness of Telling a Teacher about Being Called Names, Made Fun of or Bullied at School ........................................................................ 49 Relationship between Frequency and Helpfulness of Telling a Teacher about Being Called Names, Made Fun of or Bullied at School...................................... 49 vii

Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.1 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Table 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Table 3.4 Figure 3.6 Table 3.5 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Table 3.6

Figure 3.9 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Figure 4.1 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Figure 4.2 Table 4.3 Figure 4.3 Table 4.4

Teachers Reactions to Student Reports of Being Called Names, Made Fun of or Bullied .................................................................................................................. 50 Teachers Reactions to Student Reports of Being Called Names, Made Fun of or Bullied by Frequency of Experiencing Bullying and Grade Level ........................ 50 Students Relationships, School Performance and Well-Being by Frequency of Being Bullied ....................................................................................................... 52 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Students Who Might Be or Grow Up To Be LGBT ........................................................................................................ 58 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Students Who Might Be or Grow Up To Be LGBT By Years of Teaching Experience .................................................. 58 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Students Who Might Be or Grow Up To Be LGBT by School Location ......................................................................... 59 Teachers Level of Comfort in Responding to Student Questions about LGBT People ................................................................................................................. 60 Teachers Level of Comfort in Responding to Student Questions about LGBT People by School Type and Knowing an LGBT Parent or Student ..................... 60 Teachers Level of Comfort in Addressing Bullying, Name-Calling and Harassment of Students Perceived to be LGB .................................................... 62 Teachers Level of Comfort in Addressing Bullying, Name-Calling and Harassment of Students Perceived to be LGB by Years of Experience and Knowing an LGBT Parent or Student .................................................................. 62 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms .................................................. 64 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms by Years of Experience ............ 65 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms by School Location................... 65 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts That Specifically Address Issues of Gender Roles, Gender Stereotypes and NonTraditional Gender Expression ............................................................................ 66 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts That Specifically Address Issues of Gender Roles, Gender Stereotypes and NonTraditional Gender Expression by Years of Experience ...................................... 67 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts That Specifically Address Issues of Gender Roles, Gender Stereotypes and NonTraditional Gender Expression by School Location............................................. 67 Teachers Feelings of Obligation towards Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms ................................................................................... 68

Figure 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Figure 4.5

Table 4.7

Table 4.8

Figure 4.6

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Figure 4.7

Teachers Perceptions on Helpfulness of Efforts in Creating Safer and More Supportive Schools for Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms ................................................................................................................. 69 Teachers Who Have Personally Engaged in Efforts to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Students Who May not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms by Grade Level Taught and School Location .............................. 71 Efforts Teachers Have Made to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms .......................... 71 Efforts Teachers Have Made to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms by School Location ............................................................................................................... 72 Reasons Why Teachers Have Not Made Efforts to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms 73 Teachers Level of Comfort in Addressing Bullying, Name-Calling or Harassment of Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Roles .......................... 74 Teachers Level of Comfort in Addressing Bullying, Name-Calling or Harassment of Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Roles by Grade Level Taught and Years of Experience ......................................................................... 75 Ways That Teachers Would Address Incidents Where Students are Bullied or Called Names for Not Conforming to Traditional Gender Norms ........................ 76 Ways That Teachers Would Address Incidents Where Students are Bullied or Called Names for Not Conforming to Traditional Gender Norms by Grade Level ............................................................................................................................ 77 How Teachers Would Approach Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms ..................................................................................................... 78 How Teachers Would Approach Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms by Years of Experience ............................................................... 78 How Teachers Would Approach Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms by School Type and School Location.......................................... 79 Students Reports of Being Taught at School That Girls and Boys Can Do the Same Things ....................................................................................................... 80 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Elementary School Students with LGBT Parents ...................................................................................................... 85 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Elementary School Students with LGBT Parents by Years of Teaching Experience and School Location .............. 86 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of LGBT Parents Participating in School Activities .................................................................................................. 86 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of LGB Parents Participating in School Activities by Years of Teaching Experience ........................................................ 87 ix

Table 4.9

Figure 4.8 Table 4.10

Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Table 4.11

Figure 4.11 Table 4.12

Figure 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Figure 4.13 Figure 5.1 Table 5.1 Figure 5.2 Table 5.2

Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Figure 5.3 Table 5.5

Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of LGB Parents Participating in School Activities by School Location ............................................................................... 88 Teachers Perspectives on Comfort Level of Transgender Parents Participating in School Activities by Years of Teaching Experience ............................................ 89 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts That Specifically Address Families with LGBT Parents ............................................... 89 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts That Specifically Address Families with LGBT Parents by Years of Teaching Experience and School Type .............................................................................. 90 Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts That Specifically Address Families with LGBT Parents by School Location ............... 91 Teachers' Sense of Obligation to Ensure a Safe and Supportive Learning Environment for Students with LGBT Parents/Family Members ......................... 91 Teachers Perceptions on the Helpfulness of Efforts to Create Safer and More Supportive Schools for Families with LGBT Parents ........................................... 92 Teachers Who Have Made Efforts to Create Safe and Supportive Environments for LGBT Families by Knowing an LGBT Student or Parent and School Location ............................................................................................................................ 93 Efforts Teachers Have Made to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Families with LGBT Parents ................................................................................ 94 Reasons Why Teachers Have Not Engaged in Efforts to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Families with LGBT Parents ................................... 94 Reasons Why Teachers Have Not Engaged In Efforts to Create a Safe and Supportive Environment for Families with LGBT Parents by School Location .... 95 Ways Teachers Would Address Incidents in Which Students are Bullied or Called Names for Having LGBT Parents or Other Family Members .............................. 97 Ways Teachers Would Address Incidents in Which Students are Bullied or Called Names for Having LGBT Parents or Other Family Members by Grade Level Taught and Years of Experience ......................................................................... 98 Teachers' Reports of the Family Types Represented When the Topic of Families is Discussed in Classroom .................................................................................. 99 Teachers Reports of the Family Types Represented When the Topic of Families is Discussed in Classroom by School Location and Grade Level Taught ......... 100 Teachers Reports of the Family Types Represented When the Topic of Families is Discussed in Classroom by Knowing LGBT Student or Parent ..................... 100 Students' Reports of Types of Families They Are Taught About in School ....... 101 Students Reports of Knowing Anyone Who is Gay or Lesbian......................... 101 Measures Implemented in School Regarding Bullying or Harassment ............. 105

Table 5.6 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Table 5.7

Table 5.8 Figure 5.6 Table 5.9 Figure 5.7 Table 5.10

Figure 5.8 Table 5.11 Table 5.12 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10 Figure 6.1 x

Table 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Table 6.2 Figure 6.4 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5

Anti-Bullying or Harassment Measures Implemented at School by School Type, School Size and School Location ...................................................................... 106 Components Included in School Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies ............. 108 Characteristics Specifically Mentioned in School Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies .............................................................................................................. 108 Characteristics Specifically Mentioned in School Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies by School Location ............................................................................... 109 Teachers' Reports on Type of School Anti-Bullying/Harassment Policy ........... 110 Teachers Reports of Biased Language in School by Type of AntiBullying/Harassment Policy ............................................................................... 111 Teachers Reports on Bullying in School by Type of Anti-Bullying/Harassment Policy ................................................................................................................. 112 Teachers Perspective of Supportiveness of School Community on Efforts Related to Gender and LGBT Families by Type of School AntiBullying/Harassment Policy ............................................................................... 113 Teachers Efforts Related to Gender and LGBT Families by Type of School AntiBullying/Harassment Policy ............................................................................... 114 Teachers Comfort With Addressing Name-Calling, Bullying or Harassment Related to Gender and Sexual Orientation by Type of School AntiBullying/Harassment Policy ............................................................................... 114 Professional Development in the Following Areas Received by Teachers ....... 119 Professional Development in Current Position by Type of AntiBullying/Harassment Policy ............................................................................... 120 Professional Development in Current Position by Knowing an LGBT Student or Parent ................................................................................................................ 121 Professional Development during Pre-Service Education or Student Teaching by Years of Teaching Experience .......................................................................... 121 Areas in Which Teachers Feel They Need Further Professional Development 122 Comfort Level Addressing Bullying and Responding to Questions by Professional Development in Gender Issues and LGBT Families ......................................... 124 Family Types Represented When Topic of Families is Discussed in Classroom by Professional Development in LGBT Families ............................................... 125

Table 6.6 Table 6.7

Figure 7.1 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Figure 7.2 Table 7.4 Table 7.5

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PREFACE
In1972,thealbumFreetoBeYouandMesangavisionofafutureinwhichgenderstereotypes,sexism andbiasdidnotlimitchildrenslives.Asachildmyselfatthetime,IwasoneofthemanyAmerican elementaryandmiddleschoolschoolchildrenwhosangalongwithMarloThomasaboutaland wherethechildrenarefree.ThesongsonthealbumandsketchesintheEmmywinning1974television specialsoughttoillustrateforchildrenthefullrangeofpossibilitiesinthelivesthatlaybeforethem. Whenmyoldestchildwasborn,Imadesurewehadthesesongsinheavyrotation,andenjoyedseeing herdancealongtothem.Hearingthemagainfrommycurrentvantagepointasanadvocatetoendbias andbullyinginK12schools,Iwasstruckbytheircheerfulfaithinimminentprogress.Notably,thereare onlyglancingreferencestothenamecallingandbullyingthatgivestereotypessuchpower. Todayssocietyhasstartedtograpplewiththeterribleimpactandconsequencesofbiasbasedbullying andharassmentamongchildrenapolicingofnormsdifferentfromthetacitunderstandingsofgirls andboysproperplacethatseemedtobetheprimaryhurdlesfortyyearsago.Threeweeksaftermy oldestchildstartedkindergarten,shethrewatantrumbecauseIsaidnoaboutsomethingorother, andyelled,Mama,youareaSISSY!Sheclearlyhadlittlesenseofthewordsmeaning,buthadlearned inherbriefelementaryschoolcareerthatthiswasoneoftheworstepithetsshecouldhurlinanger. ThisreportfromGLSENillustratestheextenttowhichchildrenselementaryschoolexperiencesstill drawartificialboundariesontheirlivesbasedoncriticalpersonalcharacteristics.Namecallingand bullyinginelementaryschoolsreinforcegenderstereotypesandnegativeattitudestowardspeople basedontheirgenderexpression,sexualorientation,disability,race,religionorfamilycomposition. Elementaryschoolstudentsandteachersreportfrequentuseofdisparagingremarkslikeretardand thatssogay,andhalfoftheteacherssurveyedreportbullyingasaseriousproblemamongtheir students.Studentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormsareathigherriskforbullying,and arelesslikelythantheirpeerstofeelsafeatschool.Ourresearchalsoshowstheconnectionbetween elementaryschoolexperiencesofbullyingandalowerqualityoflife. Thereis,however,somegoodnews.Elementaryschoolteachersarealerttotheproblemsthatstudents face.Alargemajorityreportthattheirschoolsaretakingactioninsomewaytotrytoaddressbullying andharassment.Studentsreportthattheyhaveatleastheardsomeoftherightmessagesaboutmutual respectandtheequalityofboysandgirls.Howeverlimitedtheirimpactmaybe,thesestepsrepresenta foundationfortheadditionalactionneededtoturnaspirationsintoreality.Teacherssurveyedforthis reportprovidesomeinitialindicationsoftheadditionalresources,trainingandpubliceducationneeded tocontinueforwardprogress. Fortwentyyears,GLSENhasdevelopedresourcesandprogramstorespondtothespecificneedsof thoseworkinginK12schoolenvironments.Inconjunctionwiththereleaseofthisnewresearchreport, wearepleasedtobereleasinganewresource,Ready,Set,Respect!GLSENsElementarySchoolToolkit, whichprovidesasetoftoolstohelpelementaryschooleducatorsensurethatallstudentsfeelsafeand respectedanddeveloprespectfulattitudesandbehaviors.

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Fortyyearsago,MarloThomassangbravelyIsayitaintfartothislandfromwhereweare.Clearly, wehaveawaytogoyet.Butawarenessoftheunacceptablepriceofprejudiceisgrowing,asisthewill toclearthepathforahealthyandhappylifeforeverychild.Inundertakingthisstudy,GLSENsoughtto understandthescopeandimpactoftheprobleminelementaryschoolsnationwideasabasisfor effectiveaction.Ihopeyouwilljoinusintheongoingefforttoensurethateverychildisfreetobetheir happiest,healthiestandbestself. ElizaS.Byard,Ph.D. ExecutiveDirector GLSEN

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Studentsschooleducationconsistsofnotonlywhattheyareexplicitlytaughtintheclassroom,butalso whattheyimplicitlylearnthroughthelanguage,attitudesandactionsofotherstudentsandteachers. Whentheseattitudes,remarksandactionsareunsupportiveorhostile,theycreateaschoolclimatethat cannegativelyimpactstudentsfeelingsofsafetyandtheirinterestinschoolandlearning. Understandingschoolclimateisanimportantfirststepinensuringthatallstudentsfeelsafeand supportedintheirlearningenvironments. PreviousresearchconductedbyGLSEN(theGay,Lesbian&StraightEducationNetwork)has documentedtheprevalenceofbiasedlanguage,namecallingandbullying,aswellassupportive resources,atthesecondaryschoollevel1;yet,theprecursorstosecondaryschoolclimateareless understood.Thecurrentstudyexaminesschoolclimate,studentexperiencesandteacherpracticesat theelementaryschoollevel. Inthisstudy,studentsinelementaryschoolwereaskedabouttheirschoolclimates,includinghearing biasedremarks,witnessingandexperiencingbullyingaswellaslessonstheyreceivedonbullying, genderissuesandfamilydiversity.Elementaryschoolteacherswereaskedsimilarquestionsabout schoolclimate,aswellasquestionsaboutattitudesandeffortstowardstudentswithlesbian,gay, bisexualandtransgender(LGBT)parentsandstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditionalgender norms,theirschoolsantibullyingorharassmenteffortsandtheirownprofessionaldevelopment experiences. Thefindingsfromthisstudyprovideanimportantcontextforthediscussionofbullyingandharassment acrossschoolgradesandinsightintotheprecursorsofthetypesofbiasedlanguageandbullyingthat characterizesecondaryschools,particularlythemiddleschoolyearswhenbullyingandharassmentare mostprevalent.2

See:HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingtotorment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyofstudents andteachers.NewYork:GLSEN. Kosciw,J.G.,Greytak,E.A.,Diaz,E.M.,&Bartkiewicz,M.J.(2010).The2009NationalSchoolClimateSurvey:The experiencesoflesbian,gay,bisexualandtransgenderyouthinournationsschools.NewYork:GLSEN. 2 Robers,S.,J.Zhang,etal.(2010).Indicatorsofschoolcrimeandsafety:2010(NCES2010002/NCJ230812). Washington,DC:NationalCenterforEducationStatistics,InstituteofEducationSciences,U.S.Departmentof Education,andBureauofJusticeStatistics,OfficeofJusticePrograms,U.S.DepartmentofJustice.

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SURVEY METHOD
HarrisInteractive,Inc.conductedasurveyofelementaryschoolstudentsandelementaryschool teachersonbehalfofGLSEN.Anationalsampleof1,065elementaryschoolstudentsin3rdto6thgrade and1,099elementaryschoolteachersofKindergartento6thgradeparticipatedintheonlinesurvey.The samplewasdrawnprimarilyfromtheHarrisPollOnline(HPOL)optinpanel.Thesurveywasconducted duringNovemberandDecember2010.

KEY FINDINGS
Biased Remarks at School Elementaryschoolstudentsandteachersreportthatbiasedremarksareregularlyusedbystudentsat theirschools.Themostcommonlyheardnegativeremarksfromstudentsinelementaryschoolsare insultstowardintellectualabilityandusingthewordgayinanegativeway. Halfofstudents(51%)saythatstudentsattheirschoolmakecommentssuchasretardor spazsometimes,oftenorallthetime.Slightlylessthanhalfofteachers(45%)reporthearing studentsmakecommentslikespazorretardsometimes,oftenorveryoften. Abouthalfofstudents(45%)reportthattheyhearcommentslikethatssogayoryoureso gayfromotherkidsatschoolsometimes,oftenorallthetime.Halfofteachers(49%)saythey hearstudentsintheirschoolusethewordgayinanegativewaysometimes,oftenorvery often. Sexistlanguageandremarksaboutgenderstereotypesarecommonlyheardinelementaryschools. Fourintenstudents(39%)saytheyhearotherkidsattheirschoolsaytherearethingsthatboys shouldnotdoorshouldnotwearbecausetheyareboysatleastsometimes.Onethirdof students(33%)saytheyhearotherkidsattheirschoolsaytherearethingsthatgirlsshouldnot doorshouldnotwearbecausetheyaregirlsatleastsometimes. Halfofteachers(48%)reportthattheyhearstudentsmakesexistremarksatleastsometimesat theirschool. Althoughtheyarelesscommon,homophobicremarksandnegativeremarksaboutrace/ethnicityand religionareheardbyasizablenumberofelementaryschoolstudentsandteachers. Onequarterofstudents(26%)andteachers(26%)reporthearingotherstudentsmake commentslikefagorlesboatleastsometimes. Oneinfourstudents(26%)and1in5teachers(21%)hearstudentssaybadormeanthings aboutpeoplebecauseoftheirraceorethnicbackgroundatleastsometimes. Oneintenstudents(10%)andlessthanatenthofteachers(7%)hearotherstudentssaybador meanthingsaboutpeoplebecauseoftheirreligionatleastsometimes.

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Bullying and School Safety Mostelementaryschoolstudentsreportthatstudentsattheirschoolarebulliedorcallednamesat leastsometimesattheirschool,andhalfofelementaryschoolteachersconsiderbullyingandname callingtobeaseriousproblemattheirschool. Threequarters(75%)ofelementaryschoolstudentsreportthatstudentsattheirschoolare callednames,madefunoforbulliedwithatleastsomeregularity(i.e.,allthetime,oftenor sometimes). Nearlyonehalfofelementaryschoolteachersbelievethatbullying,namecallingorharassment isaveryorsomewhatseriousproblemattheirschool(47%). Althoughamajorityofelementaryschoolstudentsfeelverysafeatschool,bullyingandnamecalling areexperiencedbyasizablenumberofstudents.Studentswhoarebulliedregularlyatschoolreport lowergradesandalowerqualityoflifethanotherstudents. Slightlymorethanhalf(59%)ofelementaryschoolstudentssaytheyfeelverysafeatschool. Overonethird(36%)ofelementaryschoolstudentssaytheyhavebeencallednames,made funoforbulliedatleastsometimesthisyearatschool. Studentswhoarebulliedatleastsometimesarelesslikelythanotherstosaythattheyget goodgrades(57%vs.71%)andthattheyvebeenhappyatschoolthisyear(34%vs.69%). Studentswhoarebulliedatleastsometimesarefourtimesaslikelyasotherstudentstosay thattheysometimesdonotwanttogotoschoolbecausetheyfeelafraidorunsafethere (33%vs.8%). Studentswhoarebulliedatleastsometimesarelesslikelythanotherstosaythattheyget alongwiththeirparents(61%vs.75%)andthattheyhavealotoffriends(33%vs.57%). Studentswhoarebulliedatleastsometimesarethreetimesaslikelyasotherstosaythey oftenfeelstressed(15%vs.4%). Themostcommonreasonforbeingbulliedorcallednames,aswellasfeelingunsafeatschool,is physicalappearance. Twothirdsofstudentsattributethebullyingandnamecallingthattheywitnessatschoolto studentsappearanceorbodysize(67%).Studentsarenextmostlikelytoattributethe bullyingandnamecallingtonotbeinggoodatsports(37%),howwelltheydoatschoolwork (26%)andbeingaboywhoactsorlookstoomuchlikeagirloragirlwhoactsorlookstoo muchlikeaboy(23%). Sevenintenteacherssaythatstudentsintheirschoolareveryoften,oftenorsometimes bullied,callednamesorharassedbecauseofthewaytheylookortheirbodysize(70%). Teachersarealsolikelytoreportthatstudentsintheirschoolarefrequentlybullied,called namesorharassedbecauseoftheirabilityatschool(60%),theyhaveadisability(39%),their familydoesnothavealotofmoney(37%),theyareaboywhoactsorlookstoomuchlikea girl"(37%)ortheirrace/ethnicity(35%). Thenumberonereasonamongallstudentsforpersonallyfeelingunsafeorafraidatschool, citedbyoneinsevenstudents(16%),ispersonalappearance. xvii

Studentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormsaremorelikelythanotherstudentsto experienceincidentsofbullyingornamecallingschoolandtofeellesssafeatschool. Almostoneintenofelementaryschoolstudents(8%)reportthattheydonotconformto traditionalgendernormsi.e.,boyswhootherssometimesthinkactorlooklikeagirl,orthey aregirlswhootherssometimesthinkactorlooklikeaboy. Studentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormsaremorelikelythanotherstosay theyarecallednames,madefunoforbulliedatleastsometimesatschool(56%vs.33%). Studentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormsaretwiceaslikelyasotherstudents tosaythatotherkidsatschoolhavespreadmeanrumorsorliesaboutthem(43%vs.20%) andthreetimesaslikelytoreportthatanotherkidatschoolhasusedtheinternettocallthem names,makefunofthemorpostmeanthingsaboutthem(7%vs.2%). Studentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormsarelesslikelythanotherstudents tofeelverysafeatschool(42%vs.61%)andaremorelikelythanotherstoagreethatthey sometimesdonotwanttogotoschoolbecausetheyfeelunsafeorafraidthere(35%vs.15%). Studentsinpublicschoolsandschoolsinurbanareasaremorelikelytogotoschoolswherestudents arebulliedorcallednames,andtobebulliedorcallednamesandfeellesssafeatschoolthemselves. Studentsinurbanschoolsaremorelikelythanthoseinsuburbanorruralschoolstosay studentsattheirschoolarebulliedallthetimeoroften(34%vs.21%vs.24%). Studentsinurbanschoolsarealsolesslikelythanthoseinsuburbanorruralschoolstofeel verysafeatschool(52%vs.60%vs.67%). Publicschoolstudentsaremorelikelythanprivateorparochialschoolstudentssaythat bullyingoccursallthetimeoroftenattheirschool(27%vs.9%). Publicschoolstudentsarelesslikelythanprivateorparochialschoolstudentstosaytheyfeel verysafeatschool(58%vs.79%). Teachers Beliefs and Practices Thevastmajorityofelementaryschoolteachersbelievethateducatorshaveanobligationtoensurea safeandsupportivelearningenvironmentforstudentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgender norms.Mostteachersagreethatotherschoolpersonnelwouldbesupportiveofeffortsthat specificallyaddressissuesofnontraditionalgenderexpression,althoughfewerbelievethatother membersoftheirschoolcommunitieswouldbesupportive.However,lessthanhalfofteachers believethatstudentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormswouldfeelcomfortableatthe schoolwheretheyteach. Overeightintenteachers(83%)agreethatteachersandotherschoolpersonnelhavean obligationtoensureasafeandsupportivelearningenvironmentforstudentswhodonot conformtotraditionalgendernorms. Themajorityofteachersreportthatschoollevelstaffwouldbesupportiveofeffortsthat specificallyaddressissuesofgenderroles,genderstereotypesandnontraditionalgender expression,includingotherteachers(61%),administratorsintheirschool(59%)andother schoolstaff(56%).Fewerteachersreportthatdistrictleveladministration(47%),theschool board(46%),parents(46%)orthePTAorPTO(41%)wouldbesupportive.

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Fewerthanhalfofteachers(44%)saythatamalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionally femininewouldfeelcomfortableattheschoolwheretheyteach. Nearlyhalfofteachers(49%)saythatafemalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionally masculinewouldfeelcomfortableattheschoolwheretheyteach. Lessthanhalfofteachers(41%)saythatastudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobetransgender wouldfeelcomfortableattheschoolwheretheyteach.

Mostelementaryschoolteachersbelievethatteachershaveanobligationtoensureasafeand supportivelearningenvironmentforstudentswithlesbian,gay,bisexualandtransgender(LGBT) parentsorotherfamilymembers.Mostteachersagreethatotherschoolpersonnelwouldbe supportiveofeffortsthatspecificallyaddressfamilieswithLGBTparents.However,lessthanhalfof teachersbelievethatastudentwithanLGBTparentwouldfeelcomfortableattheschoolwherethey teach. Sevenintenteachers(70%)agreethatteachersandotherschoolpersonnelhavean obligationtoensureasafeandsupportivelearningenvironmentforstudentswithlesbian, gay,bisexualandtransgender(LGBT)parentsorotherfamilymembers. Themajorityofteachersreportthatschoollevelstaffwouldbesupportiveofeffortsthat specificallyaddressfamilieswithLGBTparents,includingotherteachers(57%),administrators intheirschool(55%)andotherschoolstaff(51%).Fewerteachersreportthatdistrictlevel administration(44%),theschoolboard(41%),parents(37%)orthePTAorPTO(36%)would besupportive. Halfofteachers(49%)saythatastudentwithalesbian,gayorbisexualparentwouldfeel comfortableattheschoolwheretheyteach. Fewerthanhalfofteachers(42%)saythatastudentwithatransgenderparentwouldfeel comfortableattheschoolwheretheyteach. Elementaryschoolteachersreporthighlevelsofcomfortinaddressingandtakingactioninsituations ofnamecalling,bullyingorharassmentofstudentsinarangeofsituations. Eightintenteachers(81%)wouldfeelcomfortableaddressingnamecalling,bullyingor harassmentofstudentsbecauseastudentisorisbelievedtobegay,lesbianorbisexual. Eightintenteachers(81%)wouldfeelcomfortableaddressingnamecalling,bullyingor harassmentofstudentsbecausetheydonotconformtotraditionalgenderroles. Amajorityofteacherssaythattheyveryoftenoroftenaddressthesituationwhenstudents makehomophobicremarks(66%)orusethewordgayinanegativeway(68%). Amajorityofteacherssaythattheyveryoftenoroftenaddressthesituationwhenstudents makecommentsaboutamaleactingorlookingtoofeminine(63%)orafemaleactingor lookingtoomasculine(59%),ormakesexistremarks(67%). Amajorityofteacherssaythattheyveryoftenoroftenaddressthesituationwhenstudents makeracistremarks(72%)orcommentslikespazorretard(67%).

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Nearlyhalfofelementaryschoolteachersarecomfortablerespondingtoquestionsfromtheir studentsaboutlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)people. Justlessthanhalfofteachers(48%)wouldfeelcomfortablerespondingtoquestionsfrom theirstudentsaboutgay,lesbianorbisexualpeople.Theotherhalfsaytheywouldfeel uncomfortable(26%)orneithercomfortablenoruncomfortable(25%). Fourintenteachers(41%)wouldfeelcomfortablerespondingtoquestionsfromtheir studentsabouttransgenderpeople.Themajoritysaytheywouldfeeluncomfortable(34%)or neithercomfortablenoruncomfortable(24%). Mostelementaryschoolstudentssaytheyhavebeentaughtaboutbullying,namecallingand respectingothersandaboutgenderequalityinschool.Whilemosthavelearnedthattherearemany differentkindsoffamilies,fewhavelearnedspecificallyaboutfamilieswithgayorlesbianparents. Nineintenstudents(92%)saytheyhavebeentaughtthatpeopleshouldnotbullyothersor callpeoplenames. Nineintenstudents(91%)saytheyhavebeentaughtthattheyshouldrespectpeoplewhoare differentfromthem. Nearlynineintenstudents(88%)saytheyhavebeentaughtthatgirlsandboyscandothe samethings. Sevenintenstudents(72%)saytheyhavebeentaughtthattherearemanydifferentkindsof families. Twointenstudents(18%)havelearnedaboutfamilieswithgayorlesbianparents(families thathavetwodadsortwomoms). School-Wide Efforts and Professional Development Thevastmajorityofteachersreportthattheirschoolhastakenstepstoaddressbullyingand harassment,mostcommonlywithantibullyingandharassmentpolicies.Additionally,mostteachers havehadprofessionaldevelopmentontheseissues,althoughmanybelievetheyneedmore. Eightintenteachers(81%)reportthattheirschoolhasimplementedantibullyingoranti harassmentpolicies,including24%whosaytheirschoolhasacomprehensivepolicythat specificallymentionssexualorientationandgenderidentityorexpression. Sixintenteachers(61%)reportthattheirschoolhasclassroombasedcurriculaoreducation programsforstudentsregardingbullyingorharassment. Sixintenteachers(61%)reportthattheirschoolhasimplementedprofessionaldevelopment (i.e.,training)forschoolpersonnelrelatedtobullyingorharassment. Alargemajorityofteachershavepersonallyreceivedprofessionaldevelopmentonbullyingor harassment(85%).However,lessthanhalf(45%)feeltheyneedfurtherprofessional developmentinthisarea.

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Elementaryteachersseldomreceiveprofessionaldevelopmentonlesbian,gay,bisexualor transgender(LGBT)familiesorgenderissues.Asizableminorityofteachersbelievetheyneedfurther professionaldevelopmentontheseissues. Althoughalargemajorityofteachershavereceivedprofessionaldevelopmentondiversityor multiculturalissues(85%),thiseducationisunlikelytoincludecontentaboutLGBTfamiliesor genderissues.Justoverathirdofteachers(37%)haveeverreceivedprofessional developmentongenderissues.Onlyaquarter(23%)havereceivedprofessionaldevelopment onfamilieswithLGBTparents. Oneinthreeteachersbelievetheyneedfurtherprofessionaldevelopmentonaddressing homophobicnamecalling,bullyingandharassment(30%)andworkingwithLGBTfamilies (29%).Nearlyaquarterbelievetheyneedfurtherprofessionaldevelopmentonworkingwith studentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernorms(23%)andongenderissuesin general(23%).

CONCLUSION
Bullyingandharassmentarenotuncommonoccurrencesattheelementaryschoollevel,especiallyfor studentswhomaybevulnerablebecauseofpersonalcharacteristicssuchasphysicalappearance,ability andnotconformingtotraditionalgendernorms.Althoughschoolclimatesarenotespeciallyhostileat thisage,morecanbedonetosetafoundationforsafeandsupportiveschoolenvironmentsthatspan acrossstudentsschoolyears. Elementaryteachersofteninterveneinincidentsofbullyingandharassment,andmostreportbeing comfortabledoingso.Yet,mostarenotcomfortablerespondingtoquestionsaboutLGBTpeopleand fewelementarystudentsaretaughtaboutLGBTfamilies.Thistendencyisnotsurprisinggiventhatmost teachersreportreceivingprofessionaldevelopmentonaddressingbullying,butnotaboutsubjectslike genderissuesorLGBTfamilies.Itisclearthatanapproachthatfostersrespectandvaluesdiversityeven beforebullyingoccurs,inadditiontoaddressingbullyingasithappens,wouldbewelcomedby elementaryschoolteacherswhoareeagertolearnmoreaboutcreatingsafeandsupportive environments.Ensuringthatallstudentsandfamiliesarerespectedandvaluedinelementaryschool wouldnotonlyprovideamorepositivelearningenvironmentforyoungerstudents,butwouldalsolay thegroundworkforsafeandaffirmingmiddleandhighschools.

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ABOUT THE RESEARCH


HarrisInteractive,Inc.conductedPlaygroundsandPrejudice:ElementarySchoolClimateintheUnited States,ASurveyofStudentsandTeachers,onbehalfofGLSEN(theGay,Lesbian&StraightEducation Network).ThissurveyisintendedtoextendfindingsfromGLSENsstudyofsecondarystudentand teacherexperiences,FromTeasingtoTorment:SchoolClimateinAmerica,conductedbyHarris Interactive,in2005.The2005surveydocumentedandraisedawarenessofsecondarystudentsand teachersexperienceswithbullyingandharassment.Itprovidedthefirstevernationallyrepresentative findingsaboutschoolclimateforsecondaryschoolstudents,andincludedquestionsaboutsexual orientationandgenderexpression. TopicscoveredinPlaygroundsandPrejudiceincludeelementaryschoolstudentsperspectivesonbiased remarksandbullyingincidentsthattheywitnessandpersonallyexperienceatschool,andstudents reportsofthelessonstheyreceivedonbullying,genderissuesandfamilydiversity.Thestudyalso includeselementaryschoolteachersperspectivesonbiasedremarksandbullyingintheirschools, teachersattitudesandeffortsforstudentswithlesbian,gay,bisexualandtransgender(LGBT)parents andstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms,antibullyingorharassmentpolicies andprofessionaldevelopmentforteachers. Survey Methods Anationalsampleof1,065elementaryschoolstudentsin3rdto6thgradeand1,099elementaryschool teachersofKindergartento6thgradeparticipatedintheonlinesurvey.Thesamplewasdrawnprimarily fromtheHarrisPollOnline(HPOL)optinpanelandsupplementedwithasamplefromtrustedpartner panels.Allrespondentswereinvitedtoparticipatethroughpasswordprotectedemails.Interviewswith studentsaveraged15minutesinlengthandwereconductedbetweenNovember3andNovember29, 2010.Interviewswithteachersaveraged20minutesinlengthandwereconductedbetweenNovember 11andDecember7,2010.Inaddition,anonlinestrategysessionwasconductedonJune14,2010witha groupof20elementaryschoolteachersofgradesrangingfromKindergartento6thgradetoinformthe developmentofthesurvey.Keyinformants(e.g.,elementaryschoolteachers,administrators,students andteachereducators)reviewedthestudentandteachersurveystoassesscomprehensionandface validity. A Note on Reading the Tables and Figures Anasterisk(*)onatablesignalsavalueoflessthanonehalfpercent.Adash()representsavalueof zero.Percentagesmaynotalwaysaddupto100%becauseofcomputerrounding,theacceptanceof multipleanswersfromrespondents,orbecausesomeanswercategoriesmaybeexcludedfromthe tableorfigure.Thebaseforeachfigureandtableisthetotalnumberofrespondentsansweringa question(unlessotherwiseindicated,allsurveyrespondents;either1,065elementaryschoolstudents or1,099elementaryschoolteachers).Incaseswherethebasedoesnotincludeallrespondents,further informationisprovidedabovethetableorfigure.Fortablesandfiguresdisplayinggroupdifferences, thebaseisalsoprovidedforeachgroup,representingthetotalnumberofrespondentsinthesubgroup. Notethatinsomecases,resultsmaybebasedonsmallsamplesizes.Thisistypicallytruewhen

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questionswereaskedofsubgroups.Cautionshouldbeusedindrawinganyconclusionsoftheresults basedonthesesamples. Analyseswereconductedtodeterminestatisticallysignificantdifferent(at95%confidencelevel) responsesbetweensubgroups(e.g.,3rd4thgradestudentsvs.5th6thgradestudents).3Statistically significantdifferencesareindicatedbyasuperscriptcapitalletter(e.g.,58%A).Thisnotationindicates thattheparticularresultissignificantlygreaterthanthecorrespondingdatapointinthecolumnofthe superscriptletter.Forexample,Table1.1belowshowsthatstatisticallysignificantdifferencesexist betweentheresponsesof3rd4thgradestudentsand5th6thgradestudentsonthefrequencyofwhich theyhearothersmakecommentslikeretardorspaz.Thetableshowsthat5th6thgradestudentsare morelikelythan3rd4thgradestudentstoheartheseremarksattheirschool. Table 1.2 Biased Remarks from Other Students at School Grade Level 3 -4th grade A 548 46% 17% 28% 54%B
rd

Base: All the Time/Often/ Sometimes All the Time/Often Sometimes Never/Almost Never Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations Used in Report

5th-6th grade B 517 58%A 26%A 32% 41%

ComprehensiveAntiBullyingPolicies Antibullyingorharassmentpoliciesthatspecificallymentionsexualorientationandgenderidentityor expression. DoesnotConformtoGenderNorms/Roles Studentswhodonotfollowsocietalexpectationsofgender,includingboyswhoothersthinklookoract traditionallyfeminineandgirlswhoothersthinklookoracttraditionallymasculine.


3

NotethatonlyteacherswhoexclusivelyteachK2,34or56areincludedintheanalysesofdifferencesbygrade leveltaught;thosewhoteachacrossthesegradelevelcategories(e.g.,ateacherwhoteachesgrades2and3)are notincludedinthethesespecificanalysesofgradeleveldifferences.Assuch,thebasesamplefortheanalysesof gradeleveldifferencesinsmallerthanthetotalsample. AlsonotethatonlystudentswhoidentifiedasexclusivelyWhite,Black/AfricanAmericanorHispanicareincluded intheanalysesofdifferencesbyrace/ethnicity.Thereweretoofewstudentswhoidentifiedasanother racial/ethniccategory(e.g.,Asian)orasmorethanonerace/ethnicitytobeincludedinthestatisticalanalysesof groupdifferences.

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GenericAntiBullyingPolicies Antibullyingorharassmentpoliciesthatdonotspecificallyaddresssexualorientationandgender identityorexpression. LGBT Lesbian,gay,bisexualandtransgender PD Professionaldevelopment RelationalBullyingorAggression Aformofbullying,namecallingorharassmentthatcandamagepeerrelationships,suchasspreading rumorsorpurposelyexcludingorisolatingstudents. Project Responsibility and Acknowledgements TheHarristeamresponsibleforthedesignandanalysisofthissurveyincludesDanaMarkow,Ph.D.,Vice President;AndreaPieters,SeniorProjectResearcher;andHelenLee,ProjectResearcher. TheGLSENteamresponsibleforthisresearchincludesJosephKosciw,Ph.D.,EmilyGreytak,Ph.D.,Neal Palmer,MarkBartkiewicz,MaddyBoesenandRyanKull. Theauthorswouldliketothanktheelementaryeducatorswhoprovidedinsightintothedevelopmentof theresearchandtheelementaryeducators,teachereducatorsandstudentswhoreviewedsurveydrafts andprovidedfeedback.Theauthorswouldalsoliketothanktheelementaryteacherswhoparticipated intheonlineformativeresearchsessionandtheteachersandstudentswhocompletedthesurveys. TheauthorsarealsogratefultoElizabethDiaz,formerlyofGLSEN,forherimportantcontributiontothis research. Public Release of Survey Findings AllHarrisInteractive,Inc.surveysaredesignedtocomplywiththecodeandstandardsoftheCouncilof AmericanSurveyResearchOrganizations(CASRO)andthecodeoftheNationalCouncilofPublicPolls (NCPP).Becausedatafromthesurveymaybereleasedtothepublic,anyreleasemuststipulatethatthe completereportisalsoavailable.

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Chapter 1 Biased Language at School


Onecontributiontoahostileschoolenvironmentistheuseofbiasedlanguageregardlessofwhether ornotitisdirectedataparticularindividualorintendedtobeoffensive.Previousresearchconductedby GLSENhasdocumentedtheprevalenceofbiasedlanguageinmiddleschoolsandhighschools. 1 The currentresearchseekstocontributetotheoverallknowledgeofschoolclimatebyexploringwhatmay beprecursorsofbullyingandharassment,suchasbiasedlanguage.Thischapterexaminestheincidents ofbiasedlanguagethatoccurinelementaryschools,asreportedbystudentsandteachers.Thechapter alsoexploreswhatstudentshavebeentaughtabouttheseissuesinschool. Weaskedelementaryschoolstudentsandteachersaboutthefrequencyofwhichtheyheararangeof biasedremarksinthecourseofadayatschool,suchasremarksthataredisparagingofsomeones intellectualcapabilities,race,ethnicityorreligion.Inaddition,qualitative,formativeresearchwe conductedwithelementaryschoolteacherssuggeststhatthestudentsalsocommonlyusetheword gaytoindicatesomethingisbadorworthless,asintheexpressionsthatssogayoryouresogay. Furthermore,theresearchsuggeststhathomophobicslurs,suchasfagorlesbo,alsocommonly occurinelementaryschoolandthatchildrenmaylearnearlyonthatsuchepithetsaremeanttobe hurtful,eveniftheydonotalwaysunderstandthemeaningofthewordsentirely.Forthesereasons,we alsoaskedelementarystudentsandteachersabouthearingexpressionslikethatssogayandhearing theuseofepithetslikefagorlesboinschool. Overview

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN.(2005).FromTeasingtotorment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyofstudentsand teachers.NewYork,GLSEN.

Section 1. Students Reports on Biased Language at School


Biased Remarks AsshowninFigure1.1,themostcommonforms ofbiasedlanguagethatelementaryschool studentsreporthearingaretermsthataremeant tocriticizesomeonesintellectualabilitiesandthe useofgayinanegativemanner.Abouthalfof students(51%)saythatstudentsattheirschool makecommentssuchasretardorspazat leastsometimes,withoneinfivesayingthatit happensallthetimeoroften(21%).Nearlyhalfof students(46%)reportthattheyhearcomments likethatssogayoryouresogayfromother kidsatschoolwithsomeregularity(i.e.,allthe time,often,sometimes),withnearlyaquarter (21%)sayingthatithappensallthetimeoroften. Theuseofhomophobicslurs,suchasfagor lesbo,andnegativecommentsaboutraceor ethnicityalsooccurinelementaryschool,butare lesscommonlyheard.Aroundaquarterof elementaryschoolstudents(26%)hearother studentsattheirschoolsayfagorlesboat leastsometimesandaboutaquarter(26%)also hearracistremarksasfrequently.Elementary schoolstudentsareleastlikelytoreporthearing otherstudentsmakenegativeremarksabout religion,withonlyoneinten(10%)reportingthat studentsmakebiasedreligiouscommentsatleast sometimes.

Figure1.1 HearingBiasedRemarksfromOtherStudentsatSchool AlmostNever Hearothersmakecommentslike "retard"or"spaz" Hearothersmakecommentslike "thatssogay"or"you'resogay" Hearothersmakecommentslike "fag"or"lesbo" Hearotherssaybadormeanthings aboutpeoplebecauseoftheirrace orethnicbackground Hearotherssaybadormeanthings aboutpeoplebecauseoftheir religion Sometimes 21% Often 30% AlltheTime AtLeast Sometimes (Net) 14% 7% 51%

18%

25%

13% 8%

46%

15%

18%

5% 3%

26%

29%

21%

4% 1%

26%

22%

8% 1% 1%

10%

Q915/Q905/Q910.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythingslike:"retard" or"spaz"/"that'ssogay"or"you'reso gay"/"fag"or"lesbo"?Q950.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaybadormeanthingsaboutpeopleforthese reasons:Becauseoftheirraceorethnicbackground/Becauseoftheirreligion?(Excludes "Never"response.)

Withtheexceptionofnegativecommentsabout race/ethnicityorreligion,thefrequencyofhearing biasedcommentsincreaseswithage.Older students(5thand6thgraders)aremorelikelythan youngerstudents(3rdand4thgraders)tosaythat studentsattheirschoolusewordssuchas retardorspazatleastsometimes(58%vs. 46%).Olderstudentsarealsomorelikelythan youngerstudentstoreporthearingremarkslike thatssogayoryouresogay(53%vs.40%) andfagorlesbo(34%vs.21%)atleast sometimesatschool. Thefrequencywithwhichstudentshearthese remarkstypicallydoesnotvarybygenderthe onlyinstanceinwhichboystendtodifferfrom girlsisthefrequencywithwhichtheyreport hearinghomophobicremarkslikefagorlesbo. Boystendtoheartheseslursmoreoftenthan girls,withonethirdofboys(31%)reporting hearingtheseremarksatleastsometimes, comparedto22%ofgirls.Black/AfricanAmerican (41%)andHispanic(33%)studentsarealsomore likelythanWhitestudents(21%)tohear homophobicremarksatleastsometimes. Differencesintheprevalenceofbiasedcomments mayalsoberelatedtoschoolcharacteristics. Publicschoolstudentsaremuchmorelikelythan privateorparochialschoolstudentstoreport hearingallofthesederogatoryremarks(seeTable 1.1).Schoollocationalsoplaysaroleinthe frequencyofbiasedcommentsheardbystudents. Overall,studentsinurbanareasaremorelikely thanstudentsinsuburbanorruralareastohear negativeremarks,withtheexceptionofretard orspaz;commentsrelatedtointellectual capabilityareheardatthesamefrequencyacross urban,suburbanandruralschools(seealsoTable 1.1). Studentsarenottheonlysourceofbiased remarksatschoolalarmingly,twointen elementaryschoolstudents(19%)saythatthey haveheardteachersorotheradultsatschool makebiasedcomments(seeFigure1.2).Most commonly,studentsreportthatteachersorother adultscallastudentstupidordumb(11%)or makeracialorethnicslurs(3%).Veryfew students,2%orless,saythattheyhaveheard teachersoradultssaythingslikethatssogayor youresogay(2%),denigratepeoplethatthe teachersoradultsbelievearegay(2%)ormake negativeremarksaboutreligion(1%). AsshowninTable1.2,theprevalenceofstudents hearingbiasedremarksfromteachersishigher amongolderthanyoungerstudents.Older studentsin5th6thgradearemorelikelythan youngerstudentsin3rd4thgradetosaythatthey haveheardtheirteachersorotheradultsinschool makeanyofthesebiasedremarks(23%vs.17%). Inparticular,olderstudentsaremorelikelythan youngerstudentstosaythattheyhavehearda teacherorotheradultcallastudentstupidor dumb(15%vs.9%).Therearenodifferencesby otherstudentcharacteristics,suchasgenderor race/ethnicityorbyschoolcharacteristics.

Table1.1 FrequencyofHearingBiasedRemarksfromOtherStudentsatSchoolbySchoolTypeand SchoolLocation SchoolType Public SchoolLocation Rural E 310 52% 47% 46%D 53%C 24% 75%C Private/ Urban Suburban Parochial A B C D Base: 928 130 318 433 Hearothersmakecommentslike"retard"or"spaz" AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 53%B 36% 52% 50% A Never/AlmostNever 47% 64% 47% 50% Hearothersmakecommentslike"that'ssogay"or"you'resogay" AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 47%B 27% 56%DE 38% A Never/AlmostNever 52% 73% 41% 61%CE Hearothersmakecommentslike"fag"or"lesbo" AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 28%B 10% 37%DE 22% A Never/AlmostNever 70% 90% 61% 77%C Hearotherssaybadormeanthingsaboutpeoplebecauseoftheirraceorethnic background AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 28%B 6% 37%DE 24% A Never/AlmostNever 71% 94% 62% 76%C Hearotherssaybadormeanthingsaboutpeoplebecauseoftheirreligion AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 11%B 3% 16%E 8% A Never/AlmostNever 87% 96% 81% 91%C

19% 80%C 8% 91%C

Q915/Q905/Q910.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythingslike:"retard"or"spaz"/"that'ssogay"or "you'resogay"/"fag"or"lesbo"?Q950.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaybadormeanthingsabout peopleforthesereasons:Becauseoftheirraceorethnicbackground/Becauseoftheirreligion?

Figure1.2 StudentsWhoReportedEverHearingBiasedRemarksfromTeachersand OtherAdultsatSchool

Callastudentstupid"or"dumb Saybadormeanthingsaboutpeople becauseoftheirraceorethnicbackground Saythat'ssogay"or"you'resogay" Saybadormeanthingsaboutpeoplewho theythinkaregay Saybadormeanthingsaboutpeople becauseoftheirreligion 1% 2%

11%

3%

2%

Q955.Didateacherorotheradultatschooleverdoanyofthesethings?

Table1.2 DifferencesbyGradeLevelofStudentsWhoReportedEverHearingBiasedRemarksfromTeachers andOtherAdultsatSchool GradeLevel 3 4th grade A 548 9% 2% 1% 2% * 83%B


rd

Base: Callastudent"stupid"or"dumb" Saybadormeanthingsaboutpeople becauseoftheirraceorethnic background Say"that'ssogay"oryou'resogay Saybadormeanthingsaboutpeople whotheythinkaregay Saybadormeanthingsaboutpeople becauseoftheirreligion Noneofthese

5th6th grade B 517 15%A 4% 3% 1% 1% 77%

Q955.Didateacherorotheradultatschooleverdoanyofthesethings?

studentstohearthatboysshouldnotdoorwear certainthingsbecausetheyareboysthantohear similarcommentsaboutgirls.Fourinten(38%) studentsreportthatotherstudentsattheir elementaryschoolsaythattherearethingsboys shouldnotdoorwearbecausetheyareboysat leastsometimes,with11%reportingthatthey hearthesecommentsbeingmadeallthetimeor often.Slightlyfewerelementaryschoolstudents reporthearingremarksfromotherstudentsthat therearethingsgirlsshouldnotdoorwear becausetheyaregirls:onethird(33%)report hearingcommentsabouthowgirlsareexpected toactorlookaccordingtosocietalnormsatleast sometimes,with7%sayingthattheyhearthese commentsallthetimeoroften. Comparedtotheirolderpeers,youngergirlsseem tobemoreacceptingofothergirlswhomaynot conformtotraditionalgendernorms,thanare theirolderpeers.Abouthalfof3rd4thgradegirls (47%)reportthattheyneverhearotherkidsmake thesetypesofcommentsaboutgirls,compared withjustoveronethirdof5th6thgradegirls(36%). Incontrast,therearenodifferencesbygradelevel orgenderinhearingotherstudentssaythatthere arethingsthatboysshouldnotdoorwear becausetheyareboys.Therearealsono differencesbytheotherstudentdemographics thatweexamined,suchasrace/ethnicity. Theprevalenceofgenderbasedremarksisalso relatedtoschoolcharacteristics.Studentsin publicandurbanschoolsaremorelikelytohear otherstudentssaythattherearethingsboysor girlsshouldnotdoorwearjustbecausetheyare boysorgirls.Publicschoolstudentsaremore likelythanprivate/parochialschoolstudentsto saythattheyhearotherstudentsmakethese commentsaboutwhatboysarenotsupposedto doorwear,althoughtherearenosuchschool typedifferencesregardingcommentsaboutwhat girlsaretraditionallyexpectedtodoorwear.As forschoollocation,studentsinurbanschoolsare morelikelythanthoseatsuburbanorrural schoolstosaythattheyheartheseremarksabout boys,andaremorelikelythanstudentsinrural

Insomeofourpreviousresearchonclimatein secondaryschools,wehavefoundthataroundsix intenstudentsreporthearingdisparaging commentsaboutsomeonesgenderexpression (suchassayingthatamalestudentistoo feminineorafemalestudentistoomasculine) atleastsometimes. 2 Further,GLSENsresearchon theexperiencesofLGBTidentifiedstudentsin secondaryschoolshowsthatthemajorityofthis studentpopulationalsohearscommentsabout genderexpression. 3 Wewantedtounderstand theextenttowhichthesecommentsoccurin earliergradesandhowsuchattitudesabout genderrolesareexpressed.Informative qualitativeresearch,elementaryschoolteachers indicatedthatstudentsandteachersseemany behaviorsasgenderspecificattheelementary schoollevel,including:sportsingeneral(e.g.,as moreappropriateforboys)andspecifictypesof sports(e.g.,tetherballasmoreappropriatefor girls);waysofinteractingwithotherstudentsand withtheteacher(e.g.,withgirlsexpectedtobe kind,helptheteacher);clothesandhairstyles; andchoiceoffriends(e.g.,withfriendships consistingofsamegenderindividuals).In addition,teachersreportsometimesusinggender separationasaclassroommanagementtooland forpurposessuchasbathroomlines. Inlookingspecificallyattheelementaryschool climate,wefindthatasizableminorityof elementarystudentshearotherstudentssaythat therearethingsthatboysorgirlsshouldnotdoor wearjustbecausetheyareboysorgirls(see Figure1.3).Furthermore,itismorecommonfor
2

Remarks Related to Not Conforming to Traditional Gender Norms

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN.(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork,GLSEN. Kosciw,J.G.,Greytak,E.A.,Diaz,E.M.,&Bartkiewicz, M.J.(2010).The2009NationalSchoolClimateSurvey: Theexperiencesoflesbian,gay,bisexualand transgenderyouthinournationsschools.New York:GLSEN.

schoolstohearthesametypesofcomments aboutgirls(seeTable1.3). Studentswerealsoaskedaboutthekindsof messagestheyhearfromteachersabouthow boysandgirlsshouldbehavebasedongender. Thenumberofstudentswhoreporthearing teachersmakethesecommentsissmallless than10%ofstudentsreportthattheyhaveheard theirteachermakecommentsaboutwhatis appropriateforgirlstodoorboystodoor commentsthatonegenderisbetterthanthe other(seeFigure1.4).Olderelementaryschool studentsaresomewhatmorelikelythanyounger studentstosaythattheyhaveheardateacheror otheradultatschoolsaythattherearethingsthat boysandgirlsshouldnotdoorwearbecauseof theirgender.Nootherdifferencesbasedon studentcharacteristicsareapparent. Whenexaminingtheprevalenceofteachersor adultsmakingbiasedcommentsregardinggender expressionbyschoollocation,weseeagainthat theseremarksaremorelikelytooccurinurban elementaryschools.Studentsinurbanschoolsare morelikelythanstudentsinsuburbanschoolsto reportthattheyhearadultsattheirschoolsay thattherearethingsboysandgirlsshouldnotdo becauseoftheirgenderandthatonegenderis betterthananother(seeTable1.4).Nosignificant differencescanbeseenwhencomparingurban andsuburbanschoolsagainstruralschools(see alsoTable1.4),noristhereadifferencebasedon schooltype. Whereasthenumberofstudentswhoreport hearingteachersorotheradultsmakebiased commentsissmall,theimpactissizable.Teacher behaviorappearstoberelatedtotheprevalence ofstudentscommentsregardinggendernorms. AsshowninTable1.5,studentsaremorelikelyto makecommentsabouthowboysandgirlsare expectedtobehaveorlookinschoolswhere studentshaveheardteacherssaythatthereare thingsboysandgirlsshouldnotdoorwear becauseoftheirgender:threequartersofthe studentsheargenderremarksfromother studentsattheirschool(79%aboutboysand75% aboutgirls)inschoolswhereteachersencourage studentstoactorlookaccordingtosocietal expectationsoftheirgender,comparedtoathird (35%and29%,respectively)ofstudentsinschools whohavenotheardteachersmakesuchremarks.

Figure1.3 FrequencyofHearingRemarksRelatedtoStudentsGender ExpressionfromOtherStudentsatSchool 3% 8% 27% 2% 5% AlltheTime 26% Often 22% 23% Sometimes AlmostNever Hearothersmakeremarks Hearothersmakeremarks abouthowboysshouldactor abouthowgirlsshouldactor look look
Q930/Q940.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythattherearethingsthatboysshouldnotdoor shouldnotwearbecausetheyareboys?/Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythattherearethings thatgirlsshouldnotdoorshouldnotwearbecausetheyaregirls?(Excludes"Never"response.)

Table1.3 FrequencyofHearingRemarksRelatedtoStudentsGenderExpressionfromOther StudentsatSchoolbySchoolTypeandSchoolLocation SchoolType Public A Private/ Parochial B Urban C SchoolLocation Suburban D 433 36% 64%C Rural E 310 35% 65%C

Base: 928 130 318 Hearothersmakeremarksabouthowboysshouldactorlook Allthe 40%B 24% 46%DE Time/Often/Sometimes Never/AlmostNever 59% 77%A 52% Hearothersmakeremarksabouthowgirlsshouldactorlook Allthe 34%B 23% 38%E Time/Often/Sometimes Never/AlmostNever 65% 77%A 60%

32% 68%

30% 70%C

Q930/Q940.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythattherearethingsthatboysshouldnotdoorshouldnot wearbecausetheyareboys?/Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythattherearethingsthatgirlsshouldnotdo orshouldnotwearbecausetheyaregirls?

Figure1.4 StudentsWhoReportedEverHearingRemarksRelatedtoStudents GenderExpressionfromTeachersandOtherAdults Encouragestudentstofollowsocietal expectationsofgender(Net) Saythattherearethingsboysshouldnotdo becausetheyareboys Saythattherearethingsgirlsshouldnotdo becausetheyaregirls Saythattherearethingsboyscan'twear becausetheyareboys Saythattherearethingsgirlscan'twear becausetheyaregirls Saythatgirlsarebetterthanboys,orboys arebetterthangirls 4% 4% 4% 5% 6%

8%

Table1.4 HearingRemarksRelatedtoStudentsGenderExpressionfromTeachersandOtherAdultsatSchool andDifferencesbyGradeLevelandSchoolLocation GradeLevel 3 4 grade A 548 7% 4% 3% 3% 3% 3% Table1.5 HearingRemarksRelatedtoStudentsGenderExpressionfromOtherStudentsatSchoolbyHearing TeacherEncourageTraditionalGenderNorms HeardTeacherEncourage TraditionalGenderNorms Yes No A Base: 98 Hearothersmakeremarksabouthowboysshouldactorlook AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 79%B Never/AlmostNever AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes Never/AlmostNever 21% 75%B 25% Hearothersmakeremarksabouthowgirlsshouldactorlook 29% 70%A B 959 35% 64%A
rd th

SchoolLocation
th

Base: Encouragestudentstofollowsocietal expectationsofgender(Net) Saythattherearethingsboysshould notdobecausetheyareboys Saythattherearethingsgirlsshould notdobecausetheyaregirls Saythattherearethingsboyscan't wearbecausetheyareboys Saythattherearethingsgirlscan't wearbecausetheyaregirls Saythatgirlsarebetterthanboys, orboysarebetterthangirls

5 6 grade B 517 10% 8%A 7%A 6% 5% 5%

th

Urban C 318 11% 9%D 8%D 6% 6% 7%D

Suburban D 433 6% 3% 3% 4% 3% 2%

Rural E 310 8% 6% 6% 4% 2% 3%

Q955.Didateacherorotheradultatschooleverdoanyofthesethings?

Q930/Q940.Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythattherearethingsthatboysshouldnot doorshouldnotwearbecausetheyareboys?/Howoftendokidsatyourschoolsaythatthere arethingsthatgirlsshouldnotdoorshouldnotwearbecausetheyaregirls?

10

Section 2. Teachers Reports on Biased Language at School


Teachersprovideanimportantperspectiveon schoolclimate.Inthissection,weexamine teachersviewsontheprevalenceofbiased languageamongstudentsattheirschool.In addition,wediscussteachersreportsonhow theyaddressbiasedlanguageintheirclassrooms. Itisalsovaluabletoexaminewhetherstudents andteachershavesimilarperspectives.For example,inourpreviousresearchamong secondaryschoolteachersandstudents,wehave foundasizablediscrepancyinperceptionsofhow oftenracist,sexistandhomophobicremarksare madeinschools,withstudentsreportingamuch moreseriousproblemthanteachers. 4 Elementaryschoolteachersreportthatthetypes ofbiasedremarksthattheyhearstudentsmake mostoftenaretheuseofthewordgayina negativeway,sexistremarksandcommentslike spazorretardwithnearlyhalfofteachers reportingthattheyhearstudentsmakethese remarksatleastsometimes(seeFigure1.5). Teachersreportsonthefrequencywithwhich studentsusethewordgayinanegativewayand makecommentslikespazorretardaresimilar tostudentsownperspectivesontheprevalence oftheseremarks,asdiscussedintheprevious section. Whereasuseofthewordgayinanegativeway isthetypeofbiasedlanguageheardmostoftenby teachersinelementaryschools,theyarelesslikely toindicatethatotherhomophobicremarks,like faggotorqueer,areusedbyelementary studentsaboutaquartersaythattheyhear thesetypesofhomophobiccommentsatleast sometimes(26%,including9%whohearthem veryoftenoroften).Onequarterofteachers (26%)hearnegativeremarksregardingstudents whomaynotconformtogendernorms(afemale
4

actingorlookingtoomasculineoramaleacting orlookingtoofeminine)atleastsometimes. Andsimilartostudentreports,teachersindicate thatstudentsatleastsometimesmakecomments aboutboyswhoseemtoofeminine(25%), whichishigherthanwithcommentsaboutgirls whoseemtoomasculine(15%). Racistremarksandnegativereligiousremarksare lesscommon,with21%ofteacherssayingtheyat leastsometimeshearstudentsmakeracist remarksand7%ofteacherssayingtheyatleast sometimeshearstudentsmakenegativereligious remarks(seeFigure1.5). Theclosealignmentofteacherandstudent assessmentsinelementaryschooldiffersfrom researchfindingsatthesecondaryschoollevel. Secondaryschoolteachersreportthatbiased languageamongstudentsoccurslessfrequently thanthelevelsthatstudentsreport.Thismost likelyreflectsthegreaterlevelofsupervisionof studentsbyteachersattheelementaryschool level,whichmayprovideteacherswithmore opportunitiestohearstudentsusebiased language.However,previousresearchshowsthat evenatthesecondaryschoollevel,teachersand studentsareinagreementaboutthetypesof biasedlanguagethataremostcommonlyheard fromstudents:sexistandhomophobicremarks. 5 Elementaryteachersaremorelikelytoreport hearingmanyofthesebiasedcommentsastheir studentsgetolder(seeTable1.6),whichisalso consistentwithstudentreports.AthirdofK2nd gradeteacherssaytheyatleastsometimeshear thewordgayusedinanegativeway(36%), whilemorethanhalfof3rd4thgradeteachers (55%)andtwothirdsofteachersin5th6thgrade (66%)reportthesame.Commentslikespazor
5

GLSEN&HarrisInteractive(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

GLSEN&HarrisInteractive(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

11

Figure1.5 FrequencyofBiasedRemarksTeachersHearStudentsMakeatSchool Sometimes Theword"gay"usedinanegativeway Sexistremarks Commentslike''spaz''or''retard'' Homophobicremarks Commentsaboutamaleactingorlooking ''toofeminine'' Commentsaboutafemaleactingorlooking ''toomasculine'' Racistremarks Negativereligiousremarks 17% 20% 12% 2% 1% 15% 6% 1% 0% 4% 2% Often VeryOften 11% 7%

AtLeast Sometimes (Net) 49% 48% 45% 26%

31% 36% 28% 6% 3% 3% 2%

10% 2% 12% 5%

Hearing comments aboutgender normsatleast sometimes Net:26%

25% 15% 21% 7%

Q720.Atyourschool,howoftendoyouhearstudentsmakethefollowingtypesofremarks? (Excludes"Never"and "Rarely" responses.)

retardareheardatleastsometimesby40%of K2ndgradeteachers,50%of3rd4thgradeteachers and53%of5th6thgradeteachers.Thispattern alsoholdsforteacherswhoreporthearingracist remarksfromstudentsatleastsometimes(14%of K2ndgradeteachers,21%of3rd4thgradeteachers and38%of5th6thgradeteachers). Althoughstudentsinurbanschoolsaremorelikely thanthoseinsuburbanandruralschoolstoreport hearingotherstudentsmakenearlyalltypesof biasedcommentsassessedhere,thetrendisnot asstrongforteachers.Whenexamining differencesbetweenteachersbyschoollocation, itisapparentthatbiasedcommentsareleast commonlyheardinsuburbanschools(seeTable 1.6).Sixintenteachersinsuburbanschoolssay theyrarelyorneverhearstudentsusetheword gayinanegativeway(58%),comparedtofour intenteachersinurbanschools(43%)andhalfof teachersinruralschools(50%).Teachersin suburbanschoolsarealsomorelikelythanthose inurbanorruralschoolstosaythattheyrarelyor neverhearstudentsmakecommentslikespaz

orretard(61%vs.55%vs.48%),homophobic remarks(82%vs.69%vs.71%)ornegative commentsaboutstudentswhodonotconformto traditionalgendernorms(92%vs.83%vs.82%). Racistremarksaremostlikelytobeheardby teachersinurbanschools,with32%indicating thattheyhearracistremarksveryoften,oftenor sometimes,comparedto17%ofteachersin suburbanschoolsand15%ofthoseinrural schools. Thefrequencyofteachershearingbiasedremarks variessomewhatbyyearsofteachingexperience. AsshowninTable1.7,teacherswithfeweryears ofexperience(5yearsorless)aremorelikelyto hearsometypesofbiasedremarksfromstudents. Forexample,24%ofnewerteachersreport hearingcommentslikespazorretardoftenor veryoften,comparedto16%ofteacherswith6to 20yearsexperienceand11%ofteacherswith21 ormoreyearsexperience. Inadditiontoaskingteachersaboutthefrequency withwhichtheyhearstudentsusebiased

12

language,wealsoaskedteacherstoreportonthe biasedremarks,thepredominantresponseisthat proportionofstudentsintheirschoolwhomake theseremarksaremadebyjustafewstudentsin theseremarksinordertounderstandthe theschool(seeFigure1.6).However,teachers pervasivenessofsuchlanguageintheelementary reportthatalargernumberofstudentsusegay studentpopulation.Amongelementaryschool inanegativewayandmakecommentslikespaz teacherswhohearstudentsattheirschoolmake orretardintheirschools. Table1.6 FrequencyofBiasedRemarksTeachersHearStudentsMakeatSchoolbyGradeLevelTaughtand SchoolLocation GradeLevelTaught SchoolLocation K2nd A Base: 280 Theword''gay''usedinanegativeway VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never Commentslike''spaz''or''retard'' VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never Homophobicremarks VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never Racistremarks VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never 5% 9% 83%C 2% 19% 79%C
A

3rd4th B 214 18% 37%A 45% 23% 27% 59%C 8% 19% 73% 4% 21% 86%

5th6th C 139 22% 44%A 33% 17% 36% 41% 9% 19% 72% 5% 27% 83% 14%AB 24%
A

Urban D 353 20% 37%E 43% 18% 27% 55% 8% 20%E 69% 8% 23% 83% 9% 23%
EF

Sub urban E 376 21% 21% 58%D 15% 23% 61%F 8% 10%E 82%DF 4% 15% 92%DF 5% 12% 82%D

Rural F 368 14% 34%E 50% 17% 34%E 48% 10% 21%E 71% 3% 26%E 82% 4% 11% 82%D

14% 21% 64%BC 13% 27% 61%C 8% 15% 77% 5% 18% 82%

Commentsaboutstudentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernorms

58%

66%

Q720.Atyourschool,howoftendoyouhearstudentsmakethefollowingtypesofremarks?

13

Table1.7 FrequencyofTeachersHearingBiasedRemarksbyYearsofTeachingExperience YearsofTeachingExperience 5Years or Fewer A Base: 171 Theword''gay''usedinanegativeway VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never Commentslike''spaz''or''retard'' VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never Homophobicremarks VeryOften/Often Sometimes 13% 22% 8% 14%
A

6to20 Years B 514 15% 32% 52% 16% 27% 56%

21 Years or More C 400 17% 30% 52% 11% 34% 54% 5% 16%

25% 27% 48% 24%C 25% 52%

Rarely/Never 65% 77% 78%A Commentsaboutstudentswhodonotconformtotraditional gendernorms VeryOften/Often 8%C 5% 2% Sometimes Rarely/Never Racistremarks VeryOften/Often Sometimes Rarely/Never 10%B 20% 68% 4% 11% 83%
A

27% 85%

17% 87%

22% 84% 6% 15% 79%

Q720.Atyourschool,howoftendoyouhearstudentsmakethefollowingtypesofremarks?

14

Figure1.6 NumberofStudentsTeachersHearMakingBiasedRemarks Base:Variesbyremarksheard None Afew Some 57% 65% 56% 59% 62% 65% 63% 62% 28% Most 28% All 11% 2% 25% 5% 0% 9% 1%

Using"gay"inanegativeway 2% Sexistremarks 5% Commentslikespazorretard 3% Homophobicremarks 10%

26% 4% 0% 27% 3% 0%

Commentsaboutamalebeing''too 7% feminine" Commentsaboutafemalebeing''too 11% masculine'' Racistremarks 7% Negativereligiousremarks 21%

22% 2% 0% 23% 7% 0% 15% 2% 0%

Q725.Atyourschool,howmanystudentsmakethefollowingtypesofremarks?

Addressing Student Use of Biased Language Amajorityofteachersreportthatwhentheyare facedwithsituationsinwhichstudentsmake biasedremarks,theyveryoftenoroftenseekto addressit(seeFigure1.7).Teachersaremost likelytoreportthattheyveryoftenoroften addressracistremarksmadebystudents(72%). Twothirdssaytheytakeactionveryoftenoroften whenthewordgayisusednegatively(68%), whentheyhearsexistremarks(68%)andwhen homophobicremarksaremade(66%).Sixinten teacherssaythattheyveryoftenoroftenaddress situationsinwhichtheyhearstudentsmake commentsaboutamaleactingorlookingtoo feminine(63%)orafemaleactingorlookingtoo masculine(59%). Conversely,approximatelyonequarterof teacherssaytheyneverorrarelyaddressa situationinwhichtheyhearastudentmakea biasedcommentaboutaboyactingorlooking toofeminine(23%)orcommentsaboutagirl actingorlookingtoomasculine(28%).Infact, biasedremarksregardingstudentswhodonot conformtotraditionalgendernormsaretheleast likelyofanytypeofbiasedcommenttobe addressedbyelementaryschoolteachers.Most commonly,elementaryschoolteacherssaythey didnotaddressbiasedcommentsaboutaboy whoseemstoofeminineoragirlwhoseems toomasculinebecauseanotherteacheroradult addressedthesituationinstead(12%and13%, respectively). Teacherstendtoreacttothesebiasedcomments withthesamefrequencyregardlessofthegrade leveltheyteachorthetypeofschoolwherethey teach(public,privateorparochial).However, teachersinsuburbanschoolstendtobemore proactivethanruralschoolsinaddressingcertain biasedcommentsthatstudentsmake(seeTable 15

1.8).Threequartersofteachersinsuburban schoolssaytheyveryoftenoroftenaddressit whentheyhearastudentusethewordgayina negativeway(76%).Thislevelisconsiderably greaterthanreportsbyteachersinruralschools (60%),butsimilartothoseinurbanschools(71%). Teachersinsuburbanschools(75%)arealsomore likelythanteachersinruralschools(58%)tosay theyveryoftenoroftenaddressitwhentheyhear astudentmakecommentslikespazorretard, butdonotdifferfromteachersinurbanschools (71%). Figure1.7 FrequencyWithWhichTeachersAddressBiasedRemarksMadebyStudents Sometimes Base: Variesbyremarkaddressed Racistremarks Theword''gay''usedinanegativeway Sexistremarks Commentslike''spaz''or''retard'' Homophobicremarks Commentsaboutnotconformingto traditionalgendernorms Negativereligiousremarks 10% 14% 15% 17% 13% 17% 58% 55% 51% 54% 55% 48% 47% Often VeryOften Reactionstocertainbiasedremarksalsovaryby yearsofteachingexperience(seeTable1.9). Newerteacherswith5orfeweryearsof experiencearemorelikelythanveteranteachers with21ormoreyearsofexperiencetoaddress racistremarksandcommentsaboutamaleacting orlookingtoofeminineveryoftenoroften(75% vs.58%).Thistrendappliestohomophobic remarksaswell,whichveteranteachersaremore likelythannewerteacherstosaytheyrarelyor neveraddress(26%vs.8%).

13% 13% 15% 11% 15% 15% 14% 13%

Q736.Howoftenhaveyouaddressedthesituationwhenstudentsmadethefollowingtypesofremarks?(Excludes "Never"responses.)

16

Table1.8 FrequencywithWhichTeachersAddressBiasedRemarksMadebyStudentsbySchoolLocation

Base:Variesbyremarkaddressed

Base: Racistremarks VeryOften/Often 72% 78% 68% Rarely/Never 13% 17% 21% Base: 279 255 287 Theword''gay''usedinanegativeway VeryOften/Often 71% 76%C 60% Rarely/Never 15% 14% 19% Base: 271 296 308 Sexistremarks VeryOften/Often 68% 70% 65% Rarely/Never 13% 13% 17% Base: 255 263 279 Commentslike''spaz''or''retard'' VeryOften/Often 71% 75%C 58% Rarely/Never 15% 16% 25% Base: 210 177 198 Homophobicremarks VeryOften/Often 63% 74% 62% Rarely/Never 15% 18% 23% Base: 203 205 265 Commentsaboutnotconformingtotraditionalgendernorms(Net) VeryOften/Often 61% 67% 60% Rarely/Never 25% 23% 30% Base: 223 203 225 Commentsaboutamaleactingorlooking''toofeminine'' VeryOften/Often 60% 68% 61% Rarely/Never 21% 19% 28% Base: 186 180 201 Commentsaboutafemaleactingorlooking''toomasculine'' VeryOften/Often 57% 63% 58% Rarely/Never 27% 27% 30% Base: 109 106 108 Negativereligiousremarks VeryOften/Often 56% 69% 56% Rarely/Never 25% 21% 26%
Q736.Howoftenhaveyouaddressedthesituationwhenstudentsmadethefollowingtypesofremarks?

SchoolLocation Urban Suburban Rural A B C 195 154 186

17

Table1.9 FrequencyatWhichTeachersAddressBiasedRemarksMadebyStudentsby YearsofTeachingExperience

Base:Variesbyremarkaddressed

YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Less A 87 620Years 21Years orMore C 193

B Base: 247 Racistremarks(Base=536) VeryOften/Often 86%B 69% 71% Rarely/Never 10% 17% 23% Base: 130 378 304 Theword''gay''usedinanegativeway(Base=823) VeryOften/Often 78% 66% 67% Rarely/Never 7% 21%A 16% Base: 132 400 335 Sexistremarks(Base=877) VeryOften/Often 77% 65% 65% Rarely/Never 10% 15% 17% Base: 125 377 286 Commentslike''spaz''or''retard''(Base=799) VeryOften/Often 72% 65% 68% Rarely/Never 16% 19% 20% Base: 97 254 225 Homophobicremarks(Base=586) VeryOften/Often 77% 65% 61% Rarely/Never 8% 21%A 26%A Base: 97 307 244 Commentsaboutnotconformingtotraditionalgendernorms(Net)(Base=672) VeryOften/Often 73% 61% 59% Rarely/Never 18% 25% 30% Base: 109 294 241 Commentsaboutamaleactingorlooking''toofeminine''(Base=653) VeryOften/Often 75%C 62% 58% Rarely/Never 13% 23% 28%A Base: 92 263 205 Commentsaboutafemaleactingorlooking''toomasculine''(Base=569) VeryOften/Often 69% 58% 56% Rarely/Never 20% 28% 31% Base: 51 140 125 Negativereligiousremarks(Base=324) VeryOften/Often 81% 60% 48% Rarely/Never 12% 24% 35% Q736.Howoftenhaveyouaddressedthesituationwhenstudentsmadethefollowingtypesofremarks?

18

Figure1.8 FrequencyofTeachersHearingBiasedRemarksfromOtherTeachersor SchoolStaff Rarely Sometimes 10% 2% 1% 10% 4% 1% 12% 3% 1% 16% 5% 3% 18% 6% 2% VeryOften/Often Ever (Net) Homophobicremarks Racistremarks Negativereligiousremarks Theword''gay''usedinanegativeway Sexistremarks Commentslike''spaz''or''retard'' Commentsaboutafemaleactingor looking''toomasculine'' Commentsaboutamaleactingor looking''toofeminine" 13% 15% 16% 24% 26% 25% 34% 39%

18% 4% 3% 27% 29% 6% 1% 8% 2%

Q755.Atyourschool,howoftendoyouhearteachersorotherschoolstaffmakethefollowingtypesof remarks?(Excludes"Never"response.)

Inadditiontointerveninginstudentbehavior, teachersandotherschoolstaffhavean opportunitythroughtheirownlanguagetofoster anatmospherethatisfreeofbiasedcomments. Althoughtheyarelesscommonthansimilar remarksbystudents,teachersreportthat negativeoroffensiveremarksareoccasionally madebyteachersandotherstaff(seeFigure1.8). Teachersreportthatcommentsmadebyadultsat schoolaboutpeoplenotconformingtotraditional gendernormsarethemostcommon.Morethan onethirdofteachershaveeverheardteachersor staffmakecommentsaboutamaleactingor lookingtoofeminine(39%)orafemaleactingor lookingtoomasculine(34%).Onequarterof teachershaveheardteachersorstaffmake commentslikespazorretard,makesexist remarks(26%)orusethewordgayinanegative

way(24%).Oneinsixteachersreporthearing negativereligiousremarks(16%)orracistremarks (15%)fromotherteachersorstaffattheirschool. Homophobicremarksareheardleastfrequently, with13%ofteacherssayingthattheyhaveever heardthemfromotherteachersorstaff.These reportsareconsistentwiththelowpercentagesof studentswhoreporthearingcommentsofthis naturefromteachersorotheradultsattheir school. Summary Manyelementaryschoolstudentsreporthearing otherstudentsmakebiasedremarks.Thebiased remarksthataremostcommonlyheardin elementaryschools,reportedbyapproximately

19

halfofstudents,arenegativecommentsrelatedto someonesintellectualcapability,suchasspaz orretard.Althoughchildrenatthisagemaynot beentirelyawareofwhatitmeanstobegayor lesbian,moststudentsinelementaryschoolshear studentsmakeremarkssuchasthatssogayor youresogay,andmanyhearstudentsmake homophobicremarkssuchasfagorlesbo.The prevalenceoftheseremarkstendstoincrease amongolderelementaryschoolstudents. Elementaryschoolteachersaremostlyin agreementwithelementaryschoolstudents regardingissuesofbiasedremarksinelementary schools.Teachersinpublicschools,teacherswith feweryearsofexperienceandteacherswhoteach olderstudentsaremostlikelytoreporthearing theirstudentsmakebiasedcomments.Most teacherssaytheyattempttoaddressbiased commentsthattheyhearfromelementary students.Biasedcommentsregardinggender expressionareleastlikelytobeaddressedby teachers,butnewerteachersaremorelikelyto addressthesecommentsthanveteranteachers. Biasedcommentsregardinggenderarealsothe mostlyfrequentlyheardformofbiasedlanguage fromotherteachersorschoolstaff.However, mostteachersreportthat,totheextentthat negative,biasedoroffensiveremarkshappenat all,theyarerareoccurrencesbutmorethana standardofzerotolerancewouldallow.

20

Chapter 2 Incidents of Bullying and Name-Calling at School


Fromourpreviousresearchonsecondaryschoolstudents,weknowthatinadditiontohearingnegative remarksthroughoutthehallwaysandclassroomsoftheschool,manystudentsarepersonallytargeted withnamecalling,bullyingandharassment,oftenbecauseofpersonalcharacteristicssuchasactualor perceivedrace/ethnicityorsexualorientation. 6 Inordertounderstandtheelementaryschoolclimate, weaskedstudentsandteachersaboutthegeneralproblemofbullyingandharassmentandwhether somestudentsarecommonlytargeted,suchasforpersonalcharacteristicslikerace/ethnicityor religion.Wealsoaskedaboutstudentsbeingtargetedbecauseoftheirfamilyconstellation(e.g.,not havingafatherathome,beingadoptedorhavinggayparents). Bullyingandnamecallingbecauseofgenderexpressionareverycommonamongsecondaryschool students,particularlyforstudentswhosegenderpresentationisconsideredtobeatypicalbysocietal expectations(e.g.,amalestudentwhobehavesinawayconsideredtobetypicallyfeminine). 7 Children oftenlearnatveryearlyageswhatisconsideredappropriateappearanceandbehaviorforgirlsand boys.Theacquisitionofaconsistentunderstandingofgenderappropriatebehaviorandappearanceis oftenconsideredadevelopmentalmilestone,indicatingitsimportanceinsociety.Thus,weasked studentsandteachershowoftenstudentsaretargetedbecausetheydonotconformtosocietal expectationsofhowgirlsandboysshouldactorlook.Lastly,weaskedwhetherstudentsareever targetedbecausetheyareperceivedtobegay.Youngerchildrenmaynotfullyunderstandissuesof sexualorientationorromanticattraction,andactinggaymaybelinkedtosomeoneactingingender nonconformingways.However,childrenmayhavesomeunderstandingthatgayisaboutsamesex attractionandmaysaysomeoneisactinggaybecausetheyaretooaffectionatewithanotherstudent ofthesamegender. Overview

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingtotorment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyofstudentsand teachers.NewYork:GLSEN. HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingtotorment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyofstudentsand teachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

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Section 1. Incidents of Bullying and Name-Calling Witnessed by Students


Mostelementaryschoolstudentsgotoschools wherebullyingandnamecallingareacommon occurrence.Threequarters(75%)ofelementary schoolstudentsreportthatstudentsattheir schoolarecallednames,madefunoforbullied withatleastsomeregularity(i.e.,allthetime, oftenorsometimes),including7%whosaythis happensallthetimeand18%whosayitoccurs often(seeFigure2.1). Studentsreportsimilarfrequenciesofbullyingand namecallingregardlessofgradelevel.However, similartothefindingsthatstudentsinurbanand publicschoolsaremorelikelytohearbiased remarksatschool(seeChapter1),studentsin theseschoolsarealsomorelikelytowitness incidentsofbullyingandnamecalling.Studentsin urbanschools(34%)aremorelikelythanthosein suburban(21%)orrural(24%)schoolstosay studentsattheirschoolarebulliedorcalled namesallthetimeoroften.Morethanone quarterofpublicschoolstudents(27%)saythat thisoccursallthetimeoroftenattheirschool comparedtoaroundoneinten(9%)privateor parochialschoolstudents(seeTable2.1). bulliedbecausetheyaregirlswhoactorlooktoo muchlikeboysorboyswhoactorlooktoo muchlikegirls.Aboutafifthofstudentsalso reportthatstudentsarebulliedbecauseother peoplethinktheyactgay(21%).Namecallingand bullyingbecauseofreligionistheleastcommon reasongivenbystudents. AsshowninTable2.2,beingbulliedorcalled namesatschoolmayberelatedtogradelevel. Althoughyoungerandolderstudentsreport similarfrequenciesformosttypesofbullying,two exceptionsarise:olderstudentsaremorelikely thanyoungerstudentstosaythatotherstudents arebulliedbecauseothersthinktheyaregay(28% vs.16%)orbecauseoftheirreligion(9%vs.3%). Inadditiontogradelevel,Table2.2illustratesthat thereasonswhystudentsbelieveothersare bulliedorcallednamesinschoolalsovaryby schooltypeandlocation.Studentsinpublic schoolsaremorelikelythanthoseinprivateor parochialschoolstosaythatstudentsintheir schoolarebulliedorcallednamesforallreasons exceptforathleticability.Regardingschoollocale, studentswhoattendurbanschoolsaremorelikely thanthosewhoattendsuburbanorruralschools Reasons Other Students Are Bullied or tosayothersarebulliedorcallednamesbecause Called Names at School ofthewaytheylookortheirrace/ethnic background.Urbanstudentsarealsomorelikely Inordertounderstandthenatureofbullyingin thanruralstudentstosaythatgirlswhoactor elementaryschools,studentswhosaidthat looktoomuchlikeaboyarebulliedorcalled bullyingandnamecallingoccurattheirschool names,butnomoreorlesslikelythansuburban wereaskedaboutthereasonswhytheyoccur.As students. showninFigure2.2,physicalappearanceisthe mostcommonreasontwothirdsofstudents Althoughitisreportedlesscommonlythanother attributethebullyingandnamecallingthatthey reasonsforbullying,someelementaryschool witnessatschooltostudentslooksorbodysize studentsalsowitnessotherstudentsbeingbullied (67%).Overathirdofstudentsreportthatother orcallednamesforreasonsrelatedtotheirfamily studentsarebulliedorcallednamesfornotbeing composition.Atleastoneintenstudentssaythat goodatsports(37%)andaboutaquarterreport othersarebulliedorcallednamesbecausethey thatbullyingoccursbecauseofhowwellsomeone donothaveadad(13%),theyhaveamultiracial performsatschoolwork(26%).Almostone family(11%)ortheirparentsaredivorcedor quarter(23%)ofelementaryschoolstudentsalso separated(10%)(seeFigure2.3).Lessthanonein reportthatotherstudentsintheirschoolare 23

tensaythatothersarebulliedbecausesomeone intheirfamilyhasadisability(9%),theydonot haveamom(8%),theyareadopted(7%),they havegayparents(7%)ortheyhaveastepmomor stepdad(6%).Table2.3showsthebreakdownof thesefamilyrelatedissuesbyschool characteristics.Thereissomevariationbyschool typeandlocale.Studentsatpublicschoolsare morelikelytosaythatothersarebulliedfornot havingadadoramom,forcomingfromamulti racialfamilyorforhavinggayparents.Urban studentsaremorelikelytosaythatothersare bulliedforcomingfromamultiracialfamilyorfor havinggayparents.Thesedifferencesmaysimply beareflectionofdiversitywithinthepublicschool populationandwithinurbanareas.

Figure2.1 FrequencyofStudentReportsofBullyingandNameCallingatSchool Never AlmostNever Sometimes Often AlltheTime

AlltheTime Never 7% 6%

Often 18%

Almost Never 19%

Sometimes 50%
Q705.Howoftenarestudentscallednames,madefunoforbulliedatyourschool?

Table2.1 FrequencyofStudentReportsofBullyingandNameCallingatSchoolby SchoolTypeandSchoolLocation SchoolLocation SchoolType Private/ Public Parochial Urban Suburban Rural C D E A B 928 130 318 433 31 27%B 23% 9% 48%
A

Base:

Hearstudentsbeingcallednames,madefunof,orbullied AlltheTime/Often Never/AlmostNever 34%DE 20% 21% 29%


C

24% 23%

Q705.Howoftenarestudentscallednames,madefunoforbulliedatyourschool?

24

Figure2.2 ReasonsOtherStudentsareBulliedorCalledNamesatSchool Base:Allstudentswhosaybullyingoccursatschool(n=994) Thewaytheylook Notbeinggoodatsports Howwelltheydoatschoolwork Doesnotconformtotraditionalgendernorms (Net) Theyareaboywhoactsorlookstoomuch likeagirl Theyareagirlwhoactsorlookstoomuchlike aboy Otherpeoplethinktheyactgay Theyhaveadisability Theirraceorethnicbackground Theirreligion 5% 26% 23% 18% 14% 21% 19% 16% 37% 67%

Q710.Whyarestudentscallednames,madefunoforbulliedatyourschool?

25

Table2.2 ReasonsOtherStudentsareBulliedorCalledNamesatSchoolbyGradeLevel, SchoolTypeandSchoolLocation Base:Allstudentswhosaybullyingoccursatschool(n=994) GradeLevel 3rd4th grade A Base: Thewaytheylook Notbeinggoodatsports Howwelltheydoat schoolwork Doesnotconformto traditionalgender norms(Net) Theyareaboywho actsorlooks"too much"likeagirl Theyareagirlwho actsorlooks"too much"likeaboy Otherpeoplethinkthey actgay Theyhaveadisability Theirraceorethnic background Theirreligion 512 66% 35% 26% 20% 5th6th grade B 482 70% 39% 26% 25% SchoolType Public C 876 69%D 36% 27%D 24%D SchoolLocation

Private/ Urban Suburban Rural Parochial D 111 47% 45% 14% 7% E 294 76%FG 35% 26% 27% F 401 65% 39% 27% 21% G 296 63% 36% 26% 21%

18%

18%

19%D

6%

22%

16%

17%

12% 16% 19% 15% 3%

17% 28%A 20% 17% 9%A

15%D 22%D 21%D 17%D 6%D

4% 11% 6% 4%

17%G 22% 17% 24%FG 9%

15% 21% 19% 14% 4%

10% 19% 23% 10% 4%

Q710.Whyarestudentscallednames,madefunoforbulliedatyourschool?

26

Figure2.3 FamilyRelatedReasonsOtherStudentsareBulliedorCalledNames atSchool Base:Allstudentswhosaybullyingoccursatschool(n=994) Theydonothaveadad Theyhaveamultiracialfamily Theirparentsaredivorcedorseparated Someoneintheirfamilyhasadisability Theydonothaveamom Theyareadopted Theyhavegayparents Theyhaveastepmomorastepdad None
Q715.Whyelsearestudentscallednames,madefunoforbulliedatyourschool?

13% 11% 10% 9% 8% 7% 7% 6% 64%

Table2.3 FamilyRelatedReasonsOtherStudentsareBulliedorCalledNamesatSchoolby GradeLevel,SchoolTypeandSchoolLocation Base:Allstudentswhosaybullyingoccursatschool(n=994) GradeLevel 3rd4th grade A Base: Theydonothaveadad Theyhaveamultiracial family Theirparentsare divorcedorseparated Someoneintheirfamily hasadisability Theydonothavea mom Theyareadopted Theyhavegayparents Theyhaveastepmom orastepdad None 512 10% 11% 9% 8% 7% 5% 6% 5% 66% 5th6th grade B 482 16%A 12% 12% 11% 10% 10%A 8% 7% 60% SchoolType Public C 876 13%D 12%D 11% 10% 9%D 8% 7%
D

SchoolLocation

Private/ Urban Suburban Rural Parochial D 111 3% 3% 5% 5% 1% 2% 1% 1% 80%C E 294 16% 16%FG 10% 10% 11% 9% 9%
G

F 401 12% 10% 10% 9% 6% 7% 7% 5% 64%

G 296 11% 8% 11% 10% 8% 6% 4% 8% 71%E

7% 62%

6% 57%

Q715.Whyelsearestudentscallednames,madefunoforbulliedatyourschool?

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Section 2. Incidents of Bullying and Name-Calling Witnessed by Teachers


Asreportedbystudents,bullyingisaregular occurrenceinmostelementaryschoolsand manyteachersbelieveitisaseriousproblemat theirschoolaswell.Nearlyonehalfofelementary schoolteachersbelievethatbullying,namecalling orharassmentisaveryorsomewhatserious problemattheirschool(47%),including8%who sayitisaveryseriousproblem(seeFigure2.4). Teachersinpublicschoolsaremorelikelythan teachersinprivateorparochialschoolstosaythat bullying,namecallingorharassmentisaveryor somewhatseriousproblemattheirschool(48% vs.33%)(seeTable2.4). Similartothefindingswithstudentreports,the seriousnessoftheproblemofbullyingatschool wasnotdifferentbetweenteachersof3rd4th gradestudentsandteachersof5th6thgrade students.However,teachersoftheyoungest students,K2ndgrade,reportthatbullyingisnotas seriousaproblemforthemascomparedto teachersof5th6thgradestudents(seeTable2.5).

Newerteachersaremorelikelytoreportagreater seriousnessofbullyingandnamecallingattheir schools.AsshowninTable2.6,53%ofteachers with5orfeweryearsofexperiencereportthatit isasomewhatorveryseriousproblem,compared to42%ofteacherswith6to20yearsexperience and45%ofteacherswith21YearsorMore experience.

Figure2.4 Teachers'Perception on SeriousnessofBullyingorNameCalling s atSchool NotSeriousat VerySerious All 8% 8%

Somewhat Serious 39%

NotVery Serious 45%

Q705.Howseriousofaproblemisbullying,namecallingorharassmentof studentsatyourschool?

28

Table2.4 Teachers' PerceptionsonSeriousnessofBullyingorNameCallingatSchoolby SchoolLocationandSchoolType SchoolLocation Urban Base: Very/Somewhat Serious VerySerious Somewhat Serious NotVery/NotatAll Serious NotVerySerious NotSeriousatAll

SchoolType Public D 945 48%E 8% 40% 52% 45% 7% Private/ Parochial E 145 33% 2% 31% 67% 40% 26%D

A 353 58%BC 14%


BC

Sub urban B 376 38% 3% 35% 62%A 50%A 11%

Rural C 368 46% 7% 39% 54%A 49%A 6%

44% 42% 34% 8%

Q705.Howseriousofaproblemisbullying,namecallingorharassmentofstudentsatyour school?

Table2.5 Teachers'Perceptions on Seriousnessof Bullying or NameCalling atSchool byGradeLevelTaught GradeLevelTaught K2nd 3rd4th 5th6th A B C Base: 280 214 139 VerySerious 6% 10% 18%A SomewhatSerious 38% 46% 37% NotVerySerious 44% 37% 41% NotSeriousatAll 11% 8% 4%
Q705.Howseriousofaproblemisbullying,namecallingorharassmentofstudentsat yourschool?

29

Table2.6 Teachers'PerceptionsonSeriousnessofBullyingorNameCalling atSchoolbyYearsofExperience 5Yearsor Fewer A 171 11% 42% 37% 10% YearsofExperience 620Years B 514 6% 36% 49% 9% 21Yearsor More C 400 6% 39% 49% 6%

Base: VerySerious SomewhatSerious NotVerySerious NotSeriousatAll

Q705.Howseriousofaproblemisbullying,namecallingorharassmentofstudentsat yourschool?

Weaskedteacherstoreportonthereasonsfor whichstudentsattheirschoolaremostfrequently bulliedorcallednames.AsshowninFigure2.5, teachersreportthatstudentsaremostfrequently bulliedorcallednamesbecauseofhowtheylook orbecauseoftheirschoolperformance,similarto thepatternreportedbystudentsintheprevious section.Threeintenteacherssaythatstudentsin theirschoolareveryoftenoroftenbullied,called namesorharassedbecauseofthewaytheylook ortheirbodysize(31%).Thesecondmost commonreasonforbullyingthatteachersreport isstudentsabilityatschool,withtwointen teachers(21%)reportingthatbullyinghappens oftenorveryoftenforthisreason. Bullyingbecauseofastudentsgenderexpression (i.e.,aboywhoactstoomuchlikeagirloragirl whoactstoomuchlikeaboy)islesscommonly observedbyteachers(seeFigure2.5). Nevertheless,themajorityofteachersreportthat genderbasedbullyingdoesoccuratsome frequencyinschool,withover70%ofteachers reportingthatitoccursforboysandover60% reportingitoccursforgirls.Teachersreportthat boysaremorecommonlybulliedbecauseof

Reasons Students Are Bullied or Called Names at School

genderexpressionthangirls(11%reportthatboys areoften/veryoftenbulliedforthisreason, comparedto6%forgirls). Giventhatanunderstandingofsexualorientation isnotnecessarilysalienttostudentsatthe elementarylevel,wewouldexpectelementary schoolteacherstoreportmuchlowerratesof bullyingrelatedtosexualorientationthan teachersinsecondaryschools. 8 Accordingly, elementaryteacherswerelesslikelytoreportthat studentsintheirschoolarebullied,callednames orharassedbecausetheyare,orareperceivedto be,gay,lesbianorbisexual:7%ofelementary teachersstatethatthistypeofbullyingoccurs oftenorveryoften,comparedto26%of secondaryteachers.Althoughelementary teachersreportbullyingbasedonactualor perceivedsexualorientationlessfrequentlythan secondaryteachers,nevertheless,twointen (20%)elementaryschoolteachersreportthat studentsintheirschoolareatleastsometimes bulliedorcallednamesbecausetheyare,orare perceivedtobe,gay,lesbianorbisexual.
8

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

30

Figure2.5 Teachers'PerceptionsonReasonsStudentsAreBulliedorCalled NamesatSchool Rarely Sometimes 21% 29% 38% 35% 40% 41% 41% 34% 41% 32% Often Veryoften 39% 40% 25% 25% 24% 28% 21% 9%

Thewaytheylookortheirbodysize Theirabilityatschool(eithernot doingwellordoingverywell) Theirfamilydoesnothavealotofmoney Theyareaboywhoactsorlooks ''toomuchlikeagirl'' Theirrace/ethnicityorbecausepeople thinktheyareofacertainrace/ethnicity Theyhaveadisability(physical, mentalordevelopmental) Theyareagirlwhoactsorlooks ''toomuchlikeaboy'' Theyareorpeoplethinktheyare gay,lesbianorbisexual Theirreligionorbecausepeoplethink theyareofacertainreligion Theyhaveagay,lesbian,bisexual ortransgenderparentorotherfamily

14% 6% 7% 5% 7% 4% 8% 3% 8% 3%

20% 3% 3% 13% 4% 3% 9% 3% 1% 7% 3% 1%

Q710.Atyourschool,howoftenarestudentsbullied,callednamesorharassedforthefollowingreasons?(Excludes "Never"response.)

31

Figure2.6 Teachers'PerceptionsonReasonsStudentsAreMostOftenBulliedorCalled NamesatSchool Base:Allteachersatschoolswherestudentsareeverbullied,callednamesorharassed(n=1080) Becauseofthewaytheylookortheirbodysize Becauseoftheirabilityatschool(eithernotdoing wellordoingverywell) Becauseoftheirrace/ethnicityorbecausepeople thinktheyareofacertainrace/ethnicity Becausetheirfamilydoesnothavealotofmoney Becausetheyhaveadisability(physical,mentalor developmental) Becausetheyareorpeoplethinktheyare gay,lesbianorbisexual Becausetheyareaboywhoactsorlooks''too muchlikeagirl'' Becausetheyareagirlwhoactsorlooks''too muchlikeaboy'' Becausetheyhaveagay,lesbian,bisexualor transgenderparentorotherfamilymember Becauseoftheirreligionorbecausepeoplethink theyareofacertainreligion Notsure Noneofthese 6% 17% 4% 4% 3% 2% 1% * 1% * 19% 43%

Q715.Whyarestudentsbullied,callednamesorharassedmost oftenatyourschool?

Althoughestimatesofthenumberofschoolage childrenlivingwithgayandlesbianparentsrange fromonetoninemillion 9 ,thistotalstillaccounts forasmallpercentageoftheschoolage population.Thus,itisnotsurprisingthatteachers reportbullyingbecauseofhavinggayorlesbian parentsasaninfrequentoccurrenceinschool. Nevertheless,oneintenteachersreportsthat studentsareatleastsometimesbulliedorcalled namesbecausetheyhaveagay,lesbian,bisexual ortransgender(LGBT)parentorotherfamily
9

Stacey,J.&Biblarz,T.(2001).(How)doesthesexual orientationoftheparentsmatter? American SociologicalReview,66(2),164183.

member(11%,including4%whoidentifythisasa reasonforbullyingveryoftenoroften). Inadditiontoaskingteachersaboutthefrequency ofbullyingbystudentcharacteristics,wealso askedteacherstoidentifytheonereasonstudents aremostoftenbulliedintheirschools(seeFigure 2.6).Byfar,themostcommonreasonforbullying, isastudentsphysicalappearance,identifiedby over40%ofteachers.Thesecondmostcommon reasonforbullyingfromtheteachersperspective, identifiedbynearly20%ofrespondents,isa studentsabilityatschool(eithernotdoingwellor doingverywell).Lessthan5%ofteachersindicate thatstudentsaremostoftenbulliedbecauseof

32

theirrace/ethnicity,theirperceivedoractual sexualorientation,theirreligion;orbecause theirfamilydoesnothavealotofmoney,they haveadisability,theydonotconformto traditionalgendernormsortheyhavealesbian, gay,bisexualortransgenderfamilymember (seeFigure2.6). Summary Threequartersofelementaryschoolstudents reportwitnessingincidentsinwhichother studentsattheirschoolarecallednames,made funoforbullied.Studentsreportthatwhen othersatschoolarebulliedorcallednames, theyaremostcommonlytargetedfortheir appearance,athleticabilityoracademicability. Aboutoneinfiveelementaryschoolstudents alsoreportwitnessingincidentsduringwhich otherstudentsarebulliedbecauseothersthink theyaregay. Halfofelementaryschoolteachersbelievethat bullying,namecallingandharassmentarea seriousprobleminelementaryschoolsandthat studentsaremostoftenbulliedbecauseoftheir looksorbodysize,followedbytheirabilityat school.Overall,whencomparingresponses fromthetwosurveys,teachersandstudents sharesimilarperspectivesastoofwhystudents aretargetedforbullyingintheirschools. Teachersreportahigherdegreeofbullyingand namecallingintheirschoolastheirstudents getolder.Similartotheirstudents,teachers reportsofbullyingornamecallingseemtobe morecommoninpublicschoolsandurban schools.

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Chapter 3 Students Feelings of Safety and Their Personal Experiences of Bullying and Name-Calling at School

Overview

InChapters1and2,weexaminedtheincidentsofbiasedlanguageandbullyingthatelementaryschool studentsandteacherswitnessinordertogainabetterunderstandingofthegeneralelementaryschool climate.Inthischapter,wedelveintostudentsownpersonalexperiencesatschool,specificallyfocusing ontheirfeelingsofsafetywhileinschoolandtheirfirsthandencounterswithbullying,namecallingand harassment.

36

Feelings of Safety at School race/ethnicity,Hispanicstudentsreportfeeling lesssafeatschoolcomparedtotheirWhiteand AfricanAmericanpeers.AsshowninTable3.1, 12%ofHispanicstudentsreportfeelingnotsafeor notverysafeatschoolcomparedto5%ofWhite studentsand4%ofBlack/AfricanAmerican students. Studentsfeelingsofsafetyarealsorelatedto certainschoolcharacteristics.AsshowninTable 3.2,studentsinpublicschoolsarelesslikelythan thoseinprivateorparochialschoolstofeelvery safeatschool(58%vs.79%).Studentsinurban schoolsaremorelikelythanthoseinsuburbanor ruralschoolstosaytheyfeelnotverysafeornot atallsafeatschool(11%vs.6%vs.3%).

Weaskedelementaryschoolstudentshowsafe theyfeelatschool,andthemajority(59%)of elementaryschoolstudentsreportfeelingvery safeatschool.However,athird(34%)ofstudents feelonlysomewhatsafeand7%feelnotveryor notatallsafewhentheyareatschool(seeFigure 3.1). Generalfeelingsofsafetyatschooldonotdiffer bygradelevel.However,perceptionsofschool safetyappeartoberelatedtosomeotherstudent characteristics.Girlsaremorelikelythanboysto reportgreaterfeelingsofsafetyatschool64%of girlssaytheyfeelverysafeatschoolcomparedto 55%ofboys(seeTable3.1).Regarding

Figure3.1 StudentsFeelingsofSafetyatSchool NotatAllSafe 2%

NotVerySafe 5%

VerySafe 59%

Somewhat Safe 34%

Q805:Howsafedoyoufeelwhenyouareatschool?

37

Table3.1 StudentsFeelingofSafetyatSchoolbyGenderandRace/Ethnicity Gender Boys Girls A B 537 528 91% 55% 36% 8% 6% 2% 95% 64%A 31% 5% 3% 2% White C 644 94%E 62% 33% 5% 4% 1% Race Black/AA D 152 96%E 57% 39% 4% 2% 2% Hispanic E 183 87% 53% 35% 12%CD 9%C 3%

Base: Somewhat/Very Safe VerySafe SomewhatSafe NotVery/NotatAll Safe NotVerySafe NotatAllSafe

Q805:Howsafedoyoufeelwhenyouareatschool?

Table3.2 StudentsFeelingofSafetyatSchoolbySchoolTypeandSchoolLocation SchoolType Private/ Public Parochial A Base: Somewhat/Very Safe VerySafe SomewhatSafe NotVery/NotatAll Safe NotVerySafe Notatallsafe 928 93% 58% 35%B 7% 5% 2% B 130 95% 79%A 17% 4% 4% SchoolLocation Urban C 318 89% 52% 37% 11%DE 9%DE 2% Suburban D 433 94% 60% 34% 6% 4% 2% Rural E 310 97%C 67%C 30% 3% 3% *

Q805:Howsafedoyoufeelwhenyouareatschool? *Denotesasmallbase.

38

Tofurtherunderstandelementarystudents experiencesoffeelingunsafe,weaskedsurvey participantstoindicatethereasonswhytheyfeel unsafeorafraid.AsshowninFigure3.2,themost commonreasonamongallstudentsforfeeling unsafeorafraidatschool,citedbyoneinsix students,isbecauseofthewaytheylook(16%). Followingappearance,studentsfeelunsafeat schoolbecauseoftheiracademicperformance (14%)orbecausetheyarenotgoodatsports (12%).Lesscommonreasonswhystudentsfeel unsafeorafraidatschoolinclude:thecomposition oftheirfamilies(6%),theirdisability(4%),their raceorethnicbackground(3%)andtheirreligion

(2%).Inaddition,someelementaryschool studentsfeelunsafeatschoolbecausetheydonot conformtotraditionalgenderexpectationsofhow boysandgirlsshouldactorlook(2%)orbecause otherpeoplethinktheyactgay(1%). Ingeneral,feelingunsafeorafraidatschoolis unrelatedtostudentdemographicsandschool characteristics.Twoexceptionsgenderand ageemerge:girlsaremorelikelythanboysto citetheirappearanceasareasonforfeeling unsafeoratschool(19%vs.13%),andthisgapis widerfor5th6thgraders(22%ofgirlsvs.11%of boys).

Figure3.2 ReasonsStudentsFeelUnsafeorAfraidatSchool ThewayIlook HowwellIdoatschoolwork BecauseIamnotgoodatsports Myfamilyisdifferentfromotherkids' families BecauseIhaveadisability Myraceorethnicbackground Myreligion Net:Becauseofgenderexpression BecauseotherpeoplethinkthatIactgay Ineverfeelunsafeorafraidatschool
Q810.Whichofthefollowingmakesyoufeelunsafeorafraidatschool?

16% 14% 12% 6% 4% 3% 2% 2% 1% 54%

39

urbanstudentssayingthattheyhaveexperienced bullyingatleastsometimes(vs32%ofsuburban studentsand35%ofruralstudents)(seeTable 3.3). Notsurprisingly,beingatargetofbullyingand namecallingisrelatedtofeelinglesssafeat school.Studentswhopersonallyexperience bullyingatleastsometimesatschoolaremuch lesslikelytofeelverysafeatschoolthanthose whoareneveroralmostneverbullied(37%vs. 72%). Relational Bullying and Cyberbullying

Wealsoaskedelementaryschoolstudentsabout theirownexperienceswithbullyingandname calling.Althoughmoststudentssaythattheyhave witnessedfellowstudentsbeingcallednames, madefunoforbulliedatleastsometimesat school(seeChapter2),studentsarelesslikelyto reportthattheyhavebeenthetargetofsuch negativeexperiencesthemselves.Asshownin Figure3.3,nearlytwothirdsofstudents(64%) reportthattheyhadneverbeenoralmostnever beenbullied,madefunoforcallednamesduring thecurrentschoolyear.Nevertheless,anotable proportionoveronethird(36%)ofelementary schoolstudentssaythattheyhadbeencalled names,madefunoforbulliedatleastsometimes duringthecurrentschoolyear,including6%who sayithadoccurredallthetimeoroften. Whereasgenderandgradeleveldonotseemto berelatedtothefrequencywithwhich elementaryschoolstudentsarebullied, race/ethnicitydoesappeartoplayarole. Black/AfricanAmericanstudentsaremorelikely thanWhiteorHispanicstudentstoreportbeing bulliedatleastsometimes(Black/African American:51%vs.White:34%vsHispanic:32%) (seeTable3.3).Itisinterestingtonotethatthese differencesbyrace/ethnicityareincontrastwith thedifferencesinfeelingunsafeatschool Black/AfricanAmericanstudentsarelesslikelyto feelunsafeinschoolcomparedtoWhiteand Hispanicstudents. Ratesofbullyingappeartoberelatedtoschool location.Similartothefindingsonwitnessing bullyingandfeelingunsafeatschool,studentsin publicandurbanschoolsaremorelikelytosay theyhavebeenthetargetofbullying.Public schoolstudentsaremorelikelythanstudentsin privateorparochialschoolstoreportbeingbullied atleastsometimesatschool(37%vs.23%). Studentsinurbanelementaryschoolsaremore likelytohaveexperiencedbullyingcomparedto studentsinsuburbanorruralschools,with43%of

Experiences of Bullying and NameCalling at School

Althoughbullyingistypicallythoughtofas involvingphysicalorverbalaggression(e.g. hitting,namecalling),itcantakemanyforms, includingspreadingmeanrumors,purposely ignoringastudentorleavinghimorheroutof activities,andusingtheInternettosaymean things.Insomeinstancesstudentsmaynot recognizethatthesebehaviorsconstitutebullying. RelationalBullying.Behaviorssuchasactively isolatingorignoringotherstudentsorcausing harminsomeonessocialrelationships(e.g., spreadingmeanrumorsorlies)isreferredtoas relationalbullyingoraggression.Overall,these formsofbullyingarenotuncommonamongthe elementarystudentpopulation.Asshownin Figure3.4,nearlyaquarterofallelementary schoolstudents(22%)reportthatotherstudents havespreadmeanrumorsorliesaboutthem. Nearlyhalfofelementaryschoolstudentsreport thattheyhavefeltleftoutorignoredonpurpose byotherkidsatschool(45%).Studentsreportthat beingisolatedorignoredbypeerscanoccurin manywaysandsituations(seeFigure3.5).Among thosewhohavefeltleftoutorignoredbytheir classmates,aroundsevenintensayother studentsdidnotwanttoplaywiththemduring gymclassorrecess(68%)orpretendednotto hearthem(59%).Slightlyfewerthanhalfof studentswhohavefeltleftoutreportthatkids

40

Figure3.3 FrequencyofPersonallyBeingBulliedandCalledNamesatSchool AlltheTime 2%

Often 4%

Never 32% Sometimes 30%

AlmostNever 32%
Q835.Howoftenhaveyoubeencallednames,madefunorbulliedatschoolthisyear?

Table3.3 FrequencyofPersonallyBeingBulliedandCalledNamesatSchoolbyRace/Ethnicity, SchoolLocationandSchoolType Race/Ethnicity Black/ White AA A Base: 644 B 152 Hispanic C 183 Urban D 318 SchoolLocation Suburban E 433 Rural F 310 SchoolType Public G 928 1% 2% 29% 33% 35% 2% 5%E 28% 34% 32% 2% 4% 31%H 32% 31% 6% 17% 32% 45%G Private/ Parochial H 130

Callednames,madefunorbulliedatschoolthisyear Allthetime Often Sometimes Almost Never Never 2% 4% 28% 34%B 32% 3% 5% 43%AC 20% 28% 1% 3% 28% 36%B 32% 3% 7%E 33% 30% 28%

Q835.Howoftenhaveyoubeencallednames,madefunorbulliedatschoolthisyear?

41

toldotherpeoplenottotalkorplaywiththem (44%),andthreeintensaythatotherstudents wouldnotsitwiththematlunchtime(31%)ordid notwanttoworkwiththemonclassactivities (30%). Relationalbullyingappearstobemorecommon amonggirls,astheyaremorelikelythanboysto saythattheyhavefeltleftoutorignoredbyother students(51%vs.38%).Olderelementaryage girls,infact,aremostlikelytosaythattheyhave beenthetargetofmeanrumorsorliesthe percentageofgirlsin5th6thgradewashigherthan thepercentagesofgirlsinyoungergradesandof boysoverall. Asisthecasewithmorephysicalformsof bullying,thesetypesofbullyingmaypromote feelingsofanunsafeschoolenvironment.As showninTable3.4,studentswhofeellessthan verysafeatschoolarealsomorelikelytosaythey haveexperiencedrelationalbullying.Forexample, 57%ofstudentswhodonotfeelverysafeat schoolexperiencebeingisolatedfrompeers, comparedto36%ofstudentswhodofeelvery safeatschool. Cyberbullying.Withthewidespreadusageof textingandsocialnetworkingamongtodays youth,cyberbullyingisanincreasinglyrecognized concern.Forelementaryschoolstudents, however,itappearsthattheInternetisnota primarymethodofbullying.AsshowninFigure 3.4,only3%ofstudentssaythatanotherkidat schoolhasusedtheInternettobullythem(e.g., postedmeanmessagesaboutthemonawebsite, suchasFacebookorClubPenguin).Althoughthe percentagesarestillsmall,olderelementary schoolstudentsaremorelikelythanyounger studentstosaytheyhavebeenbulliedonline(6% vs.1%),possiblyduetogreateraccesstocell phonesandtheInternetaschildrengrowolder.

Figure3.4 Students'PersonalExperencesWithOtherFormsofBullying

Ihavefeltleftoutorignoredonpurposeby otherkidsatschool

45%

Otherkidsatschoolhavespreadmean rumorsorliesaboutme AnotherkidatschoolhasusedtheInternet tocallmenames,makefunofmeorpost meanthingsaboutme(forexample,on FacebookorClubPenguin) Noneofthese

22%

3%

46%

Q825.Whichofthefollowinghaseverhappenedtoyou?

42

Figure3.5 WaysStudentsWereLeftOutorIgnoredbyOtherStudents Base:Students whofeltleftout(n=474) Theydidnotwantmetoplaywiththem duringgymclassorrecess. TheyignoredmewhenItriedtotalkto themorpretendednottohearme. Theytoldotherpeoplenottotalkorplay withme. Theywouldnotletmesitwiththemduring lunchtime. Theydidnotwanttoworkwithmeonclass activities.
Q825.Whichofthefollowinghaseverhappenedtoyou?

68%

59%

44%

31%

30%

Table3.4 StudentsPersonalExperienceswithOtherFormsofBullyingbyFeelingsofSafetyatSchool FeelingsofSafetyatSchool VerySafe Base: Ihavefeltleftoutorignoredonpurpose byotherkidsatschool Otherkidsatschoolhavespreadmean rumorsorliesaboutme Anotherkidatschoolhasusedthe Internettocallmenames,makefunof me,orpostmeanthingsaboutme(for example,onFacebookorClubPenguin) Noneofthese A 633 36% 12% LessThanVery Safe B 431 57%A 36%A

2% 58%B

5% 28%

Q825.Whichofthefollowinghaseverhappenedtoyou?

43

theydonotactorlooklikeboysandgirlsare traditionallyexpectedtoactorlook(3%)or becauseotherpeoplethinktheyactgay(2%) (seeFigure3.6). Thereasonswhyelementaryschoolstudentsfeel targetedforbullyingappeartoberelatedtosome demographicdifferences.Onesignificant differenceisthatgirlsaremorelikelythanboysto saytheyhavebeencallednames,madefunofor bulliedbecauseofhowwelltheydoatschoolwork (29%vs.19%).Black/AfricanAmericanstudents (48%)aremorelikelythanWhitestudents(29%) tosaytheyarebulliedbecauseofthewaythat theylook.Perhapsnotsurprisingly,Black/African American(11%)andHispanic(7%)studentsare alsomorelikelythanWhitestudents(2%)tosay theyarebulliedbecauseoftheirraceorethnic background.

Reasons Students Experience Bullying and Name-Calling at School Weaskedstudentswhohaveeverbeencalled names,madefunoforbulliediftheyfeeltheyare evertargetedbecauseofpersonalcharacteristics orattributes,suchastheirlooks,athleticabilityor schoolperformance.Similartoreasonswhy studentsfeelunsafe,andasshowninFigure3.6, thenumberonereasonstudentssaytheyare bulliedatschoolisbecauseofthewaytheylook (34%).Onequarterofstudentswhohavebeen bulliedsayitisbecauseofhowtheyperformon theirschoolwork(24%)andtwointensayitis becausetheyarenotgoodatsports(19%).Fewer thanoneintensaythattheyarebulliedbecause theirfamiliesarenotlikeotherkidsfamilies(9%), becauseoftheirraceorethnicity(6%)orbecause theyhaveadisability(6%).Eveninelementary school,fewstudentsreportbeingbulliedbecause oftheirreligion(3%),becauseotherkidsthink

Figure3.6 ReasonsStudentsExperienceBullyingorNameCallingatSchool Base:Allstudentswhoareevercallednames,madefunoforbullied(n=714) ThewayIlook HowwellIdoatschoolwork BecauseIamnotgoodatsports Myfamilyisdifferentfromotherkids' families Myraceorethnicbackground BecauseIhaveadisability Myreligion BecauseIamaboywhootherkids thinkactsorlookstoomuchlikeagirl BecauseIamagirlwhootherkids thinkactsorlookstoomuchlikeaboy BecauseotherpeoplethinkIactgay 3% 2% 1% 2% 6% 6% 9% 19% 24% 34%

Q840.Thisschoolyear,whyhaveyoubeencallednames,madefunoforbulliedatschool?

44

Reasonsforpersonalexperiencesofbullying appearrelativelyunrelatedtoschool characteristics.Oneexceptionisthatstudents inurbanareasaremorelikelythanthosein suburbanorruralareastosaythattheyare bulliedbecausetheirfamiliesaredifferentfrom otherstudentsfamilies(urban:14%,suburban: 6%,rural:7%).Itispossiblethaturbanschools aremorediverseinmanyways,includingthe typesoffamiliesrepresented,andthatthis differenceinfamilyrelatedbullyingisa reflectionofthatheterogeneity,butfurther researchisindicated. Bullying and Name-Calling of Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms

Societalinterpretationsofgenderareimposed onchildrenfrominfancyandearlychildhood, andthesegendernormsarereinforcedinthe media,atschoolandevenathome.Peoplewho lookorbehaveoutsideofthesenormsmayface challengeswithbeingacceptedbytheirpeers orfindthemselvesinhurtfulorharmful situations.Althoughresearchongender expressionandpresentationcommonlyfocuses onadolescence,normsregardinggender conformityundoubtedlyexistatallagesand mayevenbeparticularlysalientinelementary schoolgrades,assocializationaroundgender rolesisahallmarkofearlychildhood. 10 Thus,it isnotsurprisingthatelementaryschool studentswhomaynotconformtotraditional expectationsofhowtheyshouldactorlook becauseoftheirgenderarebeginningto experiencehurtfulorharmfulsituations. Oneintenelementarystudentsreportthat peoplesometimesthinkthattheirbehavioror appearancedoesnotconformtotraditional
10

gendernorms(8%),including12%ofgirlswho saythatpeoplesometimesthinktheyactor looklikeaboyand5%ofboyswhosaythat peoplesometimesthinktheyactorlooklikea girl.Thesestudentsaremorelikelythanother studentstoexperiencebullyingandname callingatschool(seeTable3.5).Morethanhalf ofthesestudentssaytheyarebulliedatleast sometimesatschool,comparedtoathirdof otherstudents(56%vs.33%).Inaddition, studentswhodonotconformtotraditional gendernormsaretwiceaslikelyasother studentstosaythatotherkidsatschoolhave spreadmeanrumorsorliesaboutthem(43% vs.20%)andthreetimesaslikelytoreportthat anotherkidatschoolhasusedtheInternetto callthemnames,makefunofthemorpost meanthingsaboutthem(7%vs.2%). Giventhisrelationshipbetweenbullying experiencesandstudentsgenderexpression,it isnotsurprisingthatstudentswhodonot conformtotraditionalgendernormsareless likelythanotherstudentstofeelverysafeat school(42%vs.61%),andaremorelikelythan otherstoagreethattheysometimesdonot wanttogotoschoolbecausetheyfeelunsafe orafraidthere(35%vs.15%)(seeTable3.5).

Eckes,T.&Trautner,H.M.(Eds.)(2000).The developmentalsocialpsychologyofgender. Mahwah.NewJersey:LawrenceErlbaumAssociates.

45

Table3.5 ProfileofStudentsWhoDoandDoNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNorms DoNOT DoConformTo ConformTo Traditional Traditional GenderNorms GenderNorms A B Base: 87 970 FrequencyofBeingBullied(ThisSchoolYear) AlltheTime/Often/Sometimes 56%B 33% B AlltheTime 8% 1% Often 6% 4% Sometimes 42%B 28% AlmostNever 20% 34%A Never 24% 33% FrequencyofRelationalandCyberbullying(HaveEverExperienced) Ihavefeltleftoutorignoredon 51% 44% purposebyotherkidsatschool Otherkidsatschoolhavespreadmean 43%B 20% rumorsorliesaboutme Anotherkidatschoolhasusedthe internettocallmenames,makefunof 7%B 2% me,orpostmeanthingsaboutme(for example,onFacebookorClubPenguin) FeelingofSafetyatSchool VerySafe 42% 61%A LessThanVerySafe 58%B 39% "SometimesIdon'twanttogotoschoolbecauseIfeelafraidorunsafein school." Agree 35%B 15% Disagree 65% 85%A
Q835.Howoftenhaveyoubeencallednames,madefunof,orbulliedatschoolthisyear? Q825.Whichofthefollowinghaseverhappenedtoyou? Q805.Howsafedoyoufeelwhenyouareatschool? Q815.Howmuchdoyouagreeordisagreewiththisstatement?:SometimesIdontwanttogotoschoolbecauseI feelafraidorunsafeinschool.

46

Bullyingandnamecallingbehaviorcanhappenanywhereinoraroundschool.However,for preventionpurposes,itisusefultounderstandwherebullyingmorecommonlyoccurs.Thus,we askedelementarystudentswheretheywitnessbullyingandnamecallingatschoolaswellas wheretheyhavepersonallyexperiencedbullyingatschool.AsshowninFigure3.7,studentsare mostlikelytobothwitnessandexperiencebullyingontheplayground(79%and66%, respectively)andinthelunchroom(54%and37%,respectively).Studentsleastcommonly reportthatbullyingandnamecallingoccurswalkingtoorfromschool. Forschoolpersonnelthinkingabouthowtoaddressbullyingattheirschools,itisimportantto notethattheprominenceoflocationswherebullyingoccursmayvaryaccordingtoschool characteristics.Forexample,ruralstudentsaremorelikelytobothwitnessbullyingonthe schoolbusthanurbanandsuburbanstudents(51%vs.29%and38%)andbethevictimof bullyingontheschoolbusthanurbanstudents(33%vs.21%).Suchdifferencesmayreflectthe greatertendencyofstudentsfromruralareastoridethebustoschoolandforlongerperiodsof time,providingincreasedopportunityforbullyingtooccur. Figure3.7 LocationsWhereBullyingorNameCallingOccursatSchool Base:Allstudentswhosaybullyingoccursatschool(n=994) Theschoolyardor playground Inthelunchroomof cafeteria Inschoolhallways Ontheschoolbus Inaclassroom Inschoolbathrooms Walkingtoandfromschool Somewhereelseatschool Noneofthese 4% 8% 13% 10% 14% 21% 28% 26% 66% 37% 40% 39% 54% Q720.Wherehaveyouseen studentsatyourschoolcalled names,madefunoforbullied? Q845.Wherehaveyoubeen callednames,madefunofor bullied? 79%

Where Do Bullying and Name-Calling Occur at School?

37% 32% 35%

47

Inpreviousresearchonsecondaryschool students,wehavefoundthatstudentsareunlikely toreportincidentsofbullyingornamecalling, withonlyonethird(32%)sayingthatthey reportedincidentstoateacher,principalor anotherschoolstaffmember. 11 Incontrast, elementaryschoolstudentswhohavebeen bulliedoftendoreachouttoateacherorother adultatschool,andtheygenerallyfindthattelling theseauthorityfiguresabouttheincidentshelps tostopthebullying.AsshowninFigure3.8,most elementaryschoolstudentswhohavebeencalled namesorbulliedtellanadultatschoolaboutthe incident(75%).However,bullyingisnotuniversal lyreportedonly30%ofelementarystudentstell anadultatschoolallormostofthetime.Further, asizableminorityonequarter(25%)nevertell anadultatschoolaboutthebullyingthatthey experience(seeFigure3.8). Wealsoaskedthosestudentswhohavereported bullyingtoratehowhelpfulithadbeentotellthe teacherorotheradultatschoolaboutthe incidents.Moststudentswhohadevertoldschool personnelaboutthebullyingtheyexperiencedat schoolsaythatithelpedtostoptheproblemto somedegree(78%);butlessthanathird(30%) saidithelpedalot.Infact,nearlyhalf(48%)of studentswhohavetoldateacheraboutbeing bulliedsaythatithadhelpedonlyalittle(see Figure3.8).Thelevelofhelpfulnessalsoincreases withthefrequencyofreportingbullyingincidents: studentswhosaythattheytellteachersorother adultsatschoolwhentheyarebulliedallofthe timeormostofthetimearemuchmorelikely thanotherstosaythattheassistancetheteacher oradultprovidedhelpedalot(reportallofthe

Reporting Personal Incidents of Bullying or Name-Calling to School Personnel

11

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork: GLSEN.

time:65%;mostofthetime:37%;someofthe time:20%)(seeTable3.6). Studentdemographicsandschoolcharacteristics appearrelativelyunrelatedtothetendencyof studentstoreportincidentstoadults.The exceptionisthatboysarelesslikelythangirlsto reportincidentstoschoolpersonnel(29%ofboys nevertellvs.20%ofgirls),especiallyastheyget older(35%ofboysin5th6thgradenevertellvs. 24%ofboysin3rd4thgrade). Elementaryschoolstudentsreportavarietyof reactionsfromteachersandotherschool personnelwhentheytellthemaboutbeingcalled namesorbullied.Nearlyathirdsaythattheadult talkedtothebullyaboutthesituation(30%)and oneinsixsaytheteacherdisciplinedthebullyin someway(16%);inaddition,15%gavethe targetedstudentadviceabouthowtohandlethe bully.Althoughmoststudentsreportpositive interactionswithadultsaboutthebullying incidents,6%ofstudentswhotoldateacheror otheradultaboutbeingbulliedsaytheadult dismissedtheirconcerninsomeway(seeFigure 3.9). Interestingly,studentswhoarefrequentlybullied appeartoreportadifferentpatternofresponse fromteachersthanthosewhoarerarelybullied (seeTable3.7).Studentswhoarebulliedallthe time,oftenorsometimesaremorelikelythan thosewhoarealmostneverbulliedtosaythe teachergavethemadviceabouthandlingbullies (19%vs.10%),whereasstudentswhoarerarely bulliedaremorelikelythanthosewhoarebullied frequentlytosaytheteachertalkedtothebully (36%vs.25%).Itispossiblethatwhenteachers responddirectlywiththeperpetratorofthe bullying,itreducesfutureincidentsandresultsin studentsbeinglessfrequentlybullied.However,it isalsopossiblethatstudentswhoaremore frequenttargetsofbullyingelicitamore instructionalornurturingresponsefromschool personnel.Becausethesurveywasconductedat onlyasinglepointintime,weareunableto

48

Figure3.8 FrequencyandHelpfulnessofTellingaTeacheraboutBeingCalledNames, MadeFunoforBulliedatSchool

Base:Allstudentswhoareeverbullied(n=714)/toldateacheraboutbeingbullied(n=526) AlloftheTime MostoftheTime Someofthe Time Never 25% 11% 19% 45% Helped alot 30% Didnot helpat all 20% Helped alittle 48%

Q850.Howoftendoyoutellateacherorotheradultatschoolwhenyouarecallednames,madefunof,orbulliedat school?/Q860.Howmuchdidthishelptostoptheproblem?

Table3.6 RelationshipbetweenFrequencyandHelpfulnessofTellingaTeacheraboutBeingCalledNames, MadeFunoforBulliedatSchool Base:Allstudentswhotoldateacheraboutbeingbullied(n=526) FrequencyofReportingBullyingIncidents Base: HelpedALot HelpedALittle DidNotHelpAtAll AlltheTime A 79 65%BC 24% 10% Mostofthe Time B 136 37% 43%A 20%A Someofthe Time C 321 20% 58%A 22%A

Q850.Howoftendoyoutellateacherorotheradultatschoolwhenyouarecallednames,madefunof,or bulliedatschool?/Q860.Howmuchdidthishelptostoptheproblem?

49

Figure3.9 TeacherReactionstoStudentReportsofBeingCalledNames, MadeFunoforBullied Base:Allstudentswhohavetoldateacheroradultaboutbeingbullied (n=526) Talkedtothebullyaboutthesituation 30%

Disciplinedthebullyinsomeway

16%

Gaveadviceabouthowtohandlethebully

15%

Dismissedtheconcern

6%

Q855.Whatdidtheteacheroradultdoorsaywhenyoutoldthemaboutbeingcallednames,madefunoforbullied?

Table3.7 TeacherReactionstoStudentReportsofBeingCalledNames,MadeFunoforBulliedby FrequencyofExperiencingBullyingandGradeLevel Base:Allstudentswhohavetoldateacheroradultaboutbeingbullied(n=526) ExperienceBullying GradeLevel Allthetime/ Often/ AlmostNever 3rd4th Sometimes Base: Talkedtothebullyaboutthesituation Disciplinedthebullyinsomeway Gaveadviceabouthowtohandlethebully Dismissedtheconcern A 286 25% 17% 19%B 6% B 240 36%B 14% 10% 6% C 280 32% 18% 12% 8% 5th6th D 246 27% 13% 20%C 4%

Q855.Whatdidtheteacheroradultdoorsaywhenyoutoldthemaboutbeingcallednames,madefunoforbullied?

50

providemoreconclusiveresultsaboutthe relationshipbetweenbullyingandeducator response,andhencefutureresearchisneeded. Educatorresponsetobullyingalsoappearstobe relatedtogradelevel.Studentsin5th6thgradeare morelikelythan3rd4thgraderstoreceiveadvice fromtheirteachersabouthowtohandlethebully (20%vs.12%)(seeTable3.7).Schoolpersonnel mayactinmoreprotectivewayswithyounger elementarystudents,perhapsbecausethey believeolderstudentscanbetterunderstand strategiesforhandlingbullyingsituations themselves. Thisstudyalsosupportsfindingsfromprior researchthatbeingcallednamesandbulliedat schoolcanhaveadetrimentalimpactona studentsschoolperformance,relationshipswith familyandclassmatesandoverallwellbeing. 12 Theharmfulimpactbullyinghasonelementary schoolstudentsisevidentwhenexamining outcomesforstudentswhoarebulliedatleast sometimescomparedtothosewhoareneveror almostneverbullied(seeTable3.8). Regardingrelationshipswithpeers,studentswho aremorefrequentlybullied(i.e.,allthetime, often,sometimes)arealsolesslikelytosaythat theyhavealotoffriends.Onlyonethird(33%)of studentswhoarebulliedfrequentlysaythatthey havealotoffriends,comparedtonearlysixoutof ten(57%)studentswhoarenotoftenbullied.
12

Impact of Bullying and Name-Calling

Gruber,J.E.&Fineran.F.(2008).Comparingthe impactofbullyingandsexualharassmentvictimization onthementalandphysicalhealthofadolescents.Sex Roles,59(12),113. Juvonen,J.,Nishina,A.,&Graham,S.(2000).Peer harassment,psychologicaladjustment,andschool functioninginearlyadolescence.JournalofEducational Psychology,92(2),349359.

Regardingfamilyrelationships,studentswhoare bulliedatleastsometimesaresignificantlyless likelythanthosewhoarerarelyorneverbulliedto saythattheygetalongwiththeirparents(61%vs. 75%).Itisimportanttorecognizethatalthough degreeofbullyingisassociatedwithrelationship healthwithfamilyandfriends,thedirectionofthe relationshipisundeterminedstudentsmaybe bulliedbecausetheyhaveweakerrelationships withfamilyandfriends,theymayhaveweaker relationshipswithfamilyandfriendsduetobeing bulliedortheremaybeanotherfactorthat accountsforbothweakerrelationshipsandbeing bullied. Bullyingmayalsonegativelyaffectstudents educationalexperiences(seealsoTable3.8).Only 57%ofstudentswhoarebulliedmoreoften(i.e., sometimesorhigher)saythattheygetgood gradesatschool,comparedto71%ofstudents whoarerarelybullied(i.e.,neveroralmost never).Additionally,studentswhoarebulliedat leastsometimesarealsolesshappyatschool.One third(34%)saythattheyhadbeenhappyduring thecurrentschoolyear,comparedtomorethan twothirds(69%)ofstudentswhohadneveror almostneverbeenbullied.Infact,onethirdof students(33%)whohadbeenbulliedatleast sometimesatschoolsaythattheysometimesdo notwanttogotoschoolbecausetheyfeelunsafe orafraidthere,andtheyarefourtimesaslikelyas studentswhohadneveroralmostneverbeen bulliedtowanttoavoidschool(33%vs.8%). Theoverallwellbeingofstudentsisnegatively associatedwiththeexperienceofbeingbullied. Studentswhoarebulliedatleastsometimesare lesslikelythanotherstosaythattheyfeelsafein general(45%vs.76%)andmorelikelytooften feelstressed(15%vs.4%),tosaythattheyare alwaysbored(13%vs.7%),tooftenfeelsador unhappy(8%vs.3)andtogetintotroublealot (7%vs.3%).

51

Table3.8 StudentsRelationships,SchoolPerformanceandWellBeingbyFrequencyofBeingBullied ExperienceBullying Allthetime/ Often/Sometimes Base: Relationships(%ALotLikeMe) Igetalongwellwithmyparents Ihavealotoffriends SchoolIssues(%ALotLikeMe) Igetgoodgrades Ihavebeenhappyatschoolthisyear FeelingsandBehavior(%ALotLikeMe) Ifeelsafe Iamalwaysbored Ioftenfeelstressed Ioftenfeelsadandunhappy Igetintotroublealot Agree Disagree
Q1030.Howwelldoeachofthesestatementsdescribeyou?

Never/Almost Never B 704 75%A 57%A 71%A 69%A 76%A 7% 4% 3% 3% 8% 92%A

A 360 61% 33% 57% 34% 45% 13%B 15%B 8%


B

7%B 33%B 66%

SometimesIdon'twanttogotoschoolbecauseIfeelafraidorunsafeinschool.

52

Lessons about Bullying, Name-Calling and Respect at School Nearlyallelementaryschoolstudentsreportthat theyaretaughtaboutbullyingandrespectin school.Infact,overnineintenstudentssaythat theyhavebeentaughtatschoolthatpeople shouldnotbullyorcallnames(92%)andthatthey shouldrespectpeoplewhoaredifferentfrom them(91%).Thishighrateofeducationabout bullyingandrespectdoesnotvarybyeither studentorschoolcharacteristicsthatwe examined,suchasgradelevel,schoollocation (urbanvs.suburbanvs.rural)orschooltype (publicvs.privateorparochialschool). Summary beingbulliedorcallednames,staffinterventionis usuallyhelpfulforstudents,andmoststudents reportthatschoolstaffrespondpositively. However,eventhoughyoungchildrenshould havetheexpectationthattheirteacherswill supportthemandprotectthemfromharm,a smallbutsignificantminoritysaystheteacheror otherstaffpersondismissestheirconcern.

Feelingunsafeatschoolandbeingatargetof bullyingarerealitiesthatmanyelementaryschool studentsface.Studentsmostcommonlyreport physicalappearance,academicperformanceand athleticabilityasreasonsforfeelingunsafeorfor beingbullied.Reasonsthatarelesscommonfor elementaryschoolstudentstofeelunsafeortobe bulliedarerelatedtorace/ethnicity,religion,not followingtraditionalgendernormsorbecause peoplethinktheyactgay. Studentswhomaynotconformtotraditional gendernormsaremorelikelythanotherstobe frequentlybullied(i.e.,allthetime,often, sometimes).Additionally,bullyingseemstobea greaterprobleminpublicschoolscomparedto privateorparochialschools,andinurbanschools comparedtosuburbanorruralschools.Notonly arestudentsinpublicandurbanschoolsmore likelytowitnessbullying(asdiscussedinChapter 2),buttheyarealsolesslikelytofeelsafein schoolandmorelikelytobebulliedthemselves. Forsomeelementarystudents,thisnegative schoolenvironmentmaymakethemfeelunsafe atschoolandevenafraidtogotoschooland. Whenstudentschoosetotellschoolstaffabout

Theresultsfromthisstudyindicatethatschool climateforelementaryschoolsstudentsmaynot beashostileaswehavefoundforsecondary schoolstudents.Elementaryschoolstudentsare morelikelytosaythattheyfeelverysafeatschool comparedtosecondaryschoolstudents(59%vs. 47%). 13 Thefrequencyofbullying,namecalling andharassmentisloweramongreportsfrom elementaryschoolstudentsandelementary schoolstudentsaremuchmorelikelytoreport negativeincidentstoschoolpersonnelwhenthey dooccur.Thenatureofharassmentissimilarin thatbothelementaryandsecondaryschool studentscitephysicalappearanceasthemost commonreasonthattheyarebulliedorcalled names.However,forsecondaryschoolstudents, race/ethnicityandgenderexpressionarethenext mostcommonreasons,whereasforelementary schoolstudentsitisschoolperformanceand athleticability. 14

13

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN. HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

14

53

Chapter 4 Teachers Attitudes and Efforts about Gender and Sexual Orientation

Overview

Whereasmiddleandhighschoolstudentsareoftenconsideredtobemoreawareofsexualorientation andgenderidentitythanyoungerstudentsduetotheirage,theprevioussectionsofthisreportindicate thatelementaryschoolstudentsareawareoftheseconceptstoacertaindegreeaswell.Additionally, onequarterofelementaryschoolteachers(25%)saythattheyknowaparentofastudentattheir schoolwhoislesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT).Giventhetrajectoryofchildandadolescent development,itwouldbeunlikelytohaveanelementaryschoolstudentidentifyasLGBT,butnot completelyoutofthequestion.Infact,oneinten(10%)teacherssaythattheyknowastudentintheir schoolwhoisLGBT.GiventhatLGBTstudentsandstudentswithLGBTparentsconstituteasizable portionoftheelementaryschoolpopulation,Section1ofthischapterexamineselementaryschool teachersattitudesandeffortsregardingstudentswhomaybeorgrowuptobeLGBTandthosewith LGBTparents.InSection2,weexaminetheexperiencesofstudentswhodonotconformtotraditional gendernorms(i.e.,amalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallyfeminineorafemalestudentwhoacts orlookstraditionallymasculine)andteachersattitudestowardsthisstudentsandeffortsontheir behalf.

56

Section 1. Teachers Attitudes, Efforts and Responses to Students Who Are or May Be LGBT
Teachers Perspectives on the Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who Are or May Be LGBT Apluralityofelementaryschoolteachersbelieves thatstudentswhomightbeorgrowuptobe lesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)would feelcomfortableattheschoolwheretheyteach. Atleastfourintenbelievethatthesestudents wouldfeelveryorsomewhatcomfortable46% ofteacherssaythatastudentwhomightbeor growuptobelesbian,gayorbisexual(LGB)would feelcomfortableand40%believethatastudent whomightbeorgrowuptobetransgenderwould feelcomfortableattheirschool.Inbothscenarios, moreteachersbelievethesestudentswouldbe morecomfortablethanuncomfortable,with notablenumbersreportingthesestudentswould beneithercomfortablenoruncomfortable(see Figure4.1). Newerteachers(thosewith5yearsofexperience orless)aremorelikelythanthosewithmore teachingexperiencetofeelthatelementary schoolstudentswhomaybeorgrowuptobe LGBTwouldfeeluncomfortableattheirschools. Almostonehalf(46%)ofnewerteachersbelieve thatLGBstudentswouldfeeluncomfortableat theirschools,comparedtotwointenteachers whohavemoreteachingexperience(620years: 23%;21+years:22%)(seeTable4.1).Similar proportionsareobservedamongteacherswho believethatstudentswhoaretransgenderwould feeluncomfortableattheirschools(05years: 50%;620years:28%;21+years:24%). Meanwhile,teachersperceptionsofthecomfort levelofstudentswhomaybeLGBTdoesnot appeartodifferbygradeleveltaught. AsdiscussedinChapters1and2,newerteachers aremorelikelytoseeschoolsafetyasaserious problemand,ingeneral,morelikelytoreportthat theirstudentsmakebiasedremarks,including homophobiccomments.Thus,thisfinding regardingnewerteachersperceptionsofthe comfortofstudentswhomaybeormaygrowup tobeLGBTisconsistentwithnewerteachers awarenessofamorehostileschoolclimate regardingLGBTissues. Teachersperceptionsofthecomfortofstudents whomaybeLGBTappeartoberelatedtoschool characteristics,suchasschoolsizeandlocation. Teachersinsuburbanschoolsandlargerschools aremorelikelytofeelthatastudentwhoisorwill beLGBwouldbecomfortableintheirschool(see Table4.2).Approximatelyhalf(53%)ofsuburban teachersthinkanLGBstudentwouldbe comfortable,comparedtoonly40%ofrural teachers.Inlookingatschoolsize,teachersat smallschoolsaremorelikelythanthoseinlarger schoolstosaythatstudentswhomaybeorgrow uptobeLGBwouldfeelveryuncomfortableat theirschools(Fewerthan300students:18%;300 499students:6%;500+students:8%).Incontrast, teachersbeliefsaboutthecomfortlevelofa transgenderstudent,appeartodifferonlyby schoollocale:50%ofsuburbanteacherthinka transgenderstudentwouldbecomfortable, comparedto35%ofruralteachers(seealsoTable 4.2).Teachersbeliefsonthistopicdonotdiffer byschoolsize. Interestingly,althoughpublicschoolstudentsand teachersaremorelikelytoreportproblemswith bullyingandharassmentthanthoseinprivateor parochialschools,teachersperceptionsofthe comfortlevelofLGBortransgenderstudents appearunrelatedtowhetheraschoolispublic, privateorparochial.

57

Figure4.1 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelof StudentsWhoMightBeorGrowUpToBeLGBT Very Comfortable Somewhat Comfortable Neither Somewhat Uncomfortable Very Uncomfortable

16% 24% 25% 22% 12%

20% 26% 24% 21% 9%

AstudentwhomightbeorgrowupAstudentwhomightbeorgrowup tobetransgender tobegay,lesbianorbisexual


Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyou teach:Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobegay,lesbianorbisexual/Astudentwhomightbeor growuptobetransgender?

Table4.1 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofStudentsWhoMightBeorGrowUp ToBeLGBTbyYearsofTeachingExperience


YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Fewer A 171 37% 17% 46%BC 31% 18% 50%BC 620Years B 514 49% 27% 23% 44%A 27% 28% 21YearsorMore C 400 50% 28%A 22% 45%A 31%A 24%

Base: Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable

Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobegay,lesbianorbisexual

Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobetransgender

Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyouteach:A studentwhomightbeorgrowuptobegay,lesbianorbisexual/Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobe transgender?

58

Table4.2 TeachersPerspectivesononComfortLevelofStudentsWhoMightBeorGrowUp ToBeLGBTbySchoolLocation


SchoolLocation Urban A 353 45% 27% 27% 37% 31% 31% Suburban B 376 53%C 21% 26% 50%AC 23% 27% Rural C 368 40% 25% 34% 35% 24% 41%B

Base: Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable

Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobegay,lesbianorbisexual

Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobetransgender

Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschool whereyouteach:Astudentwhomightbeorgrowuptobegay,lesbianorbisexual/A studentwhomightbeorgrowuptobetransgender?

Teachers Comfort Addressing LGBT Issues GiventhatLGBTissuesmayariseinelementary schoolsbecauseofantiLGBTlanguageor bullying(asdetailedinChapters13),becausea studenthasanLGBTfamilymemberorbecause studentslearnaboutLGBTissuesinmediaorin theircommunityelementaryschoolteachers maybepresentedwiththeopportunitytoaddress LGBTissues.Theymayevenbeaskeddirectly abouttheseissuesbytheirstudents.Therefore, weaskedteachersabouttheircomfortlevels whenaddressingissuesrelatedtopeoplewhoare LGBT.Themajorityofteachersreportsthatthey wouldnotfeelcomfortablerespondingto questionsfromtheirstudentsaboutpeoplewho areLGBT.Infact,lessthanonehalfofteacherssay thattheywouldfeelveryorsomewhat comfortablerespondingtothesequestionsfrom theirstudents(aboutlesbian,gayorbisexual people:48%,abouttransgenderpeople:41%). Onlytwointensaythattheywouldfeelvery comfortablefieldingquestionsfromtheirstudents aboutLGBTpeople(aboutlesbian,gayorbisexual people:21%,abouttransgenderpeople:18%)(see Figure4.2). Teacherscomfortinansweringquestionsfrom studentsaboutLGBTpeopleappearsrelatedto someteacherandschoolcharacteristics.Teachers atprivateorparochialschoolsaremorelikelythan thoseinpublicschoolstofeelcomfortable respondingtostudentquestionsaboutLGBT people(LGB:67%vs.46%;transgender:66%vs. 39%).TeacherswhoknowanLGBTstudentor parentattheirschoolarealsomorelikelytofeel comfortablerespondingtothesequestions(LGB: 67%vs.40%;transgender:58%vs.34%)(seeTable 4.3).

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Figure4.2 TeachersLevelofComfortinRespondingtoStudent QuestionsaboutLGBTPeople 18% 23% 24% 21% 13% 21% 27% 25% 17% 9%

VeryComfortable SomewhatComfortable Neither Somewhat Uncomfortable VeryUncomfortable

RespondingtoquestionsRespondingtoquestions fromyourstudents fromyourstudents aboutgay,lesbianor abouttransgender bisexualpeople people

Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing:Respondingtoquestionsfromyour studentsaboutgay,lesbianorbisexualpeople?/Respondingtoquestionsfromyourstudentsabout transgenderpeople?

Table4.3 TeachersLevelofComfortinRespondingtoStudentQuestionsaboutLGBTPeoplebySchoolType andKnowinganLGBTParentorStudent KnowsaStudentorParentat SchoolType SchoolWhoisLGBT Privateor Public Yes No Parochial A B D E Base: 945 145 355 663 Respondingtoquestionsfromyourstudentsaboutgay,lesbianorbisexualpeople Very/Somewhat 46% 67%A 67%E 40% comfortable Neither 26% 13% 18% 28%D Very/Somewhat 27% 19% 13% 32%D uncomfortable Respondingtoquestionsfromyourstudentsabouttransgenderpeople Very/Somewhat 39% 66%A 58%E 34% comfortable Neither 26%B 12% 15% 28%D Very/Somewhat 35% 22% 27% 38%D uncomfortable
Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing:Respondingtoquestionsfromyourstudentsaboutgay,lesbianor bisexualpeople?/Respondingtoquestionsfromyourstudentsabouttransgenderpeople? Note:Anasteriskrepresentsavaluegreaterthanzerobutlessthanone.

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Teachers Comfort Intervening in Homophobic Name-Calling and Bullying Eventhoughelementaryschoolteachersmaynot feelcomfortablerespondingtostudentquestions aboutLGBTpeople,alargemajorityare comfortableaddressingsituationswheretheir studentsarebeingcallednames,bulliedor harassedbecausetheyareorareperceivedtobe lesbian,gayorbisexual.AsshowninFigure4.3, eightintenelementaryschoolteachers(81%)say thattheywouldfeelveryorsomewhat comfortableaddressingsituationswherestudents arebeingcallednames,bulliedorharassed becausetheymaybeLGB,withslightlyoverhalf ofteacherssayingthattheywouldfeelvery comfortableaddressingtheseincidents(53%). Teacherscomfortlevelwithaddressingbullying, namecallingandharassmentbasedonrealor perceivedsexualorientationvariesbyyearsof teachingexperience(seeTable4.4).Teacherswith feweryearsofexperience(5yearsorless)are significantlymorelikelythanthosewith620years ofexperiencetosaythattheyfeelveryor somewhatcomfortableaddressingbullyingor namecallingincidentsbecauseofperceivedor actualsexualorientation(89%vs.78%). Somedifferencesbetweenteachersexistbythe gradeleveltheyteach,withteachersofyounger gradesbeinglesscomfortableaddressingLGB relatedbullying.Teachersof3rd4thgradersare morecomfortableaddressingbullyingincidents regardingrealorperceivedsexualorientation thanthoseofK2ndgraders(90%vs.74%). Teachersof5th6thgraders(83%)donotdiffer significantlyfromeithergroup.Nostatistically significantdifferencesoncomfortlevelwith addressingnamecallingorbullyingofstudents whoareormightbeLGBcanbeseenbyschool type(publicvs.privateorparochial)orschool location. Whetherornotteachersknowastudentorparent atschoolwhoisLGBTisalsorelatedtotheir comfortlevelwithaddressingbullyingorname callingduetoperceivedLGBstatus.Teacherswho knowanLGBTstudentorparentattheirschool aremorelikelythanthosewhodonottosaythey wouldfeelverycomfortableaddressingincidents ofbullyingornamecallingtowardastudentwho isbelievedtobeLGB(67%vs.49%)(seealsoTable 4.4).

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Figure4.3 TeachersLevelofComfortinAddressingBullying,NameCalling andHarassmentofStudentsPerceivedtobeLGB Very Uncomfortable 2% Somewhat Uncomfortable 4% Neither Comfortable nor Uncomfortable 13% Very Comfortable 53% Somewhat Comfortable 28%

Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing:Addressingnamecalling,bullyingor harassmentofstudentsbecauseastudentisorisbelievedtobegay,lesbianorbisexual?

Table4.4 TeachersLevelofComfortinAddressingBullying,NameCallingand HarassmentofStudentsPerceivedtobeLGBbyYearsofExperienceandKnowingan LGBTParentorStudent KnowsaStudentorParent YearsofTeachingExperience atSchoolWhoisLGBT 5Yearsor 620 21Years Yes No Fewer Years orMore A B C D E Base: 171 514 412 355 663 B E Very/SomewhatComfortable 89% 78% 82% 88% 79% VeryComfortable 62%B 49% 53% 67%E 49% SomewhatComfortable 27% 29% 28% 21% 31%D NeitherComfortablenor 8% 14% 15% 8% 14% Uncomfortable Very/SomewhatUncomfortable 3% 8% 4% 4% 7% SomewhatUncomfortable 2% 5% 2% 2% 5% VeryUncomfortable * 2% 2% 2% 2%
Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing:Addressingnamecalling,bullyingorharassmentofstudents becauseastudentisorisbelievedtobegay,lesbianorbisexual? Note:Anasteriskrepresentsavaluegreaterthanzerobutlessthanone.

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Section 2. Teachers Attitudes, Efforts and Responses Regarding Gender NonConforming Students
Teachers Attitudes Regarding Gender Non-Conforming Students Consistentwithteachersotherreportsonschool climate(seepreviouschapters),elementary schoolteacherswithfeweryearsofexperience aremorelikelythantheircounterpartstosaythat gendernonconformingstudentsmayfeel uncomfortableattheirschool(seeTable4.5).For example,36%ofnewerteachersreportthata gendernonconformingfemalestudentwouldfeel uncomfortableattheirschoolcomparedto aroundaquarterofotherteachers(620years: 25%;21+years:20%). Teachersperceivedcomfortofgendernon conformingstudentsalsodiffersbyschool characteristics.Consistentwithotherfindingson schoolclimateinthisreport,teachersinsuburban schoolsaremorelikelythantheircounterpartsat urbanorruralschoolstosaythatbothmaleand femalegendernonconformingstudentswould feelcomfortableattheirschool(seeTable4.6). Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts Addressing Gender-Related Issues

Previousresearchonschoolexperiencesofgender nonconformingyouth 15 andprevalenceof harassmentbasedongenderexpressioninmiddle andhighschools 16 indicatesthatadolescentswho donotconformtotraditionalgendernormsmay facehostileschoolclimates.Lessresearchfocuses ontheschoolexperiencesofyoungergendernon conformingchildren.Weaskedteachershow comfortabletheybelievestudentswhomaynot conformtotraditionalgendernorms(suchasa malestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionally feminineorafemalestudentwhoactsorlooks traditionallymasculine)wouldfeelattheirschool. Morethanfourintenelementaryschoolteachers reportthatgendernonconformingstudents wouldfeelcomfortableattheirschoolalmost half(49%)believethatafemalestudentwhoacts orlookstraditionallymasculinewouldfeel comfortableattheirschooland44%believethata malestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionally femininewouldfeelcomfortable(seeFigure4.4). Asizableportionofteachersbelievethese studentswouldbeuncomfortableattheirschool (malestudent:35%,femalestudent:27%).
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Greytak,E.A.,Kosciw,J.G.,&Diaz,E.M.(2009). Harshrealities:Theexperiencesoftransgenderyouthin ournation'sschools.NewYork:Gay,Lesbian&Straight EducationNetwork. McGuire,J.K.,Anderson,C.R.,Toomey,R.B.&Russell, S.T.(2010).Schoolclimatefortransgenderyouth:A mixedmethodinvestigationofstudentexperiencesand schoolresponses.JournalofYouthandAdolescence.

16

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN

Wealsoaskedteachersabouthowreceptivetheir schoolcommunitywouldbetoeffortsaddressing issuesofgenderroles,genderstereotypesand nontraditionalgenderexpression.Overall, teachersfeelthatthemajorityofotherpeople thatworkintheirschools,suchasteachers(62%), schooladministrators(60%)andotherstaff(56%), wouldbesupportiveoftheseefforts.Theyare somewhatlesslikelytosaythatpeoplewhodo notdirectlyworkintheschoolbuilding,suchas districtleveladministration(48%),theschool board(46%),parents(46%)andthePTA/PTO (41%),wouldbesupportiveoftheseefforts(see Figure4.5).Fewerthantwointenbelievethatany ofthesegroupswouldnotbesupportive.

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Althoughteacherswithlessexperienceoftenare moreawareofschoolsafetyissues,teacherswith moreteachingexperiencearemorelikelyto believethattheschoolcommunitywouldbe supportiveofeffortstoaddressthetopicof gendernonconformity.AsshowninTable4.7, teacherswithmorethan20yearsofexperience aremorelikelythanteacherswith6to20years Figure4.4 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofElementarySchool StudentsWhoMayNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNorms experiencetoreportthatmostpeopleinthe schoolcommunitywouldbeveryorsomewhat supportiveoftheseefforts.AsshowninTable4.8, teachersfromsuburbanschoolsarealsomore likelythanteachersfromurbanorruralschoolsto findtheschoolcommunitysupportiveof addressingissuesofgendernonconformity.

17% 27% 20% 27% 8%

20%

VeryComfortable SomewhatComfortable

29%

Neither SomewhatUncomfortable

24% 22% 5%

VeryUncomfortable

Amalestudentwhoactsor Afemalestudentwhoactsor lookstraditionallyfeminine lookstraditionallymasculine


Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyou teach:Afemalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallymasculine/Amalestudentwhoactsorlooks traditionallyfeminine?

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Table4.5 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofElementarySchoolStudents WhoMayNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNormsbyYearsofExperience YearsofTeachingExperience 5YearsorFewer A 171 43% 21% 36%BC 37% 19% 44%C 620Years B 514 51% 24% 25% 48% 19% 33% 21YearsorMore C 400 52% 28% 20% 45% 25% 30%

Base: Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable

Afemalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallymasculine

Amalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallyfeminine

Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyouteach:Afemalestudentwho actsorlookstraditionallymasculine/Amalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallyfeminine?

Table4.6 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofElementarySchoolStudents WhoMayNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNormsbySchoolLocation Urban Base: Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable Very/SomewhatComfortable Neither Very/SomewhatUncomfortable A 353 43% 29% 28% 40% 22% 38%B SchoolLocation Suburban B 376 58%AC 22% 20% 54%AC 20% 26% Rural C 368 45% 22% 34%B 38% 20% 43%B

Afemalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallymasculine

Amalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallyfeminine

Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyouteach:Afemale studentwhoactsorlookstraditionallymasculine/Amalestudentwhoactsorlookstraditionallyfeminine?

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Figure4.5 TeachersPerspectivesonSchoolCommunitySupportofEffortsThat SpecificallyAddressIssuesofGenderRoles,GenderStereotypesandNon TraditionalGenderExpression NotatallSupportive SomewhatSupportive NotVerySupportive VerySupportive Neutral

Otherteachersinmyschool

3%8%

24%

28%

34%

Administratorsinmyschool

4% 7%

26%

24%

36%

Otherschoolstaff

3%9%

27%

27%

29%

Districtleveladministration

4% 8%

32%

24%

24%

Schoolboard

5% 9%

33%

24%

22%

Parents/guardiansofstudentsin 5% 14% myschool

32%

26%

20%

ThePTAorPTO

4% 11%

34%

21%

20%

Q1205. Howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabouteffortsthat specificallyaddressissuesofgenderroles,genderstereotypesandnontraditionalgenderexpression?

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Table4.7 TeachersPerspectivesonSchoolCommunitySupportofEffortsThatSpecificallyAddressIssuesof GenderRoles,GenderStereotypesandNonTraditionalGenderExpressionbyYearsofExperience (%Very/Somewhat Supportive) YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Fewer A Base: Otherteachersinmyschool Administratorsinmyschool Otherschoolstaff Districtleveladministration Schoolboard Parents/guardiansofstudentsinmyschool ThePTAorPTO 171 59% 58% 54% 47% 45% 46% 45% 620Years B 514 59% 56% 54% 41% 41% 44% 36% 21YearsorMore C 400 69%B 68%B 61% 59%B 55%B 49% 47%B

Q1205. Howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabouteffortsthatspecificallyaddress issuesofgenderroles,genderstereotypesandnontraditionalgenderexpression?

Table4.8 TeachersPerspectivesonSchoolCommunitySupportofEffortsThatSpecificallyAddressIssuesof GenderRoles,GenderStereotypesandNonTraditionalGenderExpressionbySchoolLocation SchoolLocation Urban A Base: Otherteachersinmyschool Administratorsinmyschool Otherschoolstaff Districtleveladministration Schoolboard Parents/guardiansofstudents inmyschool ThePTAorPTO 353 60% 57% 54% 45% 44% 42% 36% Suburban B 376 68% 65% 64%C 54% 54%C 55%AC 50%AC
C

Rural C 368 56% 56% 50% 43% 40% 41% 36%

Q1205.Howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybe abouteffortsthatspecificallyaddressissuesofgenderroles,genderstereotypes andnontraditionalgenderexpression?

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thatprotectstudentsfrombullying,namecalling andharassmentbasedonspecificcharacteristics, includinggenderexpressionandgenderidentity, wouldbemosthelpfulalmostnineinten teachers(87%)reportthatthesepolicieswouldbe veryorsomewhathelpful.Inaddition,three quartersofteachers(74%)saythathaving professionaldevelopmentforschoolpersonnel aboutbullying,namecallingandharassment basedongenderexpressionwouldbeusefulas well.Aroundtwothirdsofteachersalsofeelthe followingeffortswouldbeveryorsomewhat helpful:havingmoreresourcesonhowto incorporatetheseissuesintotheircurriculumor discussionswithstudents(68%),implementing educationprogramsforstudentsaboutthese issues(68%)andhavingtheprincipalorother schooladministratorsspeakopenlyaboutthese issuesandsupportingteacherswhoalsoaddress theseissues(67%)(seeFigure4.7). Fewdifferencesrelatedtoteacherorschool characteristicsareapparentinteachers perceptionsonthehelpfulnessofdifferentefforts tocreateasaferandmoresupportiveschoolfor gendernonconformingstudents.Oneexceptionis thatteacherswhoteachK2ndgradesaremore

Weaskedteacherswhethertheyfeltanobligation toprovideasafeandsupportivelearning environmentforgendernonconforming students.Thevastmajority83%ofteachers agreethattheyandotherschoolpersonnelhave suchanobligation,withalmostsevenoutoften (69%)sayingthattheystronglyagreethat teachershavethisobligation(seeFigure4.6). Thebeliefinanobligationtocreateasafeand supportivelearningenvironmentforstudentswho donotconformtotraditionalgendernormsis widespread,andgenerallydoesnotvaryby teacherorschoolcharacteristics. Teachersbelievethatavarietyofeffortscouldbe helpfulincreatingasaferandmoresupportive schoolenvironmentforstudentswhomaynot conformtotraditionalgendernorms.Asshownin Figure4.7,teachersbelievethathavingpolicies

Teachers Feelings of Obligation and Helpfulness of Efforts to Ensure a Safe and Supportive Learning Environment for Students Who May Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms

Figure4.6 TeachersFeelingsofObligationtowardsStudentsWho DoNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNorms 8% Strongly Disagree 2% Somewhat Disagree 6% NeitherAgree NorDisagree 69% StronglyAgree 14% Somewhat Agree

Q1005.Howmuchdoyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement?:Teachersand otherschoolpersonnelhaveanobligationtoensureasafeandsupportivelearning environmentforstudentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernorms.

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likelythanthosewhoteach5th6thgradesto believethathavingmoreresourcesonhowto incorporateissuesrelatedtogenderintotheir curriculumordiscussionswithstudentswouldbe helpful(76%vs.57%). Teachers Efforts for Students Who Do Not Conform to Traditional Gender Norms conformtotraditionalgendernormandwhat practicestheymightemployinthisarea.Asshown inTable4.9,aboutonethirdofelementaryschool teachers(34%)saythattheyhavepersonally engagedineffortstocreateasafeandsupportive classroomenvironmentforstudentswhomaynot conformtotraditionalgendernorms,with teachersintheoldergrades(5thand6th)being morelikelytoreportthisthanteachersinthe youngergrades(K2ndgrade).Giventhatsuburban teachersaremostlikelytothinkgendernon conformingstudentswouldbecomfortablein

Weaskedelementaryschoolteachersabouthow theymightaddresshavingastudentwhodoesnot

Figure4.7 TeachersPerceptionsonHelpfulnessofEffortsinCreatingSaferandMore Supportive SchoolsforStudentsWhoMayNotConformtoTraditionalGender Norms Base:ThoseWhoSomewhatDisagree,NeitherAgreeNorDisagree,SomewhatAgreeOrStronglyAgree ThatSchoolPersonnelHaveObligationToEnsureASafeEnvironmentForStudentsWhoDoNotConform ToTraditionalGenderNorms(n=1009) NotAtAllHelpful NotVeryHelpful SomewhatHelpful VeryHelpful

Havingpoliciesthatprotectstudentsfrom harassmentandbullyingbasedonspecific 5% 7% characteristics,includinggenderexpressionand genderidentity,alongwithotherslikeactualor Havingprofessionaldevelopmentforschool personnel(e.g.,training)aboutbullyingand 10% 14% harassmentbasedongenderexpression Havingmoreresourcesonhowtoincorporate theseissuesintoteacherscurriculaordiscussions 11%19% withstudents(e.g.,howtoaddressgender stereotypesthatlimitchildrensbehavior) Implementingeducationprogramsforstudents abouttheseissues 14% 17% (e.g.,assemblies,speakers,guidancelessons) Havingtheprincipalorotherschooladministrators moreopenlyaddresstheseissuesandsupport 11% 20% teacherswhoalsoaddresstheseissues

42%

45%

48%

26%

46%

22%

48%

20%

45%

23%

Q1011.Howhelpfulwouldthefollowingeffortsbeincreatingsaferandmoresupportiveschoolsforstudentswhomay notconformtotraditionalgendernorms?

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theirschoolsandthattheschoolcommunity wouldbemoresupportiveofeffortsrelatedto gendernonconformity,itisnotsurprisingthat suburbanteachersarealsomostwillingtoengage ineffortstocreateasupportiveclassroomfor gendernonconformingstudents.Teachersin suburban(43%)andurban(38%)schoolsaremore likelytoengageintheseeffortsthanthoseinrural schools(25%)(seealsoTable4.9). Teachersrespondinseveralwaystoprovideasafe andsupportiveenvironmentforstudentswho maynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms.The mostcommonactionreportedbyteachersisto avoidreinforcingtraditionalgenderstereotypesin theirclassrooms(78%).Aroundsixintenteachers whohaveengagedineffortstosupportgender nonconformingstudentsavoidsituationsthat dividetheirclassroomsbasedongender(64%), haveinformallydiscussedthetopicwiththeir students(60%)orhaveaddressedincidentsof genderbiasamongtheirstudents(59%).Fewer haveincorporatedthetopicintotheirteaching curriculum(20%)orhaveadvocatedforschool policiesandpracticesthatwouldbenefitstudents whomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms (19%)(seeFigure4.8). Again,fewdifferencesinteacherseffortsare apparentbyteacherorschoolcharacteristics, althoughteachersaturbanschoolsaremorelikely thanthoseinsuburbanorruralschoolstosaythey havetakenactionbyincorporatingthistopicinto theirteachingcurriculum(urban:34%vs. suburban:16%vs.rural:12%).Inaddition, teachersaturbanschoolaremorelikelytohave advocatedforschoolpoliciesthatareinclusiveof orprotectstudentswhomaynotconformto traditionalgendernorms(urban:31%vs. suburban:14%vs.;rural:13%)(seeTable4.10). Weaskedelementaryschoolteacherswhohave notmadeeffortstocreateasafeandsupportive environmentforstudentswhomaybegender nonconformingtheirprimaryreasonsfornot doingso.Mostoftheteachersreportthatthey havenotmadeanyeffortsbecausethetopichas notcomeupintheirclassrooms(83%).Abouttwo inten(22%)saythattheyfeelitisnotnecessary forthemtomaketheseeffortstocreateasafe environmentforthesestudents.Fewersaythat theydonothavethetimetofitthisinwith everythingelsetheyneedtoteach(12%),theydo nothavetheautonomytoaddresssubjects outsideofthecurriculumthattheyneedtofollow (10%)ortheywouldnotknowhowtoaddressthis issue(9%).Fearofbacklashfromparents(4%)or anunsupportiveadministration(4%)donotrank highonthelistofreasonswhyteachershavenot madeeffortsforstudentswhomaynotconform totraditionalgendernorms(seeFigure4.9). Onepossiblereasonwhymoreurbanthanrural teachersmaymakeeffortstocreateasafeand supportiveenvironmentforstudentswhodonot followsocietalexpectationsofgenderisthat theremaybemoreadherencetotraditional gendernormsinruralareas.Almostnineinten ruralteachers(88%)saythattheyhavenotmade theseeffortsbecauseithasnotcomeupintheir classrooms,whichissignificantlygreaterthan urbanteacherswhosaythesame(75%),although bothpercentagesarestillhigh.Oneother differenceinteacherseffortsisrelatedtoschool size:thosewhoteachinsmallerschoolsaremore likelythanthosewhoteachinlargerschoolsto saythattheyhavenotmadetheseeffortsbecause theydidnotfeelthatitwasnecessary(fewerthan 300students:36%;300499students:20%;500 studentsormore:20%).Teacherseffortsinthis areaweregenerallyunrelatedtootherteacher characteristics,suchasgradeleveltaughtoryears ofteachingexperience.

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Table4.9 TeachersWhoHavePersonallyEngagedinEffortstoCreateaSafeandSupportive EnvironmentforStudentsWhoMaynotConformtoTraditionalGenderNorms ByGradeLevelTaughtandSchoolLocation Total Base: Engagedinanyeffort forgender nonconforming students 1099 34% GradeLevelTaught K2nd A 280 30% 3rd4th B 214 37% 5th6th C 139 46%A Urban D 353 38%F SchoolLocation Suburban E 376 43%F Rural F 368 25%

Q1030.Haveyoupersonallyengagedineffortsspecificallydesignedtocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentinyour classroomforstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms?

Figure4.8 EffortsTeachersHaveMadetoCreateaSafeandSupportiveEnvironmentfor StudentsWhoMay NotConform toTraditionalGender Norms Base:Amongthosewhohaveengagedineffortsforstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditional gendernorms(n=422) Avoidreinforcingtraditionalgenderstereotypes inmyclassroom,suchasallowinggirlstodo traditionallyboythings"andviceversa WhenIcan,avoidsituationsthatdividethe classroombasedongender,suchashaving girls'andboys'lines Informallydiscussedthetopicwithmystudents Addressedincidentsofgenderbiasamongmy students(includingbiasagainststudentswhodo notconformtotraditionalgendernorms) Incorporatedthetopicintomyteaching curriculum Advocatedforschoolpoliciesandpracticesthat areinclusiveoforprotectstudentswhodonot conformtotraditionalgendernorms
20% 64%

78%

60%

59%

19%

Q1035.Whichofthefollowinghaveyoudonetocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentforstudentsinyourclassroom whomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms?

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Table4.10 EffortsTeachersHaveMadetoCreateaSafeandSupportiveEnvironmentforStudents WhoMayNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNormsbySchoolLocation Base:Thosewhohaveengagedineffortsforstudentswhomaynotconformto traditionalgendernorms(n=422) SchoolLocation Urban


A

Suburban
B

Rural
C

Base: Avoidreinforcingtraditionalgender stereotypesinmyclassroom,suchas allowinggirlstodotraditionallyboy thingsandviceversa WhenIcan,avoidsituationsthatdividethe classroombasedongender,suchashaving girls'andboys'lines Informallydiscussedthetopicwithmy students Addressedincidentsofgenderbiasamong mystudents(includingbiasagainststudents whodonotconformtotraditionalgender norms) Incorporatedthetopicintomyteaching curriculum Advocatedforschoolpoliciesandpractices thatareinclusiveoforprotectstudents whodonotconformtotraditionalgender norms

135 75%

173 83%

113 75%

62% 63%

66% 61%

63% 55%

69%B

49%

65%

34%BC

16%

12%

31%BC

14%

13%

Q1035.Whichofthefollowinghaveyoudonetocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentforstudentsin yourclassroomwhomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms?

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Figure4.9 ReasonsWhyTeachersHaveNotMadeEffortstoCreateaSafeandSupportive EnvironmentforStudentsWhoMayNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNorms Base:Teachers whohavenotengagedineffortsforstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditional gendernorms(n=671) Thishasnotcomeupinmyclassroom Idonotfeelitisnecessary Idonothavetimetofitthisinwiththeother thingsIhavetoteach Idonothavetheautonomytoaddresssubjects outsideofthecurriculumwithmyclass Iwouldnotknowhowtoaddressthisorwhatto do Theremightbebacklashfromparents Theadministrationwouldnotsupportthis 12% 10% 9% 4% 4% 22% 83%

Q1040.Whatarethereasonswhyyouhavenotengagedineffortsinyourclassroomtocreateasafeandsupportive environmentforstudentsinyourclassroomwhomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms?

Teachers Responses to Bullying, NameCalling or Harassment towards Gender Non-Conforming Students InChapters1and2,welearnedthatteachersdo witnessstudentnamecallingandbullyingtoward gendernonconformingstudents,althoughitis notoneofthemostfrequentreasonsforsuch negativebehaviors.Althoughmostteachers reportinterveningwhenencounteringthese behaviors,weneverthelesswantedtounderstand theircomfortlevelinaddressingincidentsin whichstudentsarebulliedorcallednames becausetheydonotconformtotraditionalgender roles.Eightintenteachers(82%)saythatthey wouldfeelveryorsomewhatcomfortablein handlingthesesituations,withmorethanonehalf (53%)sayingtheywouldfeelverycomfortable (seeFigure4.10).

Teachersofolderelementarystudentsand teacherswithfeweryearsonthejobaremore comfortableaddressingtheseissues.Asshownin Table4.11,teacherswhoteach3rd4thgrade(90%) aremorecomfortableaddressingthesesituations thanteachersofK2ndgrades(75%),butreport similarcomfortlevelsas5th6thgradeteachers (82%).Teacherswithfiveyearsofexperienceor less(89%)arealsomorelikelytobecomfortable addressingsituationsinwhichstudentswhodo notconformtotraditionalgenderrolesarebullied thanteacherswith620yearsofexperience (79%),butnotsignificantlymorelikelytobe comfortablethanteacherswith21yearsof experienceormore(83%). Teacherscomfortlevelinaddressingthese incidentsappearsrelativelyunrelatedtoschool characteristics,suchasschooltypeandlocation.

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However,teachersatsmallerschoolsaremore likelythanthoseatlargerschoolstosaythey wouldfeelcomfortableaddressingthesebullying incidents(fewerthan300students:94%vs.300 499students:81%vs.500studentsormore:82%). Wealsoaskedelementaryschoolteacherswhat theywoulddoifastudentintheirclasswasbeing callednames,bulliedorharassedbecausethe studentdidnotconformtotraditionalgender norms.AsshowninFigure4.11,teachersreporta widerangeofresponses:onethirdormoreof teacherssaythattheywouldconductaclass discussionaboutrespectingpeoplesdifferences (39%),educatetheperpetratoraboutwhytheir actionswerewrong(37%),conductaclass discussionaboutnamecallingandbullying(36%), sendtheperpetratortotheprincipalorother administrator(35%)ortalkwiththevictim(33%). Nearlyaquarterofteacherswouldtalkwiththe perpetratorandvictimtogether(24%)orprivately telltheperpetratortostop(21%).Lesscommon responsesincludetalkingwiththeparentsofthe victimortheperpetratorortellingtheperpetrator infrontofotherstudentstostoptheirbehavior. Notsurprisingly,wefindthatgradelevelmakesa differenceinthewaysteachershandlesituations inwhichstudentswhomaynotconformto traditionalgendernorms(seeTable4.12). Teachersofyoungerstudentswouldbemore likelythan5th6thgradeteacherstousethese incidentsasteachablemomentsconductinga classdiscussionaboutrespectingpeoples differences(K2ndgrade:44%vs.3rd4thgrade:45% vs.5th6thgrade:28%),aswellaseducatingthe perpetratoraboutwhyhis/heractionswere wrong(K2ndgrade:37%vs.3rd4thgrade:38%vs. 5th6thgrade:25%). Additionally,teachersofK2ndgradewouldbe morelikelythanotherteacherstotalkwiththe perpetratorandvictimtogether(35%vs.17%of 3rd4thgradeteachersand23%of5th6thgrade teachers),butlesslikelytoprivatelytellthe perpetratortostop(15%vs.26%of3rd4thgrade teachersand28%of5th6thgradeteachers). Teachersof5th6thgradestudentswouldbemore likelythanotherteacherstosaytheywouldtell theperpetratortostopinfrontofotherstudents

Figure4.10 TeachersLevelofComfortinAddressingBullying,NameCallingorHarassmentof StudentsWhoDoNotConformtoTraditionalGenderRoles Somewhat Uncomfortable Very 3% Uncomfortable 1% Neither Comfortable nor Uncomfortable 12%

Very Comfortable 53%

Somewhat Comfortable 29%

Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing:Addressingnamecalling,bullyingor harassmentofstudentsbecausetheydontconformtotraditionalgenderroles?

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(24%vs.7%of3rd4thgradeteachersand10%ofK 2ndgradeteachers.Teacherresponsetothese incidentsappearsunrelatedtoschooltypeor schoolsize,butrelatedtoyearsofteaching experienceandschoollocation.Teacherswith morethan20yearsofexperiencearelesslikely thantheircounterpartstosaytheywouldeducate theperpetratoraboutwhytheiractionswere wrong(5yearsorless:47%vs.620years:39%vs. 21ormoreyears:26%). Withregardtoschoollocation,teachersinurban areassaytheywouldbemorelikelytoconduct classdiscussionsaboutrespectingpeoples differencescomparedtoteachersinsuburbanor ruralareas(urban:48%vs.suburban:36%vs. rural:36%).Teachersinurban(41%)andrural (39%)schoolswouldbemorelikelythanthosein suburbanschools(29%)toconductaclass discussionaboutnamecallingandbullying. Teachersinsuburbanschoolswouldbemore likelytorefertheperpetratorandvictimtoapeer mediatortotrytoresolvetheirdifferencesthan teachersinurbanandruralschools(15%vs.7%vs. 6%). Findingsfromourpreliminaryqualitativeresearch showthatteachersmayvaryinhowtheyrespond toachildwhoisgendernonconformingsome mightencouragethebehaviorwhereasothers mighturgethestudenttoconformmoreto gendernorms,perhapstopreemptthestudent frombeingatargetofbullyingornamecalling. Thus,wealsoaskedteachersinthesurveyhow theywouldrespondtohavingstudentsintheir classwhomaynotconformtotraditionalgender norms.Mostteacherssaythattheywouldnottry tochangestudentswhodonotconformto traditionalgendernorms,althoughtheywould alsonotactivelysupporttheirnontraditional genderexpression.Sixintenteachers(61%)say thattheywouldbemostlikelytonotdoorsay anythingandletastudentwhodoesnotconform totraditionalgendernormstoactorlooktheway thestudentwants.Onlyoneinfiveteachers(21%) saythattheywouldactivelyencouragethe studenttocontinuetoexpresshimorherself. Fewerthanoneintenelementaryschoolteachers wouldspeakwiththestudentsparentsabout

Table4.11 TeachersLevelofComfortinAddressingBullying,NameCallingorHarassmentofStudentsWhoDo NotConformtoTraditionalGenderRolesbyGradeLevelTaughtandYearsofExperience GradeLevelTaught YearsofTeachingExperience 5Years 620 21Yearsor K2nd 3rd4th 5th6th orLess Years More A B C D E F Base: 280 214 139 171 514 412 Very/Somewhat 75% 90%A 82% 89%E 79% 83% Comfortable NeitherComfortablenor 16%B 6% 14% 9% 13% 13% Uncomfortable Very/Somewhat 8% 3% 2% 2% 6% 3% Uncomfortable
Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing:Addressingnamecalling,bullyingorharassmentofstudents becausetheydontconformtotraditionalgenderroles?Note:Anasteriskrepresentsavaluegreaterthanzerobutlessthan one.

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theirchildsappearanceorbehavior(9%)or encouragethestudenttochangehisorher appearanceorbehaviortofitin(2%).An additional7%ofteachersindicatethatthey wouldhandleitinanotherway,suchasseeking helpfromtheprincipalorthecounseloror ensuringthatthestudentfollowsthedresscode. Teachersdonotdifferintheirresponsesto havingagendernonconformingstudentbythe gradelevelsthattheyteach,althoughtheydo differbyyearsofexperience.Teacherswith5 yearsofexperienceorless(28%)aremorelikely thanthosewith21ormoreyearsofexperience (16%)tosaytheywouldencouragestudentswho maynotconformtotraditionalgendernormsto continuetofreelyexpressthemselves(seeTable 4.13). Teachersatpublicschoolswouldbemorelikely thanthoseatprivateorparochialschoolstonot doorsayanythingandletthestudentactorlook thewayheorshewants(63%vs.44%).Teachers insuburbanschoolswouldalsobemorelikely thanthoseinurbanschoolstonotdoorsay anythingandletthestudentactorlooktheway heorshewants(67%vs.55%).Teachersaturban (10%)orrural(13%)schoolssaytheywouldbe morelikelythanthoseatsuburbanschools(4%) tospeakwiththestudentsparentsaboutthe studentsappearanceorbehavior(seeTable 4.14).Finally,teachersatsmallerschoolssaythey wouldbelesslikelythanteachersatlarger schoolstosaythattheywouldnotdoorsay anything(fewerthan300students:46%;300499 students:61%;500studentsormore:66%).In fact,teachersatsmallerschoolaremorelikelyto saythattheywouldencouragethestudentsto continuetofreelyexpressthemselves.

Figure4.11 WaysThatTeachersWouldAddressIncidentsWhereStudentsare BulliedorCalledNamesforNotConformingtoTraditionalGenderNorms Conductaclassdiscussionaboutrespecting people'sdifferences Educatetheperpetratoraboutwhyhis/her actionswerewrong Conductaclassdiscussionaboutnamecalling andbullying Sendtheperpetratortotheprincipalorother administrator Talkwiththevictim Talkwiththeperpetratorandvictimtogether Privatelytelltheperpetratortostop Talkwiththeperpetrator'sparents Publiclytelltheperpetratortostopinfrontof otherstudents Refertheperpetratorandvictimtoapeer mediatortotryandresolvetheirdifferences Talkwiththevictim'sparents
6% 14% 14% 10% 24% 21% 39% 37% 36% 35% 33%

Q1120.Ifastudentinyourclasswasbeingcallednames,bulliedorharassedbecauseheorshedidntconformto traditionalgendernorms,howwouldyoumostlikelyaddressthesituation?

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Table4.12 WaysThatTeachersWouldAddressIncidentsWhereStudentsare BulliedorCalledNamesforNotConformingtoTraditionalGenderNormsbyGradeLevel GradeLevelTaught K2nd Base: Conductaclassdiscussionabout respectingpeople'sdifferences Educatetheperpetratoraboutwhy his/heractionswerewrong Conductaclassdiscussionaboutname callingandbullying Sendtheperpetratortotheprincipalor otheradministrator Talkwiththevictim Talkwiththeperpetratorandvictim together Privatelytelltheperpetratortostop Talkwiththeperpetrator'sparents Publiclytelltheperpetratortostopin frontofotherstudents Refertheperpetratorandvictimtoapeer mediatortotryandresolvetheir differences Talkwiththevictim'sparents A 280 44%C 37% 41% 27% 25% 35%B 15% 17% 10% 3rd4th B 214 45%C 38% 37% 31% 35% 17% 26%A 19% 7% 5th6th C 139 28% 25% 38% 38% 36% 23% 28%A 11% 24%AB

9% 6%

15%C 7%

4% 7%

Q1120.Ifastudentinyourclasswasbeingcallednames,bulliedorharassedbecauseheorshedidnt conformtotraditionalgendernorms,howwouldyoumostlikelyaddressthesituation?

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Figure4.12 HowTeachersWouldApproachStudentsWhoDoNotConformto TraditionalGenderNorms


61%

21% 9% 2%

Notdoorsayanything Encouragethestudent andletthestudentact tocontinuetofreely orlookthewayheor expressthemselves shewants

Speakwiththe studentsparents abouthisorher appearanceor behavior

Encouragethestudent toadjusthisorher appearanceor behaviortofitin

Q1117.Ifastudentinyourclasswasnotconformingtotraditionalgendernorms,howwouldyoumostlikely approachthesituation?

Table4.13 HowTeachersWouldApproachStudentsWhoDoNotConformtoTraditional GenderNormsbyYearsofExperience

5Yearsor Fewer D 171 55% 28%F 13% 1%

YearsofExperience 620Years E 514 64% 20% 7% 2% 21Yearsor More F 400 63% 16% 9% 4%

Base: Notdoorsayanythingandletthestudentact orlookthewayheorshewants Encouragethestudenttocontinuetofreely expressthemselves Speakwiththestudentsparentsabouthisor herappearanceorbehavior Encouragethestudenttoadjusthisorher appearanceorbehaviorto"fitin"

Q1117.Ifastudentinyourclasswasnotconformingtotraditionalgendernorms,howwouldyoumostlikelyapproachthe situation?

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Table4.14 HowTeachersWouldApproachStudentsWhoDoNotConformtoTraditionalGenderNormsby SchoolTypeandSchoolLocation SchoolType Private/ Public Parochial A B 945 145 63%B 44% SchoolLocation Urban C 353 55% Suburban D 376 67%C Rural E 368 61%

Base: Notdoorsayanythingandlet thestudentactorlookthe wayheorshewants Encouragethestudentto continuetofreelyexpress themselves Speakwiththestudents parentsabouthisorher appearanceorbehavior Encouragethestudentto adjusthisorherappearance orbehaviorto"fitin"

20%

27%

25%

21%

19%

9%

11%

10%D

4%

13%D

2%

6%

4%

2%

1%

Q1117.Ifastudentinyourclasswasnotconformingtotraditionalgendernorms,howwouldyoumostlikely approachthesituation?

Lessons about Gender Equality at School Tobetterunderstandteachersclassroom practicesregardinggenderexpressionandgender nonconformityofstudents,weaskedstudents whattheyhavebeentaughtabouttheabilitiesof boysandgirls.Mostelementaryschoolstudents alsosaytheyaretaughtaboutgenderequalityat school,withalmostnineintenstudentsagreeing thattheyaretaughtthatgirlsandboyscandothe samethings(88%),including54%whoagreealot withthisstatement(seeFigure4.13).Thisfinding

doesnotdifferbygradelevelorschooltype, althoughitdoesdifferbyschoollocation:students inurbanschoolsarelesslikelythanthosein suburbanorruralschoolstoagreethattheyare taughtatschoolthatboysandgirlscandothe samethings(82%vs.91%vs.92%). Interestingly,studentswhohaveheardtheir teachersmakecommentsthatgirlsandboys shouldbehaveordressaccordingtothesocietal normsoftheirgenderarelesslikelythanothersto reportthattheyaretaughtthatgirlsandboyscan dothesamethingsatschool(66%vs.90%).

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Figure4.13 Students'ReportsofBeingTaughtatSchoolThatGirlsandBoys CanDotheSameThings Disagreealot 3% Disagreealittle 8%

Agreealot 54%

Agreealittle 34%

Q1025.Howmuchdoyouagreeordisagreewith:Atmyschool,wearetaughtthatgirlsandboys candothesamethings.?

Summary Mostelementaryschoolteachersare comfortablerespondingtobullying,harassment andnamecallingofastudentwhoisoris perceivedtobegay,lesbian,bisexualor transgender(LGBT).However,amajorityof teachersarenotcomfortablerespondingto studentsquestionsaboutLGBTpeople.In addition,fewerthanhalfofteachersbelievethat astudentwhoisormightgrowuptobeLGBT wouldfeelcomfortableattheirschool. Similartoourpreviousresearchwithschool principals 17 andsecondaryschoolteachers 18 ,we findthatteachersoverallresponsesreveala somewhatmorepositivepictureforlesbian,gay, andbisexual(LGB)peopleinschoolsthanfor
17

GLSEN&HarrisInteractive(2008).Theprincipals perspective:Schoolsafety,bullyingandharassment,A Surveyofpublicschoolprincipals.NewYork:GLSEN. 18 HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:SchoolclimateinAmerica,Asurveyof studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

transgenderpeople.Teachersareslightlymore likelytoreportthatanLGBstudentwouldbe comfortableinschoolthanatransgender student.Teachersarealsomorecomfortable respondingtoquestionsaboutLGBpeoplethan theyareabouttransgenderpeople. Mostelementaryschoolteachersstronglybelieve thatschoolshaveanobligationtocreateasafe andsupportiveenvironmentforstudentswhodo notconformtotraditionalgendernorms.In addition,amajorityofteachersbelievethatother schoolpersonnelwouldbesupportiveofefforts toaddressissuesrelatedtogenderroles,gender stereotypesandnontraditionalgender expression.Whenaskedaboutthetypesof effortsthatwouldbehelpfulincreatingsaferand supportiveschoolsforgendernonconforming students,protectivebullying/harassmentpolicies andprofessionaldevelopmentarecitedbythe vastmajorityofteachers.Yet,onlyathirdof elementaryschoolteacherssaytheyhave personallyengagedineffortstohelpensurethat theirclassroomsaresafeandsupportivefor gendernonconformingyouth,mostoftenby avoidinggenderstereotyping.Forthemajorityof

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teacherswhohavenotmadesuchefforts,most saythatithasnotarisenasanissueintheir classroom.Althoughmostteachersdonottake proactivesteps,amajorityindicatethatif confrontedwiththebullying,harassmentor namecallingofagendernonconforming student,theywouldfeelcomfortableaddressing thesituation.Despitetheseviews,lessthanhalf ofteachersbelievethatstudentswhodonot conformtotraditionalgendernormswouldfeel comfortableattheirschool. Thesefindingsindicatethatmostelementary teachersfeelstronglyabouttheneedforLGBT andgendernonconformingstudentstobesafe atschool,asevidencedbytheircomfort addressingbullying,harassmentandnamecalling andtheirbeliefintheschoolsobligationto ensurestudentssafety.However,beyondsafety concerns,elementaryteachersappearreluctant toaddressLGBTissuesorissuesrelatedtonon traditionalgenderexpression

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Chapter 5 Teachers Attitudes, Efforts and Responses to Students from Families with LGBT Parents

Overview

IntheGLSENreportabouttheschoolexperiencesofLGBTheadedfamilies,Involved,Invisibleand Ignored, 19 wefoundthatsecondaryschoolstudentswithLGBTparentsoftenhearnegativeremarks aboutLGBTpeopleandsometimesexperiencedmistreatmentfrompeersandadultmembersofthe schoolcommunity(i.e.,parentsofotherstudents)becauseofthetypeoffamilytheyhave.Further,we foundthattheLGBTparents,especiallyparentsofelementaryagechildren,weremorelikelythanother parentstobeactivelyengagedinthelifeoftheirchildsschool,tovolunteeratschool,toattendparent teacherconferencesorbacktoschoolnights,andtocontacttheschoolabouttheirchildsacademic performanceorschoolexperiences.Yet,manyLGBTparentsreportedfeelingneglected,excludedor evenmistreatedbyothermembersoftheirschoolcommunities,especiallyotherparents.Thefindings fromthispreviousreporthighlighttheneedforprofessionaldevelopmentamongschoolstafftoinclude multiculturaldiversitytrainingthatincorporatesaccurateinformationandrepresentationsofallfamily constellations,includingLGBTfamilies.Forthesereasons,weaskedelementaryschoolteachersabout theirattitudes,beliefsandcommonpracticesregardingthesefamilies.

19

Kosciw,J.G.&Diaz,E.M.(2008).Involved,invisible,ignored:Theexperiencesoflesbian,gay,bisexualand transgenderparentsandtheirchildreninournation'sK12schools.NewYork:GLSEN.

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feelattheirschools,wealsoaskedteachershow comfortabletheybelievelesbian,gay,bisexualor transgenderparentsthemselveswouldfeelat theirschools.Nearlytwothirdsofteachers believethatLGBparentswouldfeelcomfortable beinginvolvedinschoolrelatedactivitiessuchas attendingaschoolfunction(64%),chaperoninga fieldtrip(63%),helpingoutintheclassroom(63%) andjoiningtheParentTeacherAssociation(PTA) orParentTeacherOrganization(PTO)(59%). Teachersarenoticeablymorelikelytobelievethat LGBparentswouldfeelcomfortablebeing involvedattheirschoolthanwouldtransgender parents.Onlyabouttwoinfiveteachersbelieve thattransgenderparentswouldfeelcomfortable atthesefunctionsoractivities(seeFigure5.2). TeacherswhoaremorelikelytobelievethatLGB parentswouldfeelcomfortableparticipatingin schoolrelatedactivitiestendtoteachinsuburban districtsandhavemoreyearsofteaching experience.Nevertheless,regardlessofthelevel ofteacherexperienceorlocationoftheschool, themajorityofteachersbelieveLGBparents wouldbecomfortableparticipating(seeTable5.2 andTable5.3).Incontrast,themajorityof

Teachers Perspectives on the Comfort Level of Elementary School Students Who Have LGBT Parents

Similartotheproportionofteacherswhobelieve thatstudentswhomaybeorgrowuptobeLGBT wouldfeelcomfortableattheirschools,aplurality ofelementaryschoolteachersbelievethat studentswithLGBTparentswouldfeel comfortableattheirschool(studentswithLGB parents:50%;transgenderparents:41%)(see Figure5.1).Additionally,teacherswithmore experienceandthoseinsuburbanschoolsare morelikelytofeelthatstudentswithLGBT familieswouldfeelcomfortableattheirschool (seealsoTable5.1).Gradeleveltaughtdoesnot appeartoberelatedtohowcomfortableteachers believethesestudentswouldfeelattheirschool. Teachers Perspectives on the Comfort Level of LGBT Parents of Elementary School Students Inadditiontoteachersopinionsonhow comfortablestudentsfromLGBTfamilieswould

Figure5.1 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofElementarySchoolStudents withLGBTParents 19% 22% 22% 26% 24% 18% 8% 23% 9% VeryUncomfortable NeitherComfortablenor Uncomfortable SomewhatUncomfortable VeryComfortable SomewhatComfortable

28%

Astudentwithalesbian,gayor Astudentwithatransgender bisexualparent parent


Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyouteach: Astudentwithalesbian,gayorbisexualparent/Astudentwithatransgenderparent?

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teachersbelievethattransgenderparentswould morelikelythanteacherswithlessexperienceto notbecomfortableparticipatinginschool believethattransgenderparentswouldbe activities;thisislargelytrueacrossschoollocale comfortableparticipatinginschoolactivities(see andteacherdemographics,withtheone Table5.4). exceptionthatteacherswithmoreexperienceare Table5.1 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofElementarySchoolStudentswithLGBTParentsbyYearsof TeachingExperienceandSchoolLocation(%Very/SomewhatComfortable)

YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Fewer A 620Years B 514 54%A 45%A 21Yearsor More C 400 54%A 50%A Urban D 353 46% 39%

SchoolLocation Suburban E 376 60%DF 50%F Rural F 368 43% 36%

Base: Astudentwitha lesbian,gayor bisexualparent Astudentwitha transgenderparent

171 38% 29%

Q805.Howcomfortabledoyouthinkthefollowingstudentswouldfeelattheschoolwhereyouteach:Astudentwithalesbian, gayorbisexualparent/Astudentwithatransgenderparent?

Figure5.2 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofLGBTParentsParticipatinginSchool Activities(%Very/SomewhatComfortable) LGBParents Attendingaschool function TransgenderParents 64% 45%

Chaperoningafield trip

63% 44%

Helpingoutinthe classroom

63% 45%

JoiningthePTAor PTO

59% 44%

Q815.Howcomfortabledoyouthinklesbian,gayorbisexualparentswouldfeelparticipatinginthefollowingactivitiesatyour school? Q820.Howcomfortabledoyouthinktransgenderparentswouldfeelparticipatinginthefollowingactivitiesatyour school?

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Table5.2 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofLGBParentsParticipatinginSchoolActivitiesby YearsofTeachingExperience(%Very/SomewhatComfortable) YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Fewer A 171 58% 56% 57% 53% 620Years B 514 65% 64% 64% 61% 21Yearsor More C 400 73%A 69%A 68% 65%

Base: Attendingaschoolfunction Chaperoningafieldtrip Helpingoutintheclassroom JoiningtheParentTeacherAssociation (PTA)orParentTeacherOrganization(PTO) Teachers Perspectives on School Community Support of Efforts Addressing Families with LGBT Parents Wealsoaskedelementaryschoolteachersabout howsupportivetheyfeltmembersoftheirschool communitywouldbetowardeffortsthat specificallyaddressedfamilieswithLGBTparents. Overhalfofelementaryteachersthinkthatother teachers(56%),schooladministrators(55%)and otherstaff(51%)attheirschoolwouldbe supportiveofeffortsthatspecificallyaddress familieswithLGBTparents(seeFigure5.3). However,teachersarelesslikelytoreportthat districtleveladministration(44%),theschool board(41%),parentsofstudentsintheirschool (37%)orthePTA/PTO(36%)wouldbesupportive (seeFigure5.3). Teacherswhoteachinsuburbanschoolsand thosewithmoreteachingexperienceare somewhatmorelikelytobelievetheirschool communitywouldsupporteffortsforfamilieswith LGBTparents(seeTable5.3andTable5.4).In addition,publicschoolteachersarelesslikelythan privateschoolteacherstobelievethattheir colleaguesatschoolwouldbeunsupportiveof theseeffortsforfamilieswithLGBTparents.For

Q815.Howcomfortabledoyouthinklesbian,gayorbisexualparentswouldfeelparticipatinginthefollowingactivities atyourschool?

example,teachersatprivateorparochialschools aremuchmorelikelythanteachersatpublic schoolstosaythatotherteacherswouldbe unsupportive27%vs.14%(seeTable5.5). Teacherswithmoreyearsofexperience(21+)are consistentlymorelikelythanotherstosaythat, withtheexceptionofotherparents/guardians, themembersoftheirschoolcommunitywouldbe supportiveofLGBTparents.Forexample,61%of veteranteachersbelievethatadministratorsat theirschoolswouldbeveryorsomewhat supportiveofLGBTparents,comparedto49%of teacherswith6to20yearsexperienceand53%of teacherswith5yearsofexperienceorfewer(see alsoTable5.5). Teachers Feelings of Obligation to Ensure a Safe and Supportive Learning Environment for Families with LGBT Parents

Mostelementaryschoolteachers(81%)agreethat theyandotherschoolpersonnelhavean obligationtoensureasafeandsupportive learningenvironmentforstudentswithLGBT parentsorotherfamilymembers.Infact,seven outoftenteachers(70%)saythattheystrongly agreewiththisstatement(seeFigure5.4).In 87

addition,teacherstendtoagreethattheyhave thisobligationtowardsstudentswithLGBTfamily membersaswell,regardlessofpersonalorschool characteristics. Weaskedteacherswhoagreethattheyhavean obligationtostudentsfromfamilieswithLGBT parentsabouteffortsthatwouldhelpinachieving amoresupportiveenvironment.Asshownin Figure5.5,amajorityofteacherswouldfindall thementionedeffortshelpfulintheirschools.The overwhelmingmajorityofteachersbelievethat havingpoliciesthatareinclusiveoffamilieswith LGBTparentswouldbehelpful87%believethat policiesspecificallyaboutbullyingandharassment thatincludeprotectionsbasedonfamily characteristicswouldbeveryorsomewhat helpful,and81%saythesameaboutothertypes ofinclusivepoliciesandpractices.Inaddition,two thirds(66%)ofteachersbelievethathaving professionaldevelopmentforschoolpersonnel

aboutfamilieswithLGBTparentswouldbe helpful. Overall,elementaryschoolteachersbeliefsabout thehelpfulnessoftheseeffortsarerelatively unrelatedtopersonalorschoolcharacteristics. Oneexceptionisschoollocation:teachersin urbanschoolsaremorelikelythanteachersin ruralschoolstofeelthatimplementingeducation programsforstudentsaboutfamilieswithLGBT parents(62%vs.48%)andhavingmoreresources onhowtoincorporatefamilieswithLGBTparents intotheircurriculum(60%vs.47%)wouldbe helpfulincreatingasafeandsupportive environmentforthesefamilies.Youngerteachers (thosewith5yearsofexperienceorless)arealso morelikelythanmoreexperiencedteachers (thosewith21yearsorexperienceormore)to feelthathavingtheseeducationalprogramsabout familieswithLGBTparentswouldbehelpful(63% vs.47%).

Table5.3 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofLGBParentsParticipatinginSchool ActivitiesbySchoolLocation(%Very/SomewhatComfortable) SchoolLocation Urban A Base: Attendingaschoolfunction Chaperoningafieldtrip Helpingoutintheclassroom JoiningtheParentTeacherAssociation(PTA)or ParentTeacherOrganization(PTO) 353 60% 60% 59% 55% Suburban B 376 76%AC 73%AC 74% 71%AC
AC

Rural C 368 57% 56% 55% 51%

Q815.Howcomfortabledoyouthinklesbian,gayorbisexualparentswouldfeelparticipatinginthefollowingactivitiesat yourschool?

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Table5.4 TeachersPerspectivesonComfortLevelofTransgenderParentsParticipatinginSchoolActivitiesby YearsofTeachingExperience(%Very/SomewhatComfortable) YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Fewer Base: Attendingaschoolfunction Chaperoningafieldtrip Helpingoutintheclassroom JoiningtheParentTeacherAssociation(PTA)or ParentTeacherOrganization(PTO) A 171 34% 35% 35% 33% 620Years B 514 46% 44% 45% 44% 21Yearsor More C 400 58%AB 55%A 55%AB 56%AB

Q820.Howcomfortabledoyouthinktransgenderparentswouldfeelparticipatinginthefollowingactivitiesatyour school?

Figure5.3 TeachersPerspectivesonSchoolCommunitySupportof EffortsThatSpecificallyAddressFamilieswithLGBTParents NotVerySupportive Otherteachersinmy school Administratorsinmy school Otherschoolstaff Districtlevel administration Schoolboard Parents/guardiansof studentsinmyschool ThePTAorPTO Neutral 10% 9% 11% 11% 13% 21% 14% SomewhatSupportive 26% 28% 31% 31% 32% 32% 34% 27% 21% 24% 23% 23% 22% 20% VerySupportive 29% 34% 27% 21% 18% 15% 16%

Q1200.Howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabout effortsthatspecificallyaddressLGBTfamilies?

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Table5.5 TeachersPerspectivesonSchoolCommunitySupportofEffortsthatSpecificallyAddress FamilieswithLGBTParentsbyYearsofTeachingExperienceandSchoolType YearsofTeachingExperience 5Yearsor Fewer A 171 59% 24% 14% 53% 30%C 14% 52% 31% 13% 41% 34% 15% 37% 36%C 16% 33% 37% 26% 42%B 35% 13% 620 Years B 514 51% 30% 16% 49% 32%C 16% 46% 34%C 18% 38% 34%C 19% 36% 35%C 22% 35% 32% 31% 29% 37%C 26%A 21Years orMore C 400 66%B 22% 10% 68%AB 18% 11% 61%B 23% 12% 58%AB 23% 15% 55%AB 22% 18% 44% 26% 27% 44%B 26% 19% SchoolType Public D 945 58% 27%E 12% 56% 29%E 12% 52% 32%E 14% 47%E 33% 16% 43% 34%E 18% 36% 33%E 28% 36% 36%E 20% Private/ Parochial E 145 51% 13% 28%D 49% 9% 31%D 47% 17% 27%D 18% 20% 21% 32% 15% 27% 46% 18% 28% 35% 10% 25%

Base: Otherteachersinmyschool Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive Administratorsinmyschool Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive Otherschoolstaff Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive Districtleveladministration Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive Schoolboard Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive ThePTAorPTO Very/SomewhatSupportive Neutral NotatAll/NotVerySupportive

Parents/guardiansofstudentsinmyschool

Q1201.Howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabouteffortsthatspecifically addressLGBTfamilies?

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Table5.6 TeachersPerspectivesonSchoolCommunitySupportofEffortsthatSpecifically AddressFamilieswithLGBTParentsbySchoolLocation(%Very/SomewhatSupportive)


Urban A 353 59% 55% 52% 46% 43% 37% 33%

SchoolLocation Suburban B 376 64%C 61% 60%C 52%C 50%C 44%C 45%AC Rural C 368 49% 50% 43% 36% 33% 30% 31%

Base: Otherteachersinmyschool Administratorsinmyschool Otherschoolstaff Districtleveladministration Schoolboard Parents/guardiansofstudentsinmyschool ThePTAorPTO

Q1201.Howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabouteffortsthatspecifically addressLGBTfamilies?

Figure5.4 Teachers'SenseofObligationtoEnsureaSafeandSupportiveLearning EnvironmentforStudentswithLGBTParents/FamilyMembers StronglyDisagree 3% Somewhat Disagree 8%

StronglyAgree 70%

NeitherAgree NorDisagree 34%

SomewhatAgree 11%
Q925.Howmuchdoyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement?:Teachersandotherschoolpersonnel haveanobligationtoensureasafeandsupportivelearningenvironmentforstudentswithlesbian,gay,bisexual andtransgenderparentsorotherfamilymembers.

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Figure5.5 TeachersPerceptionsontheHelpfulnessofEffortsto CreateSaferandMoreSupportiveSchoolsforFamilieswithLGBTParents Base:Thosewhoagreethatschoolpersonnelhaveanobligationtoasafeandsupportiveenvironmentfor familieswithLGBTparents(n=1002) NotAtAllHelpful NotVeryHelpful SomewhatHelpful 43% VeryHelpful 44% Havingpoliciesthatprotectstudentsfrombeing harassedorbulliedbasedonwhoisintheirfamily 5% 6% (includinghavingLGBTfamilymembers) Havingotherpoliciesandpracticesthatare inclusiveofallkindsoffamilies(includingLGBT 8% 8% families) Havingprofessionaldevelopmentforschool personnel(e.g.,training)aboutLGBTfamilies) Havingtheprincipalorotherschooladministrators moreopenlyaddressthetopicofLGBTfamiliesand supportteacherswhoalsoaddressthetopic Implementingeducationprogramsforstudents aboutLGBTfamilies(e.g. assemblies,exhibits,speakers,guidancelessons) HavingmoreresourcesonhowtoincorporateLGBT familiesintoteachers'curriculaordiscussionswith students 14% 18%

44%

37%

41%

25%

16%

27%

38%

19%

18%

25%

39%

16%

17%

26%

36%

18%

Q930.Howhelpfulwouldthefollowingeffortsbeincreatingsaferandmoresupportiveschoolsforlesbian,gay,bisexualand transgender(LGBT)families?

Teachers Efforts for Families with LGBT Parents

Althoughmostelementaryschoolteachersagree thattheyhaveanobligationtoprovideasafeand supportiveenvironmentforstudentswhoare fromfamilieswithLGBTparents,onlyaroundone quarter(24%)saythattheyhavepersonally engagedineffortstoprovidesuchanenvironment intheirclassrooms(seeTable5.7).Teacherswho knowastudentorparentattheirschoolwhois LGBTaremuchmorelikelytosaytheyhave personallyengagedineffortstocreateasafeand supportiveenvironmentforfamilieswithLGBT parents(44%vs.16%).Also,teachersinurban (28%)andsuburban(27%)schoolsaremorelikely thanthoseinruralschools(17%)tosaytheyhave 92

engagedinthesetypesofefforts(seealsoTable 5.7). Weaskedteacherswhoreportengaginginefforts tocreateasupportiveenvironmentforLGBT familieswhattheireffortsmightinclude.As showninTable5.8,themostcommonmethod reportedisinformallydiscussingthetopicof familieswithLGBTparentswiththeirstudents (62%),followedbyaddressingincidentsofbias directedatfamilieswithLGBTparents(45%). Fewerteachersreportthattheyincorporatethe topicintotheirteachingcurriculum(23%)or advocateforschoolpoliciesandpracticesthatare inclusiveoforprotectfamilieswithLGBTparents (22%).

Amongelementaryschoolteacherswhohavenot ideaoffamilieswithLGBTparents(7%)(seealso specificallymadeeffortstocreateasafeand Figure5.6).Interestingly,teacherswithfewer supportiveenvironmentintheirclassroomsfor yearsofexperiencearemuchmorelikelytosay familieswithLGBTparents,75%saythatthetopic thattheiradministrationwouldnotbesupportive hasnotcomeupintheirclassrooms.Nearlythree 17%ofnewerteacherssaythis,comparedto7% intenteachers(28%)saythattheyhavenotmade ofteacherswith620yearsofexperienceand4% effortsforfamilieswithLGBTparentsbecause ofteacherswith21ormoreyearsofexperience. theydidnotfeelitwasnecessary(seeFigure5.6). Otherssaythattheydonothavetheautonomyto Teachersinruralschools(84%)aremorelikely addresstopicsoutsideoftheircurriculum(17%), thanteachersinurban(66%)orsuburban(71%) theywouldnotknowhowtoaddressthistopicor schoolstosaythattheyhavenotengagedin knowwhattodo(15%),theydonothavethetime effortstocreateasafeandsupportivelearning tofitthetopicinwiththeotherthingstheyneed environmentforfamilieswithLGBTparents toteach(14%),theymightfacebacklashfrom becausethetopichasnotcomeupintheir parents(13%)ortheybelievetheadministration classroom.Teachersinbothsuburban(29%)and wouldnotsupportsuchefforts(9%).Fewteachers rural(34%)schoolsaremorelikelythanteachers indicatedthatthereasontheyhavenotmadean inurban(16%)areastosaythattheydonotfeel efforttocreateasafeandsupportive thatmakingsucheffortsforfamilieswithLGBT environmentintheirclassroomsforfamilieswith parentsintheirclassroomisnecessary(seeTable LGBTparentsisbecausetheyareopposedtothe 5.9). Table5.7 TeachersWhoHaveMadeEffortstoCreateSafeandSupportiveEnvironmentsforLGBTFamiliesby KnowinganLGBTStudentorParentandSchoolLocation KnowsaStudentor ParentatSchool SchoolLocation WhoisLGBT Total Yes No Urban Suburban Rural Base: Personallyengagedinefforts tocreateasafeandsupportive environmentforfamilieswith LGBTparents 1099 24% A 355 44%B B 396 16% C 353 28%E D 376 27%E E 368 17%

Q950.Haveyoupersonallyengagedineffortsspecificallydesignedtocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentinyour classroomforlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)families?

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Table5.8 EffortsTeachersHaveMadetoCreateaSafeandSupportive EnvironmentforFamilieswithLGBTParents Base:AllqualifiedteacherswhohaveengagedineffortsforfamilieswithLGBTparents(n=277) Total

Informallydiscussedthetopicwithmystudents AddressedincidentsofbiasbasedonLGBTfamilies Incorporatedthetopicintomyteachingcurriculum Advocatedforschoolpoliciesandpracticesthatareinclusiveoforprotect LGBTfamilies

62% 45% 23% 22%

Q955.Whichofthefollowinghaveyoudonetocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentinyourclassroomspecificallyfor lesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)families?

Figure5.6 ReasonsWhyTeachersHaveNotEngagedinEffortstoCreateaSafeand SupportiveEnvironmentforFamilieswithLGBTParents

Base:AllqualifiedteacherswhohavenotengagedineffortsforfamilieswithLGBTparents(n=814) Thishasnotcomeupinmyclassroom Idonotfeelitisnecessary Idonothavetheautonomytoaddress subjectsofthecurriculumwithmyclass Iwouldnotknowhowtoaddressthisor whattodo Idonothavetimetofitthisinwiththeother thingsIhavetoteach Theremightbebacklashfromparents Theadministrationwouldnotsupportthis IamopposedtotheideaofLGBTfamilies 17% 15% 14% 13% 9% 7% 28% 75%

Q960.Whatarethereasonswhyyouhavenotengagedinspecificeffortstocreatesafeandsupportiveenvironmentin yourclassroomspecificallyforlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)families?

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Table5.9 ReasonsWhyTeachersHaveNotEngagedInEffortstoCreateaSafeandSupportive EnvironmentforFamilieswithLGBTParentsbySchoolLocation Base:AllqualifiedteacherswhohavenotengagedineffortsforfamilieswithLGBTparents(n=814) SchoolLocation Urban Base: Thishasnotcomeupinmyclassroom Idonotfeelitisnecessary Idonothavetheautonomytoaddresssubjects outsideofthecurriculumwithmyclass Iwouldnotknowhowtoaddressthisorwhatto do Idonothavetimetofitthisinwiththeother thingsIhavetoteach Theremightbebacklashfromparents Theadministrationwouldnotsupportthis IamopposedtotheideaofLGBTfamilies A 253 66% 16% 15% 15% 12% 10% 4% 5% Suburban B 265 71% 29%A 20% 13% 12% 12% 10% 6% Rural C 296 84%AB 34%A 16% 16% 16% 17% 11%A 10%

Q960.Whatarethereasonswhyyouhavenotengagedinspecificeffortstocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentinyour classroomspecificallyforlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)families?

Teachers Responses to Bullying, NameCalling, or Harassment towards Students from Families with LGBT Parents

Wealsoaskedteachershowtheywouldrespond iftheyencounteredsituationswhenstudentsin theirclasswerebeingcallednames,bulliedor harassedbecausetheyhavelesbian,gay,bisexual ortransgender(LGBT)parentsorotherfamily members.AsshowninFigure5.7,themost commonwaythatteacherswouldaddressthis kindofbullyingistorefertheperpetratortothe principalorotheradministrator(43%).Other methodsteacherswoulduseareconductingclass discussionsaboutrespectingpeoplesdifferences (38%),educatingtheperpetratoraboutwhythe actionswerewrong(36%),conductingclass

discussionsaboutnamecallingandbullying(32%) ortalkingwiththevictim(32%).Lessthanone quarterwouldtalkwiththeperpetratorandvictim together(24%),privatelytelltheperpetratorto stop(18%),talkwiththeperpetratorsparents (17%),publiclytelltheperpetratortostopinfront ofotherstudents(13%),refertheperpetratorand victimtoapeermediatortotryandresolvetheir differences(12%)ortalkwiththevictimsparents (11%)(seeFigure5.7). Itisinterestingtonotethatteachersresponses onhowtheywouldaddressbullyingrelatedtoa studentsfamilyaresimilartotheirresponseson howtheywouldaddressastudentsgendernon conformingbehavior.Oneexceptionisthata higherpercentageofteacherssaythattheywould

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refertotheadministrationanincidentofbullying relatedtohavinganLGBTfamily(43%)thanthey wouldforanincidentofbullyingrelatedtogender expression(35%).Teachersmayfeelmore equippedtohandlebullyingrelatedtogender themselves,butprefertoenlistthesupportof theirsupervisorswhenbullyingisfamilyrelated. Or,perhapstheyviewfamilyrelatedbullyingas warrantingahigherlevelofintervention,i.e., referraltoprincipal,thanbullyingbasedon genderexpression. Notsurprisingly,wefindthatgradelevelisrelated tothewaysteacherswouldhandlesituationsof bullyingdirectedatstudentswithLGBTfamily members.AsshowninTable5.10,teachersof youngergrades(K2ndand3rd4th)aremorelikely toconductaclassdiscussionaboutrespecting peoplesdifferencesthanteachersof5th6thgrade. Inaddition,K2ndgradeteachersaremorelikelyto talkwiththeperpetratorandvictimtogether comparedtoteachersofhighergrades.Teachers of5th6thgradersarelesslikelytotalkwiththe perpetratorsparents,yetsomewhatmorelikely totelltheperpetratortostopthebehavior,either privatelyorinfrontoftheclass(seealsoTable 5.10). Yearsofteachingexperiencemayalsoberelated toteachersresponsestoincidentsofbullying directedatstudentswithLGBTfamilymembers. Teacherswith5yearsofexperienceorfewerare morelikelythanteacherswith21ormoreyearsof experiencetosaytheywouldtrytoeducatethe perpetratoraboutwhytheiractionswerewrong (44%vs.27%).Interestingly,teacherswithmore than5yearsofexperiencearemorelikelythan newerteacherstosaythattheywouldreferthe perpetratortotheprincipalorotheradministrator (seealsoTable5.10). Teachersresponsetoincidentsofbullying directedatstudentswithLGBTfamilymembers generallydonotdifferbyschoollocationorschool type,withtheoneexceptionthatpublicschool teachersaremorelikelythanprivateorparochial schoolteacherstosaythattheywouldreferthe perpetratorandvictimtoapeermediatortotryto resolvetheirdifferences(13%vs.2%).

Teaching and Learning about Different Family Types at School

Whenfamiliesarediscussedintheclassroom, mostteachersincluderepresentationsthatextend beyondthetraditionalconceptionofthenuclear familywithamotherandafather.Nineinten elementaryschoolteacherssaythatwhenthe topicoffamiliescomesupintheclassroom,they includerepresentationsofdifferenttypesof familiesintheirclasslessons(89%)(seeFigure 5.8).Eightintenteachers(81%)include representationoffamilieswithasingleparent, threequarters(76%)includemulticultural representationsoffamiliesandaroundsevenin tenincluderepresentationsofmultiracialfamilies (70%),representationsofadoptivefamilies(67%) orofotherkindsoffamilies,suchasfosterparents orgrandparentsastheprimarycaregiver(69%). Inclusionoffamilieswithlesbian,gay,bisexualor transgender(LGBT)parentsismuchlesscommon. Farfewerteacherssaythattheyinclude representationsoffamilieswithlesbian,gayor bisexualparents(21%)ortransgenderparents (8%)whenthetopicoffamiliescomesupinthe classroom. Thetypesoffamiliesthatteachersdiscussinthe classroomappeartoberelatedtoschoollocation, proportionofracial/ethnicminoritystudentsand gradeleveltaught.Teachersinsuburbanschools aremorelikelythanteachersinruralschools(but notsignificantlymorethanteachersinurban schools)toincludemulticulturalfamilies,multi racialfamiliesandfamilieswithgay,lesbianor bisexualparentsintheirclassdiscussionsabout families(seeTable5.11).Additionally,when lookingatdifferencesbygradeleveltaught,K2nd gradeteachersaremorelikelythanteachersof 5th6thgradestudentstomentionsingleparent families(86%vs.72%)andmulticulturalfamilies (80%vs.66%).Infact,teachersof5th6thgraders aremorelikelythanK2ndgradeteacherstosay theydonotdiscussanyrepresentationsofthese differentfamilieswiththeirclasses(22%vs.6%).

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Figure5.7 WaysTeachersWouldAddressIncidentsinWhichStudentsare BulliedorCalledNamesforHavingLGBTParentsorOtherFamilyMembers

Refertheperpetratortotheprincipalorother administrator Conductaclassdiscussionaboutrespecting people'sdifferences Educatetheperpetratoraboutwhyhis/her actionswerewrong Conductaclassdiscussionaboutnamecalling andbullying Talkwiththevictim Talkwiththeperpetratorandvictimtogether Privatelytelltheperpetratortostop Talkwiththeperpetrator'sparents Publiclytelltheperpetratortostopinfrontof otherstudents Refertheperpetratorandvictimtoapeer mediatortotryandresolvetheirdifferences Talkwiththevictim'sparents 18% 17% 13% 12% 11% 24% 38% 36% 32% 32%

43%

Q1118.Ifastudentinyourclasswasbeingcallednames,bulliedorharassedbecauseheorshehad lesbian,gay,bisexualortransgenderparentsorotherfamilymembers,howwouldyoumostlikelyaddressthe situation?

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Table5.10 WaysTeachersWouldAddressIncidentsinWhichStudentsare BulliedorCalledNamesforHavingLGBTParentsorOtherFamilyMembers ByGradeLevelTaughtandYearsofExperience GradeLevelTaught YearsofExperience 5Years 620 21Years K2nd 3rd4th 5th6th orLess Years orMore A B C D E F Base: 280 214 139 171 514 400 Refertheperpetratortothe principalorother 33% 46%D 48%D 36% 37% 45% administrator Conductaclassdiscussion aboutrespectingpeople's 29% 39% 36% 40% 40% 46%C differences Educatetheperpetratorabout whyhis/heractionswere 33% 22% 44%F 37% 27% 37% wrong Conductaclassdiscussion aboutnamecallingand 34% 31% 32% 35% 37% 38% bullying Talkwiththevictim Talkwiththeperpetratorand victimtogether Privatelytelltheperpetrator tostop Talkwiththeperpetrator's parents Publiclytelltheperpetratorto stopinfrontofotherstudents Refertheperpetratorand victimtoapeermediatorto tryandresolvetheir differences Talkwiththevictim'sparents 24% 35%C 11% 20% 7% 30% 25% 15% 25%C 6%

35%
19% 26%A 11% 23%AB

24% 27% 20% 24%F 14%

35% 22% 17% 16% 13%

31% 27% 20% 12% 11%

13% 13%

14% 16%

9% 12%

14% 11%

11% 10%

12% 12%

Q1118.Ifastudentinyourclasswasbeingcallednames,bulliedorharassedbecauseheorshehadlesbian,gay,bisexualor transgenderparentsorotherfamilymembers,howwouldyoumostlikelyaddressthesituation? Note:Numbersthatareboldedindicatethetopthreewaysinwhichteachersateachgradelevelwouldaddressthe situation.

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Teacherswhoknowofaparentorstudentintheir schoolwhoisLGBTaremorelikelythanthose whodonotknowanLGBTparentorstudentto includerepresentationsofalldifferenttypesof families,includingthosewithgay,lesbianor bisexualparents(38%vs.15%)ortransgender parents(13%vs.6%)whentheydiscussfamilies (seeTable5.12). Teachersatpublicandprivateorparochialschools andatschoolsofallsizesareequallylikelyto includerepresentationsofthesedifferenttypesof families.Teachersyearsofteachingexperience arealsounrelatedtotherangeoffamilytypes representedduringthesediscussions. Wealsoaskedelementaryschoolstudents whethertheyhadbeentaughtaboutdifferent typesoffamiliesinschool.AsshowninFigure5.9, themajorityofelementaryschoolstudents(72%) reportthattheyhavebeentaughtaboutdifferent typesoffamiliesatschool,andthisfindingdoes notvarybystudentorschoolcharacteristics,such asgradelevel,schoollocationandschooltype. Althoughitislesscommonforstudentstosaythat instructionaboutfamilydiversityincludesfamilies withgayorlesbianparentsspecifically,nearlya fifth(18%)ofstudentssaytheyhaveindeed learnedaboutthesetypesoffamiliesatschool. Eventhoughitmayberareforteacherstoteach aboutgayandlesbianpeopleintheelementary grades,itisnotuncommonforelementary studentstoknowsomeonewhoisgayorlesbian. Nearlyaquarterofelementaryschoolstudents (28%)saythattheyknowsomeonewhoisgayor lesbian,including2%whosaytheyhaveagayor lesbianparent,10%whosayanotherpersonin theirfamilyisgayorlesbianand19%whosay theyknowagayorlesbianpersonwhoisnotin theirfamily(seeFigure5.10).

Figure5.8 Teachers'ReportsoftheFamilyTypesRepresentedWhentheTopicof FamiliesIsDiscussedinClassroom


Any(NET) Familieswithasingleparent Multiculturalrepresentationsoffamilies Multiracialfamilies Adoptivefamilies Familieswithgay,lesbianorbisexualparents Familieswithtransgenderparents Otherkindsoffamilies Noneofthese

89% 81% 76% 70% 67% 21% 8% 69% 11%

Q920.Whenthetopicoffamiliescomesupinyourclassroom,arerepresentationsofthefollowingtypesoffamilies included?Thismaybethroughformalcurriculum,videos,pictures,booksorinformaldiscussion.

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Table5.11 TeachersReportsoftheFamilyTypesRepresentedWhentheTopicofFamiliesisDiscussedin ClassroombySchoolLocationandGradeLevelTaught SchoolLocation GradeLevelTaught Urban A 353 89% 78% 78% 72% 63% 23% 11% 67% 11% Suburban B 376 97% 82% 81%C 75%C 68% 28%C 8% 69% 13% Rural C 368 91% 82% 70% 63% 70% 15% 5% 70% 9% K2nd D 280 94%F 86%F 80%F 75% 71% 17% 7% 69% 6% 3rd4th E 214 87% 77% 76% 65% 61% 18% 3% 65% 13% 5th6th F 139 78% 72% 66% 65% 56% 15% 6% 67% 22%D

Base: Any(NET) Familieswithasingleparent Multicultural representationsoffamilies Multiracialfamilies Adoptivefamilies Familieswithgay,lesbianor bisexualparents Familieswithtransgender parents Otherkindsoffamilies(e.g., grandparentsasprimary caregivers,fosterfamilies) Noneofthese

Q920.Whenthetopicoffamiliescomesupinyourclassroom,arerepresentationsofthefollowingtypesoffamilies included?Thismaybethroughformalcurriculum,videos,pictures,booksorinformaldiscussion.

Table5.12 TeachersReportsoftheFamilyTypesRepresentedWhentheTopicofFamiliesisDiscussedin ClassroombyKnowingLGBTStudentorParent KnowaStudentorParentatSchoolWhois LGBT Yes A 355 93% 88%B 84%B 81%B 78%B 38%B 13%B 77%B No B 663 87% 79% 72% 65% 63% 15% 6% 65%

Base: Any(NET) Familieswithasingleparent Multiculturalrepresentationsoffamilies Multiracialfamilies Adoptivefamilies Familieswithgay,lesbianorbisexualparents Familieswithtransgenderparents Otherkindsoffamilies(e.g.,grandparentsas primarycaregivers,fosterfamilies)

Q920.Whenthetopicoffamiliescomesupinyourclassroom,arerepresentationsofthefollowingtypesoffamiliesincluded? Thismaybethroughformalcurriculum,videos,pictures,booksorinformaldiscussion.

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Figure5.9 Students'ReportsofTypesofFamiliesTheyAreTaughtAbout inSchool 72%

18%

Taughtatschoolthatthereare differentkindsoffamilies

Taughtatschoolaboutfamilies withgayorlesbianparents

Q1015.Atyourschoolhaveyoueverlearnedaboutfamilieswithgayorlesbianparents (familiesthathavetwodadsortwomoms)?

Figure5.10 StudentsReportsofKnowingAnyoneWhoisGayorLesbian

Yes(NET) Yes,myparent Yes,anotherpersoninmy family Yes,anotherpersonnotinmy family No Notsure


Q1125. Doyouknowanyonewhoisgayorlesbian?

28% 2% 10% 19% 58% 13%

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Thevastmajorityofelementaryschoolteachers believethattheyhaveanobligationtoensurea safeandsupportivelearningenvironmentfor studentswithLGBTfamilies.Teachersindicate supportforavarietyofmeasurestoensuresafe andsupportiveschoolsforLGBTfamilies, particularlysupportivepoliciesandprofessional development.Mostteachersbelievethatother schoolpersonnelwouldalsobesupportiveof effortsaddressingLGBTfamilies,althoughless thanhalfbelievethatothermembersofthe schoolcommunity(i.e.,districtadministrators, schoolboardandparents)wouldsupportsuch efforts.Thefindingfromteachersthatschoolstaff aremoresupportiveofLGBTfamiliesthanare otherparentsisconsistentwithLGBTfamilies experiencesdocumentedinourpreviousresearch bothchildrenwithLGBTparentsandLGBT parentsthemselvesreportthattheyaremore likelytobemistreatedbyotherparentsthanby schoolpersonnel. 20 Whenteachingaboutthediversityoffamilies, elementaryschoolsincludethetopicofLGBT familieslessoften.Almostallstudentsand teachersreportthatdifferentkindsoffamiliesare discussedinschool,yetonlyoneinfiveteachers andstudentsindicatethatLGBTfamiliesare includedinclasslessons.Infact,despiteteachers endorsementofsupportiveschoolsforstudents withLGBTfamilies,onlyaquarterofteachers reportengaginginanytypeofefforttocreatesafe andsupportiveenvironmentsforthesefamilies. Mostteacherswhohavenotdonesoindicatethat itisbecausethetopichasnotcomeupintheir classroom,andlessthan10percentsaythatitis becausetheyareopposedtoLGBTfamilies. Giventhelackofproactiveefforts,itisnot surprisingthatfewerofhalfofteachersbelieve thatstudentswithLGBTparentswouldfeel comfortableattheirschool.Incontrast,amajority ofteachersbelievethatLGBparentsthemselves
20

wouldbecomfortableparticipatinginschool activities,suchaschaperoningafieldtripor joiningthePTA.Teachersarelesslikelytobelieve thattransgenderparentswouldbecomfortable engagingintheseschoolactivities,withslightly lessthanhalfreportingthattheywouldbe comfortable.

Kosciw,J.G.&Diaz,E.M.(2008).Involved,invisible, ignored:Theexperiencesoflesbian,gay,bisexualand transgenderparentsandtheirchildreninournation's K12schools.NewYork:GLSEN.

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Chapter 6 School-Wide Anti-Bullying and Harassment Efforts


Overview

Intheprecedingchapterswehaveexaminedstudentsandteachersperceptionsoftheirelementary schoolsclimate,includingtheextenttowhichbiasedlanguageisusedandbullyingornamecalling occurs,aswellasteachersandotherschoolcommunitymembersattitudesaboutstudentswith lesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)parents,studentswhomaybelesbian,gayorbisexual(LGB) andstudentswhodonotconformtotraditionalgendernorms.Wehavealsoexaminedthecurriculaand teacherspracticesregardingbullying,genderequalityandfamilydiversity.Theprevalenceofschool wideantibullyingandharassmenteffortsatthesecondaryschoollevel,includingpoliciesand preventionprogramming,haveincreasedoverthepasttwodecades.Thischapterexploresteachers perspectivesontheschoolwideeffortsthatareinplacetoaddresstheseissuesinelementaryschools.

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harassment,regardlessofschoolcharacteristics, includinghavingantibullyingorharassment policies,institutingpunitivemeasuresforstudents whobullyandprovidingprofessionaldevelopment forschoolpersonnel(seeTable6.1).However,as alsoshowninTable6.1,apatternemergessuch thatteachersfromprivate/parochialschools, smallerschoolsandruralschoolsarelesslikelyto reportsomeoftheotherschoolefforts.For example,teachersatpublicschoolsaremore likelythanthoseatprivateorparochialschoolsto saythattheirschoolshaveclassroombased curriculaoreducationprogramsforstudents(62% vs.44%)orhavepeermediationorconflict resolutionprograms(45%vs.25%).Regarding schoollocation,teachersinruralschoolsareless likelythanthoseinsuburbanschoolstosaythat theirschoolshaveclassroombasedcurriculaor educationprogramsforstudents(55%vs.67%)or thattheirschoolshaveclearconsequencesfor schoolpersonnelwhodonotaddressbullyingor harassmentwhentheyseeit(25%vs.38%).

Anti-Bullying and Harassment Measures at School

Weaskedteachersaboutthemeasurestheir schoolsemploytoaddresstheproblemofbullying andharassment.AsshowninFigure6.1,teachers mostcommonlysaythattheirschoolhasanti bullyingorharassmentpolicies,aswellasthat theirschooltakespunitivemeasuresagainst perpetratorsofbullyingorharassment.The majorityofteachersalsoreportthantheschool providesprofessionaldevelopmentonbullying andharassmentandprovidesclassroombased curriculaoreducationprogramsforstudentsthat addressbullying.Lessthanhalfofteacherssay thattheirschoolshavepeermediationorconflict resolutionprogramsandclearconsequencesfor schoolpersonnelwhodonotaddressbullying incidentsthattheywitness. Teachersreportsimilarfrequenciesofmosttypes ofschooleffortsregardingbullyingand

Figure6.1 MeasuresImplementedinSchoolRegardingBullyingorHarassment Antibullying/harassmentschoolpolicies Punitivemeasuresforthosewhoengageinbullying orharassingbehaviors Professionaldevelopmentforschoolpersonnel (e.g.,training) Classroombasedcurriculaoreducationprogramsfor students Awarenesscampaigns(e.g.posters,contests,special events) Peermediationorconflictresolutionprograms Clearconsequencesforschoolpersonnelwhodonot addressbullyingorharassmentwhentheywitnessit 32% 43% 61% 61% 54% 71% 81%

Q910. Whichofthefollowing,ifany,havebeenimplementedregardingbullyingorharassmentinyourschool?

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Table6.1 AntiBullyingorHarassmentMeasuresImplementedatSchoolbySchoolType, SchoolSize and School Location SchoolSize (bynumberofstudents) Private/ Fewer 500or Public 300499 Parochial than300 more A B C D E 945 145 191 324 534 SchoolType 82% 72% 76% 81% 86% SchoolLocation Urban F 353 80% Sub urban G 376 84% Rural H 368 80%

Base: Antibullying/ harassmentschool policies Punitivemeasures forthosewho engageinbullying orharassing behaviors Professional developmentfor schoolpersonnel (e.g.,training) Classroombased curriculaor educationprograms forstudents Awareness campaigns(e.g. posters,contests, specialevents) Peermediationor conflictresolution programs Clearconsequences forschoolpersonnel whodonotaddress bullyingor harassmentwhen theywitnessit

71%

65%

65%

72%

74%

74%

67%

71%

62%

53%

60%

63%

62%

66%

64%

55%

62%B

44%

57%

70%E

58%

61%

67%H

55%

55%

49%

49%

57%

56%

41%

65%F

54%F

45%B

25%

28%

44%C

48%C

47%

47%

37%

32%

34%

27%

26%

36%D

34%

38%H

25%

Q910.Whichofthefollowing,ifany,havebeenimplementedregardingbullyingorharassmentinyourschool?

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Teachersreportsontheprevalenceofpolicies thatspecificallymentionsexualorientationand genderidentityorexpressionarereflectiveof levelsreportedbyelementaryschoolprincipalsin ourpreviousresearch.Amongelementaryschool principalswhoseschooldistrictshadananti bullyingorharassmentpolicy,42%indicatedthat sexualorientationisspecificallymentionedand 37%indicatedthatgenderidentityorexpressionis specificallymentioned.However,elementary schoolprincipalsweremorelikelythanteachers toreportthattheirschooldistrictspolicy specificallymentionsrace/ethnicity(63%)or religion(52%). 21 Protectionsbasedonpersonalcharacteristicsin antibullyingorharassmentpoliciesvaryslightly byschoollocation.Teachersinurbanschoolsare morelikelythanotherstosaytheirschoolsanti bullyingpolicymentionsgenderidentityor expression(42%vs.29%ofsuburbanteachersand 29%ofruralteachers).Teachersinurbanschools arealsomorelikelythanthoseinruralschoolsto saytheirschoolspolicymentionsrace/ethnicity (55%vs.42%),butnotsignificantlymorethan teachersinsuburbanschools(43%)(seeTable6.2). Publicschoolsdonotdifferfromprivateor parochialschoolsintermsofthecharacteristics thattheirpoliciesspecify,nordoesschoolsize playasignificantrole.

Components of School Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies

Aspreviouslyindicated,81%ofelementaryschool teachersreportthattheirschoolhasimplemented antibullyingorharassmentpolicies.Teachers whoseschoolhasapolicywereaskedwhetherthe policycertaincontainskeycomponents.Asshown inFigure6.2,thesepoliciesvaryintermsoftheir descriptionsandprocedures.Amongteachers whoseschoolhasantibullyingorharassment policies,mostsaythattheirpolicyincludesa descriptionoftheconsequencesthatstudents facewhentheybullyorharassothers(76%),has proceduresforhowstudentscanreportincidents (69%),requiresstafftoreportincidents(68%)and mandatesprofessionaldevelopmentforschool staff(68%).Fewerteachers,onlyaboutfourin ten,reportthateducationprogramsforstudents aremandatedaspartoftheirschoolsbullyingor harassmentpolicy(41%). Wealsoaskedteacherswhethertheirschool policiesincludesprotectionsbasedoncertain personalcharacteristics,specifically race/ethnicity,religion,sexualorientation,gender identityorgenderexpressionorbeingassociated withapersonorgroup(e.g.,havinganLGBT familymember).AsshowninFigure6.3,lessthan afifthofteachersreportthattheirschoolsanti bullyingorharassmentpolicydoesnotmention anyofthesespecificcharacteristics(16%), althoughasizableproportionindicatethatthey arenotsureiftheirpolicymentionsthese characteristics(36%). Themostcommoncharacteristicthatis specificallymentionedinantibullyingor harassmentschoolpolicyisrace/ethnicity,with abouthalf(46%)ofteacherswhoseschoolhas suchapolicysayingthatitspecificallymentions race/ethnicity(seealsoFigure6.3).Overathirdof teachersreportthattheirschoolpoliciesspecify religion(39%)andsexualorientation(36%)and aroundathirdreportthattheschoolpolicy mentionsgenderidentityorexpression(32%).

21

GLSEN&HarrisInteractive(2008).Theprincipals perspective:Schoolsafety,bullyingandharassment,A surveyofpublicschoolprincipals.NewYork:GLSEN.

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Figure6.2 ComponentsIncludedinSchoolAntiBullyingorHarassmentPolicies Base:Allteacherswhohaveantibullyingorharassmentpolicyatschool(n=899) Adescriptionofconsequencestostudentswho engageinbullyingorharassingbehavior Proceduresforstudentstoreportincidentsof bullyingorharassment Staffarerequiredtoreportincidents Professionaldevelopmentforschoolpersonnel ismandated Schoolsarerequiredtonotifyschool personnel,studentsandfamiliesofpolicy Educationprogramsforstudentsaremandated 41% 76% 69% 68% 60% 57%

Q915. Whichofthefollowingispartofyourschool'santibullyingorharassmentpolicy?

Figure6.3 CharacteristicsSpecificallyMentionedinSchoolAntiBullyingor HarassmentPolicies Base:Allteacherswhohaveantibullyingorharassmentpolicyatschool(n=899) Race/ethnicity Religion Sexualorientation Genderidentityorgenderexpression Beingassociatedwithapersonorgroup (e.g.,havingaLGBTfamilymember) Noneofthese Notsure 16% 36% 39% 36% 32% 26% 46%

Q917.Doesyourschool'santibullyingorharassmentpolicyspecificallymentionanyofthefollowing characteristics?

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Table6.2 CharacteristicsSpecificallyMentionedinSchoolAntiBullyingorHarassment PoliciesbySchoolLocation Base:Allteacherswhohaveantibullyingorharassmentpolicyatschool(n=899) SchoolLocation Urban Base: Race/ethnicity Religion Sexualorientation Genderidentityorgenderexpression Beingassociatedwithapersonorgroup (e.g.,havingalesbian,gay,bisexualor transgenderfamilymember) Noneofthese Notsure Impact of Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies on Bullying, Name-Calling, Biased Comments and Comfort Level at School Previousresearchamongsecondaryschool studentshasshownthatcomprehensiveanti bullyingorharassmentpoliciesthosethat enumerateprotectionsbasedonpersonal characteristics,includingsexualorientationand genderidentityorgenderexpressionmay providebetterprotectionsthangenericpolicies thatdonotenumeratesuchprotectionsfor students.Specifically,researchindicatesthat comprehensivepoliciesarerelatedtoalower incidenceofnamecalling,bullyingand harassmentinsecondaryschools. 22 Thus,wewere interestedinexaminingwhethercomprehensive policieswerealsomoreeffectiveinelementary
22

Suburban B 324 43% 36% 34% 29% 23% 22%C 33%

Rural C 301 42% 37% 31% 29% 23% 15% 38%

A 273 55%C 45% 43% 42%BC 34% 8% 35%

Q917.Doesyourschool'santibullyingorharassmentpolicyspecificallymentionanyofthefollowingcharacteristics?

HarrisInteractive&GLSEN(2005).Fromteasingto torment:Schoolclimate in America, Asurvey of studentsandteachers.NewYork:GLSEN.

schools.Inthissurveyofelementaryteachers, onlyaquarter(24%)ofteachersindicatethattheir schoolsantibullyingorharassmentpolicyisa comprehensiveonethatspecificallymentions sexualorientationandgenderidentityor expression.Overhalf(57%)ofteachershavea genericantibullying/harassmentpolicyattheir schoolthatdoesnotspecificallyaddressthese characteristics(seeFigure6.4). Teachersinschoolswithcomprehensiveanti bullying/harassmentpoliciesaresomewhatmore likelytoseenamecallingandbullyingasamore seriousproblemintheirschoolthanteachersin schoolswithagenericpolicyorwithnopolicy: 54%ofteachersinschoolswithacomprehensive policyreportthatnamecallingandbullyingare veryorsomewhatseriousproblems,comparedto 44%ofteachersinschoolswithagenericpolicy and46%ofteachersinschoolswithnopolicyat all.Teachersinschoolswithgenericpoliciesalso hearbiasedlanguagelessfrequentlythanthosein schoolswithcomprehensivepolicies(seeTable

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6.3).Inaddition,teachersinschoolswithgeneric policiesreportlowerlevelsofnamecallingand bullyingbecauseoftheirraceorethnicitythan thoseinschoolswithcomprehensivepoliciesor nopoliciesatall.Forexample,asshowninTable 6.4,8%ofteachersingenericpolicyschoolsreport thatstudentsarefrequentlybulliedbecauseof theirraceorethnicity,comparedto16%of teachersincomprehensivepolicyschoolsand12% inschoolswithnopolicy.Itispossiblethat comprehensivepoliciesthatenumerateprotected categories(e.g.,sexualorientation)increase teachersawarenessoftherolethatbiasbasedon personalcharacteristicsplaysintheclimateofthe school.Also,teachersreportsonthe characteristicsoftheschoolsanti bullying/harassmentpolicymaynotaccurately reflectthecontentsoftheactualpolicy.Itis possiblethatteacherswhoarenotcognizantof biasbasedbullyingmayalsobeunawareofthe protectionsbasedonastudentspersonal characteristicsintheschoolpolicy.Differencesin reportsofnamecalling,bullyingandharassment basedonthetypeofpolicymightalsobea reflectionoftheneedforsuchapolicy.Thus, schoolcommunitieswithgreaterfrequencyof biasbasedincidentsmightbemorelikelytoadopt apolicythatexplicitlyprohibitsthesetypesof incidents(i.e.,acomprehensivepolicythat enumeratesspecificprotectedcharacteristics). Teachersinschoolsthathavecomprehensiveanti bullyingpoliciesaremostlikelytofeelthat membersoftheirschoolcommunity,from administratorstoparents,wouldbeveryor somewhatsupportiveofeffortsthatspecifically addressfamilieswithLGBTparentsorissuesof genderroles,genderstereotypesandnon traditionalgenderexpression.Forexample,as showninTable6.5,threequarters(76%)of teachersfromcomprehensivepolicyschools believeotherteachersattheirschoolareveryor somewhatsupportiveofeffortstoaddressgender expressionandnonconformity,comparedtoless thantwothirds(62%)ofthoseinschoolswitha genericpolicyandlessthanhalf(40%)ofthosein schoolswithnopolicy.

Figure6.4 Teachers'ReportsonTypeofSchoolAntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy Base:Allqualifiedteachers(n=1099)/Haveschoolpolicy(n=899) Comprehensive NoPolicy Policy 19% 24% GenericPolicy 57%

Q910. Whichofthefollowing,ifany,havebeenimplementedregardingbullyingorharassmentinyourschool?Anti bullying/harassmentschoolpolicies Q917M1.Doesyourschool'santibullyingorharassmentpolicyspecificallymentionanyofthefollowingcharacteristics? Sexualorientation Q917M2.Doesyourschool'santibullyingorharassmentpolicyspecificallymentionanyofthefollowingcharacteristics? Genderidentityorgenderexpression

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Table6.3 TeachersReportsofBiasedLanguageinSchoolbyTypeofAntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy TypeofAntiBullyingorHarassmentPolicy Comprehensive Policies Generic Policies NoPolicy

A B C Base: 276 624 199 Atyourschool,howoftendoyouhearstudentsmakethefollowingtypesofremarks?(%Very often/Often) Theword"gay"usedinanegativeway 23% 15% 19% B Commentslike"spaz"or"retard" 23% 13% 19% Sexistremarks 15% 8% 18%B Homophobicremarks 13%B 6% 10% Racistremarks 13%B 2% 7% Commentsaboutbehaviororappearance thatdoesnotconformtotraditionalgender 7% 3% 5% norms(NET) Commentsaboutamaleactingorlooking 6% 3% 5% "toofeminine" Commentsaboutafemaleactingor 4% 2% 4% looking"toomasculine" Negativereligiousremarks 3% * 2%
Q721:Atyourschool,howoftendoyouhearstudentsmakethefollowingtypesofremarks?... Note:Anasteriskrepresentsavaluegreaterthanzerobutlessthanone

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Table6.4 TeachersReportsonBullyinginSchoolbyTypeofAntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy TypeofAntiBullyingorHarassmentPolicy Comprehensive Policies Generic Policies NoPolicy C 199

A B Base: 276 624 Atyourschool,howoftenarestudentsbullied,callednamesorharassedforthefollowing reasons?(%Veryoften/Often) Thewaytheylookortheirbodysize 36% 29% Theirabilityatschool(eithernotdoingwell 25% 19% ordoingverywell) Theirfamilydoesnothavealotofmoney 17% 10% Theyareaboywhoactsorlooks''toomuch 13% 9% likeagirl'' Theyareagirlwhoactsorlooks''toomuch 10% 5% likeaboy'' Theirrace/ethnicity 16%B 8% Theyhaveadisability 13% 10% Theyareorpeoplethinktheyaregay,lesbian 5% 11% orbisexual Theirreligion 7% 3% Theyhaveagay,lesbian,bisexualor 6% 3% transgenderparentorotherfamilymember
Q711.Atyourschool,howoftenarestudentsbullied,callednamesorharassedforthefollowingreasons?

29% 18% 12% 16% 9% 12% 12% 6% 6% 3%

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Table6.5 TeachersPerspectiveofSupportivenessofSchoolCommunityonEffortsRelatedtoGenderandLGBT Families(%Very/SomewhatSupportive)byTypeofSchoolAntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy EffortsaboutGenderIssues EffortsaboutLGBTFamilies Compre Compre Generic NoPolicy Generic NoPolicy hensive hensive A B C D E F Base
Otherteachersinmyschool Administratorsinmyschool(e.g. principal,assistantprincipal) Otherschoolstaff(otherthan teachersoradministrators) Districtleveladministration Parents/guardiansofstudentsin myschool Schoolboard TheParentTeacherAssociationor Organization

276
76% 75%
BC BC

624
62% 62%
C C

199
40% 32% 35% 29% 29% 27% 26%

276
70% 71%
F EF

624
60% 57% 54%F 45%F 38% 40%F 38%
F F F F

199
33% 29% 31% 24% 25% 23% 22%

66%C 62%BC 54%


C

59%C 47%C 48%


C

63%F 60%EF 44%


F

61%BC 48%
C

45%C 43%
C

59%EF 42%
F

Q1201.Ingeneral,howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabouteffortsthatspecifically addressLGBTfamilies? Q1206.Ingeneral,howsupportivewouldthefollowingmembersofyourschoolcommunitybeabouteffortsthatspecifically addressissuesofgenderroles,genderstereotypesandnontraditionalgenderexpression?

Anti-Bullying or Harassment Policies and Teachers Attitudes and Efforts Thepresenceofantibullyingorharassment policiescanalsohaveapositiveimpacton teachersattitudesandefforts.Specifically,they mayinfluenceteachersviewsandpractices relatedtogenderandsexualorientationdiversity, suchasLGBTfamiliesandstudentswhodonot conformtotraditionalgendernorms.Teachers fromschoolswithcomprehensiveantibullying policiesaremorelikelythanotherstosaythat theyhavepersonallyengagedincreatingasafe andsupportiveenvironmentforgendernon conformingstudentsandforstudentsfrom familieswithLGBTparents.AsshowninTable6.6, teachersfromschoolswithcomprehensive policiesaremorelikelytohaveengagedinefforts tocreatesafelearningenvironmentsforgender nonconformingchildrenandchildrenfromLGBT headedfamilies.Inaddition,teachersfrom schoolswithcomprehensivepoliciesaremore comfortableinterveninginLGBTrelatedbullying. AsshowninTable6.7,teachersfromschoolswith comprehensivepoliciesreporthigherlevelsof comfortinaddressingbullyingandnamecalling withthesegroupsofstudents.

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Table6.6 TeachersEffortsRelatedtoGenderandLGBTFamiliesbyTypeofSchool AntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy TypeofAntiBullyingorHarassmentPolicy Base: Personallyengagedineffortsspecifically designedtocreateasafeandsupportive environmentinyourclassroomforstudents whomaynotconformtotraditionalgender norms Personallyengagedineffortsspecifically designedtocreateasafeandsupportive environmentinyourclassroomforlesbian, gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)families Comprehensive Policies A 276 Generic Policies B 624 NoPolicy C 199

48%BC

32%

25%

42%BC

20%C

10%

Q1030.Haveyoupersonallyengagedineffortsspecificallydesignedtocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentinyour classroomforstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms? Q950.Haveyoupersonallyengagedineffortsspecificallydesignedtocreateasafeandsupportiveenvironmentinyour classroomforlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)families?

Table6.7 TeachersComfortWithAddressingNameCalling,BullyingorHarassmentRelatedtoGenderand SexualOrientation(%VeryComfortable)by Type ofSchool Anti-Bullying/HarassmentPolicy


TypeofAntiBullyingorHarassmentPolicy Base: Addressingnamecalling,bullyingor harassmentofstudentsbecausetheydont conformtotraditionalgenderroles Addressingnamecalling,bullyingor harassmentofstudentsbecauseastudentis orisbelievedtobegay,lesbianorbisexual Comprehensive Policies A 276 74%BC Generic Policies B 624 49% NoPolicy C 199 38%

72%BC

51%C

37%

Q1121_4.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing...?4.Addressingnamecalling,bullyingorharassmentof studentsbecausetheydontconformtotraditionalgenderroles. Q1121_3.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing...?3.Addressingnamecalling,bullyingorharassmentof studentsbecauseastudentisorisbelievedtobegay,lesbianorbisexual.

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Summary reportincidentsofbullying.Thetypeofanti bullying/harassmentpolicy,accordingtoteachers reports,doesnotdifferbyschoolcharacteristics, suchasgradelevel,schooltype,sizeorlocation. Althoughmostteachersreportthattheirschool hasanantibullying/harassmentpolicy,lessthana quarter(23%)saythattheirschoolhasa comprehensivepolicythatspecificallyincludes protectionsforbullyingbasedonsexual orientation,genderidentityorgenderexpression, amongothercharacteristics(e.g.,race/ethnicity). Antibullying/harassmentpoliciesmayfacilitate teacherstakingactionintheirclassrooms. Teachersinschoolswiththesepolicies, particularlywithcomprehensivepolicies,aremore likelytoaddressincidentsofbiasandtotake proactivestepstoensurethatgendernon conformingstudentsandstudentswithLGBT familiesaresafeandsupportedinschool.

Thereisclearevidencethatelementaryschools aremakingeffortstoconfrontbullying.The majorityofteacherssaythattheirschoolsadopt variousmeasurestoaddresstheissue,someof whichincludeestablishingpunitivemeasures towardstudentswhobullyorharassothers, providingprofessionaldevelopmentforschool personnel,implementingeducationprogramsfor studentsonbullyingandpromotingantibullying awarenesscampaigns.Differencesinthe implementationofsomeofthesemeasuresare,at times,relatedtoschooltype,sizeandlocation. Teachersreportthatantibullying/harassment policiesarethemostcommonmeasureenacted byelementaryschoolstoaddressbullying.Most teachersreportthattheantibullying/harassment policyattheirschoolincludesadescriptionof consequencesforthosewhobully,proceduresfor reportingbullyingandrequirementsforstaffto

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Chapter 7 Teacher Professional Development


Overview

Aswehavediscoveredinpreviouschapters,manyteachersrecognizethatbullyingandharassmentare seriousproblemsintheirschoolsandmostaddresssituationsofbullyingandnamecallingthatthey observeintheirschools.However,thesefindingsalsoshowaneedforfurtherfocusonteachersupport incertainareas.InChapter1,welearnedthatamajorityofteachersveryoftenoroftenaddress situationsinwhichtheyhearstudentsmakebiasedremarks.However,commentsregardingstudents whodonotconformtotraditionalgendernormsarethetypeofbiasedcommentleastlikelytobe addressedbyelementaryschoolteachers.InChapter5,welearnedthatmostteacherssaythatthey wouldfeelveryorsomewhatcomfortableaddressingsituationsinwhichstudentsarecallednames, bulliedorharassedbecausetheymaybelesbian,gayorbisexual,donotconformtotraditionalgender rolesorcomefromafamilywithlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT)parents.Yet,thishighlevel ofcomfortdoesnotextendtoteachersrespondingtoquestionsfromtheirstudentsaboutpeoplewho areLGBTgiventhatamajorityofteachersindicatethattheywouldnotfeelcomfortabledoingso. Additionally,teachersandstudentsalikereportthatrepresentationsfamilieswithLGBTparentsare rarelyincluded. InlightofthegapinteacheractionsandcomfortlevelsinareasrelatedtopeoplewhoareLGBT, includingLGBTfamilies,andstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditionalgendernorms,thischapter focusesonprofessionaldevelopmentthatteachershavereceivedintheseareas,aswellasinbullying andharassmentingeneral.This chapteralsoexaminesareasinwhichteacherssaytheyneedfurther professionaldevelopment.

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PDrelatedtofamilieswithLGBTparentsareless common,withonlyslightlymorethanonethirdof teachers(37%)havingeverreceivedPDingender issuesandevenfewerhavingreceivedPDabout familieswithLGBTparents(23%).Intheircurrent positions,themajorityofteachershavereceived PDinbullyingorharassment(71%)anddiversity ormulticulturalissues(58%).Twointenteachers orlesshavereceivedPDintheircurrentpositions ongenderissues(20%)oraboutfamilieswith LGBTparents(10%)(seeFigure7.1).

Teachers Professional Development Background Morethaneightinten(85%)elementaryschool teacherssaythattheyhave,atsomepointintheir career,receivedprofessionaldevelopment(PD)in bullyingandharassment.Thesameproportionof teachershasreceivedPDindiversityor multiculturalissues(85%).However,PDinissues surroundinggender,suchasthoseregarding sexism,genderrolesorgenderstereotypes,and

Figure7.1 ProfessionalDevelopmentintheFollowingAreasReceivedbyTeachers HaveEverReceivedPDonTopic


85%85% 37% 23%

20% 71% 58% 9% 13% 16% 13% 15% 15% Bullyingor harassment 25% 15% Diversityor multicultural issues 62%

10% 5% 10%

Yes,inmycurrentposition

Yes,inapreviousposition

76%

Yes,duringmypreservice educationorstudentteaching No,Ihavenotreceived professionaldevelopmentin thisarea

Genderissues Familieswith (including LGBTparents sexism, genderrolesor gender stereotypes)

Q1126.Haveyou,personally,everreceivedanyprofessionaldevelopment(e.g.,training)inthefollowingareas?Please selectallthatapply.

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Teacherswhoworkatschoolswithantibullying currentpositionthanthosewhodonotknowan policiesaremorelikelythanteachersatschools LGBTstudentorparentonallofthetopics.As withoutsuchpoliciestohavereceived showninFigure7.3,forexample,74%ofteachers professionaldevelopmentintheircurrent whoknowanLGBTstudentorteacherhavehad positionsonbullying,diversity,genderissuesand PDondiversityormulticulturalissues,compared familieswithLGBTparents(seeTable7.1). to53%ofthosewhohavenot.Thesefindings Teachersatschoolsthathaveestablished suggestthattheremaybearelationshipbetween comprehensivepolicies(whichspecifically aschoolsdecisiontoincorporatesuchpolicies mentionsexualorientationandgenderidentityor andthediversityofitscommunityand/orstudent genderexpression)areevenmorelikelytohave population(seeTable7.2).Itisalsopossiblethat receivedprofessionaldevelopmentonthese teacherswhoknowLGBTpeoplemaybemore issuesintheircurrentpositionsthanteachersat likelytoseekoutpotentialopportunitiesfor schoolswithmoregenericpoliciesthatdonot professionaldevelopmentonthesetopics. specificallymentionbothofthesetopics diversity(77%vs.57%),genderissues(42%vs. Schoollocationmayalsoberelatedinthetypesof 14%)andfamilieswithLGBTparents(24%vs.7%) PDofferedatelementaryschools.Teachersin (seealsoTable7.1). suburbanareasaremorelikelythanthoseinrural areastosaytheyhavereceivedPDintheircurrent SchoolsthathaveapresenceofLGBTstudentsor positionsondiversityormulticulturalissuesand parentsmayalsobemorelikelytoprovidetheir onfamilieswithLGBTparents.Teachersinurban teacherswithprofessionaldevelopment.Teachers areasaremorelikelythanthoseinruralareasto whoknowastudentorparentattheirschoolwho havereceivedPDongenderissues. isLGBTaremorelikelytohavehadPDintheir Table7.1 ProfessionalDevelopmentinCurrentPositionbyTypeofAntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy

TypeofAntiBullying/HarassmentPolicy Base: Bullyingorharassment Diversityormulticulturalissues Genderissues(includingsexism, genderrolesorgender stereotypes) Familieswithlesbian,gay, bisexualortransgender(LGBT) parents Comprehensive Policy A 276 80%C 77%BC 42%BC Generic Policy B 624 75%C 57%C 14% No Policy C 199 47% 40% 12%

24%BC

7%

4%

Q1126.Haveyou,personally,everreceivedanyprofessionaldevelopment(e.g.,training)inthefollowingareas?Pleaseselect allthatapply. Note:"Comprehensivepolicies"indicateschoolantibullying/harassmentpoliciesthatspecificallymentionsexualorientation andgenderidentityorgenderexpression."Genericpolicies"indicateschoolantibullying/harassmentpoliciesthatdonot specificallymentionbothofthesecharacteristics.

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Teachershavealsobeenprovidedtrainingon parents.Additionally,teachingprogramsmaybe issuesofbullying,diversity,genderandfamilies emphasizingthesetopicsmoreinrecentyears, withLGBTparentsduringtheirpreservice withnewerteachers(thosewith5yearsof educationorwhiletheyarestudentteachers. experienceorless)beingmorelikelythan Diversityseemstobehighlightedmorethanthe teacherswithmoreexperiencetohavereceived otherthreetopicsduringthisperiod,with25%of PDintheseareasduringtheirpreservice teachersstatingthattheyhavereceivedPDin educationorstudentteaching(seeTable7.3).Of diversityormulticulturalissuesduringtheirpre course,itisalsopossiblethatnewerteachershave serviceeducationorstudentteaching,compared greaterrecallforcontentcoveredduringtheir to15%forbullyingandharassment,13%for preservicetraining. genderissuesand10%forfamilieswithLGBT Table7.2 ProfessionalDevelopmentinCurrentPositionbyKnowinganLGBTStudentorParent KnowaStudentorParent atSchoolWhoisLGBT Total Base: Bullyingorharassment Diversityormulticulturalissues Genderissues(includingsexism,genderrolesorgender stereotypes) Familieswithlesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT) parents 1099 72% 58% 20% 10% Yes A 355 83%C 74%C 29%C 19%C No B 663 67% 53% 17% 7%

Q1126.Haveyou,personally,everreceivedanyprofessionaldevelopment(e.g.,training)inthefollowingareas[incurrent position]?

Table7.3 ProfessionalDevelopmentduringPreServiceEducationorStudent TeachingbyYearsofTeachingExperience


YearsofTeachingExperience
Base:

05Years A
171

620Years B
514

21+Years C 400 9% 13% 8% 4%

Bullyingorharassment Diversityormulticulturalissues Genderissues(includingsexism,gender rolesorgenderstereotypes) Lesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender (LGBT)families

24%BC 40%BC 17%C 17%BC

12% 24%C 13% 7%

Q1126.Haveyou,personally,everreceivedanyprofessionaldevelopment(e.g.,training)inthefollowingareas(during preserviceeducationorstudentteaching)?

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withonlyabouttwooutoften(22%)teachers expressingadesireformorePDinthisarea(see Figure7.2). Althoughprofessionaldevelopmentinissuesof homophobicbullying,gendernonconformityand LGBTfamiliesisnotwidespread,teachersexpress somedesireformoretrainingonthesetopics. Threeoutoftenteachersbelievetheyneed furtherPDonaddressinghomophobicname calling,bullyingandharassment(30%)and workingwithfamilieswithLGBTparents(29%), andaboutonequarterofteacherswouldlike moresupportonworkingwithstudentswhomay notconformtotraditionalgendernorms(23%) andongenderissuesingeneral(23%)(seealso Figure7.2).

Manyelementaryschoolteachersfeelthatthey needfurtherprofessionaldevelopment(PD)in topicsrelatedtobullying,diversity,genderand familieswithLGBTparents.Bullyingisonetopic onwhichteacherswouldlikemoretraining. Althoughmorethaneightintenteachershave receivedPDinbullyingorharassmentatsome pointintheircareers,almosthalf(45%)feelthey needfurtherprofessionaldevelopmentinthis area.Incontrast,despitethefindingthatteachers arejustaslikelytoreceivePDindiversityasthey aretoreceivePDinbullying,thereisasensethat teachersmaybemoreateasewiththeirabilityto addressgeneraldiversityormulticulturalissues, Figure7.2 AreasinWhichTeachersFeelTheyNeedFurtherProfessionalDevelopment Addressingbullyingorharassmentingeneral

Areas for Further Professional Development

45%

Addressinghomophobicnamecalling,bullying andharassment

30%

Workingwithlesbian,gay,bisexualor transgender(LGBT)families Workingwithstudentswhodonotconformto traditionalgendernorms(e.g.boyswhoact "toofeminine"orgirlswhoact"too masculine") Genderissuesingeneral(including sexism,genderrolesorstereotypes)

29%

23%

23%

Diversityormulticulturalissuesingeneral

22%

Q1130. Whichofthefollowingtopicsdoyoufeelyouneedfurtherprofessionaldevelopmenton?Pleaseselectallthatapply.

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Whereasteachersatschoolswithcomprehensive antibullying/harassmentpolicies(which specificallymentionsexualorientationandgender identityorgenderexpression)aremorelikelythan thoseatschoolswithgenericanti bullying/harassmentpolicies(whichdonot specificallymentionbothofthesecharacteristics) toreportthattheyhavereceivedPDintheir currentpositions,teachersinschoolswithoutan antibullying/harassmentpolicyaremostlikelyto reportthattheyneedfurtherPDonaddressing bullyingorharassment(54%,comparedto46%of teachersinschoolswithgenericpoliciesand36% ofteachersinschoolswithcomprehensive policies). Althoughtherearefewdifferencesbygradelevel taughtinregardstoteachersPDbackgrounds, teachersofstudentsinkindergartenthrough2nd gradesaremorelikelythanteachersof5th6th gradestofeeltheyneedfurthertrainingon diversity(25%forK2ndgradeteachersvs.%of3rd 4thgradeteachersvs.10%of5th6thgrade teachers),eventhoughtheyarenolesslikelyto havereportedhavinghadpreviousPDonthe topic. Inaddition,teachersinruralschoolsaremore likelythanthoseinsuburbanschoolstoindicate thattheywouldlikemorePDonaddressing bullyingorharassment(rural:51%vs.suburban: 39%vs.urban:45%).Teachersinsmallerschools arealsomorelikelythanteachersatlargerschools tosaytheywouldlikemorePDondiversityor multiculturalissues(fewerthan300students:39% vs.300499students:24%vs.500studentsor more:16%). Impact of Teachers Professional Development Itappearsthatprofessionaldevelopment(PD)for teachersingenderissuesandfamilieswith lesbian,gay,bisexualortransgender(LGBT) parentsisbeneficialinpreparingteachersfor addressingtheseissuesatschool.Teacherswho havereceivedPDingenderissuesdonotdifferin comfortlevelrelatedtoaddressingbullyingbased ongenderexpressionorsexualorientation,but theyaremorelikelytofeelcomfortable respondingtostudentquestionsaboutlesbian, gayandbisexualpeople(57%vs.43%)andabout transgenderpeople(50%vs.36%)(seeTable7.4). Similarly,teacherswhohavereceivedPDabout LGBTfamiliesaremorelikelytofeelcomfortable respondingtoquestionsaboutLGBTpeople,but donotexhibitdifferentpatternscomfortin respondingtobullyingbasedongender expressionorsexualorientation(asshownin Table7.4).Thus,itmaybethatPDongenderand LGBTfamilyissuesincreasescomfortabout generalknowledgeaboutLGBTpeopleevenifit maynotincludemoregeneralinformationabout LGBTpeople.Further,thistypeofPDmaynot explicitlyincludeinformationorskillbuilding aboutinterventionregardingbullyingand harassmentbasedongenderexpressionorsexual orientation,whichmayexplainwhyteachersdo notdifferintheircomfortwithaddressingthose behaviors.

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Table7.4 ComfortLevelAddressingBullyingandRespondingtoQuestions(%"Somewhat"or"Very Comfortable")byProfessionalDevelopmentinGenderIssuesandLGBTFamilies ReceivedProfessional ReceivedProfessional DevelopmentinGender DevelopmentinLGBTFamilies Issues Yes No Yes No Base: Addressingnamecalling, bullyingorharassmentof studentsbecausetheydont conformtotraditional genderroles Addressingnamecalling, bullyingorharassmentof studentsbecauseastudent isorisbelievedtobegay, lesbianorbisexual Respondingtoquestions fromyourstudentsabout gay,lesbianorbisexual people Respondingtoquestions fromyourstudentsabout transgenderpeople A 451 B 641 C 252 D 832

85%

82%

81%

84%

85%

80%

83%

81%

57%B

43%

62%B

44%

50%B

36%

55%B

37%

Q1121.Howcomfortablewouldyoufeelwiththefollowing?

PriorPDongenderissuesoronfamilieswithLGBT parentsappearstobeunrelatedtothelevelof obligationteachersfeeltowardcreatingasafeand supportiveenvironmentforfamilieswithLGBT parentsortowardstudentswhomaynotconform totraditionalgenderstandards.However, teacherswhohavereceivedPDintheseissuesare morelikelytohavepersonallyengagedinefforts tocreatesuchanenvironmentforthesegroups (forstudentswhomaynotconformtotraditional gendernorms:46%vs.27%;forfamilieswithLGBT parents:31%vs.19%).

Additionally,teacherswhohavereceivedPDin familieswithLGBTparentsaremorelikelyto includerepresentationsoffamilieswithlesbian, gay,bisexualandtransgenderparentsintheir discussionsaboutfamilies(seeTable7.5). Furthermore,teacherswhohavereceivedthis typeofPDarealsomorelikelytoinclude multiculturalrepresentationsoffamiliesand representationsofmultiracialfamiliesintheir classdiscussions(seealsoTable7.5).

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Table7.5 FamilyTypesRepresentedWhenTopicofFamiliesIsDiscussedinClassroombyProfessional DevelopmentinLGBTFamilies ReceivedProfessionalDevelopmentinFamilies withLGBTParents Yes Base: Familieswithasingleparent Multiculturalrepresentationsoffamilies Multiracialfamilies Adoptivefamilies Familieswithgay,lesbianorbisexualparents Familieswithtransgenderparents Otherkindsoffamilies A 252 88% 91% B 84% B 79% 41%B 14%B 76% No B 832 92% 84% 77% 75% 20% 7% 77%

Q920.Whenthetopicoffamiliescomesupinyourclassroom,arerepresentationsofthefollowingtypesoffamiliesincluded? Thismaybethroughformalcurriculum,videos,pictures,booksorinformaldiscussion.

Summary Providingelementaryschoolteacherswith professionaldevelopmentcanhaveasignificant impactinimprovingtheschoolexperiencefor studentswhodonotconformtotraditional gendernormsorstudentswhohaveLGBT parents.Althoughthemajorityofteachershave receivedprofessionaldevelopmentinbullying anddiversityatsomepointintheircareers, trainingintopicsrelatedtogenderaswellas familieswithLGBTparentsislessprevalent, withaboutonethirdorfewerteachers receivingprofessionaldevelopmentonsuch issues.However,manyteachersexpressa desireforfurtherprofessionaldevelopmentin addressinghomophobicbullying,learningabout issuesofgenderingeneral,workingwith studentswhodonotconformtotraditional gendernormsandworkingwithfamilieswith LGBTparents. Professionaldevelopmentappearstobe beneficialinincreasingteacherscapacity,asit isrelatedbothtoincreasedcomfortin addressingLGBTissuesandtogreatercurricular inclusionofLGBTfamilies.Inparticular,the findingsindicatethatwhenteachershavehad professionaldevelopmentonLGBTfamilies, theyarenotonlymorelikelytoinclude representationsofLGBTfamiliesintheirclasses, butarealsomorelikelytoinclude representationsofculturallydiversefamilies andmultiracialfamilies. Inthatmanyteacherswouldseemtowelcome moreprofessionaldevelopmentintheareasof gendernonconformityandlesbianandgay parents,schoolscanworkontheseissuesin ordertosupportnotonlythestudentswhomay notconformtotraditionalgendernormsorwho arefromfamilieswithLGBTparents,butalso theoverallstudentpopulationattheirschools.

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Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network 90 Broad Street 2nd Floor New York, NY 10004 glsen.org