Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background is Detectable in Super-Kamiokande

Shunsaku Horiuchi (Univ. Tokyo) John F. Beacom (Ohio State Univ.) Eli Dwek (NASA Goddard)
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 1

Supernova Neutrinos
Neutrinos are important:
Motivates beyond standard model particle physics Probes regions that are optically thick to EM waves

In the context of core-collapse supernovae:


Neutrinos carries the bulk of the energy intricately associated with explosion mechanism Comes from the central regions of the collapse carries information on weak/nuclear processes Different species have different spectra/lightcurves can study neutrino physics (oscillation, decay, etc)
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 2

SN 1987A
SN 1987A: successful detection of neutrinos from core-collapse SN (2 detectors, ~20 events)

e p e n

Dawn of extrasolar neutrino astronomy! Kamioka-II IMB detector

Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo

7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 3

What did we learn from SN 1987A?


Confirmation of: Neutrino energy Total energetics Emission duration Constrained exotic mechanism/particles Questions on spectrum, timing, prompt/delayed, neutronization burst,
Yuksel&Beacom PRD 2007

Reconstructed spectrum

Reconstructed spectrum, showing slight pinching


Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 4

Detecting Supernova Neutrinos


1. Galactic SN: O(104) events! very good BUT only a few core-collapse SN per galaxy per century. e.g. the probability of 1 SN in the next x years: 2. Nearby (<10Mpc): O(10) events, a few SN per year. Better. BUT requires 1Mton volume (x30) detector.

Kistler et al., arXiv:0810.1959


Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo

Ando, Beacom, Yuksel, PRL 2005


7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 5

Diffuse SN Neutrino Background (DSNB)


Neutrinos from all past corecollapse SN fill the Universe Requires rate of SN !
DSNB

QUESTIONS: From Ando (2005) 1. How well can we predict the DSNB? 2. Can the DSNB be used to study stellar/neutrino physics? 3. When can we detect the DSNB?
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 6

Schematic diagram information flow


Stellar birth Stellar death
Want to see!

Star formation

SN rate

DSNB

The star formation, extragalactic background light, and supernova rate are all directly related.

Stellar life

We CROSS-CHECK them, to test how well can predict the DSNB for a given neutrino emission model.

Extragalactic background light


Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 7

Star Formation Rates


Star formation rate

Sources of uncertainty: dust-correction Calibration factors Different indicators are consistent in few tens of percent! So: it is well measured, especially z < a few
90% of DSNB events from z < 1
Hopkins (2004) Hopkins, Beacom, ApJ (2006) Yuksel et al. ApJL (2008) SH, Beacom, Dwek, in prep
7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 8

Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo

Extragalactic background light


Dominated by stellar nucleosynthesis, i.e., acts as a calorimetric test of the SH, Beacom, Dwek, in prep star formation history. The figure shows the observed background light (direct, lower limits, and upper limits).
The TOTAL background intensity is: 26 2 1 21

73

nW m sr

Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo

7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 9

Extragalactic background light


Calculated from the star formation rate:

luminosity per stellar pop.

With assumption on Stellar population synthesis Initial mass function; use Salpeter, Kroupa(2001), Baldry-Glazebrook (BG, 2002) BG preferred; results then AGREE with the observed quantity.
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 10

Core-Collapse SN rate
Core-collapse rate follows from the star formation rate
Core-collapse rate
SH, Beacom, Dwek, in prep

predictions shown on right as curves Observed data confirm the overall normalization Note: observations are lower limits, since likely missing faint galaxies and faint SN. Note: the predictions are independent of the initial mass function. 90% of DSNB events from z < 1
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 11

Predicted DSNB flux spectrum


Star formation
CHECKED

SN rate

DSNB

SH, Beacom, Dwek, in prep

DSNB flux spectrum at SuperKamiokande. Shown for observed temperatures 4-8 MeV, and for a SN 1987A spectrum.
The DSNB can be predicted well enough that spectra can be distinguished. In other words, the uncertainty is dominated by the neutrino emission model.
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 12

Near-future prospects
Addition of Gd in SK water enables n to be tagged:
Beacom, Vagins PRL (2004)

e p e n

Current SK

so that e can be identified by delayed coincidence. This reduces background and lower the detection threshold energy to ~10 MeV. Test tank being built now in Kamioka mine.
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo

Events

Gd + n 8 MeV photon

Gd added SK
DSNB

Positron energy
7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 13

DSNB flux and event spectrum


At the improved detection threshold, the uncertainty is a factor 2 !
2 Predicted counts increase dramatically (left: now, right: upgraded)

SH, Beacom, Dwek, in prep


Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 14

Summary
The QUESTIONS were: 1. How well can we predict the DSNB? 2. Can the DSNB be used to study stellar/neutrino physics? 3. When can we detect the DSNB?

The ANSWERS are: 1. Our understanding of the star formation rate is rapidly improving; we confirmed this by cross-checks. 2. Astrophysical uncertainties small (and getting smaller) DSNB can probe neutrino emission models 3. Plenty of core-collapse supernovae: DSNB (almost) guaranteed by Gd-enhanced SK
Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 15

Can the DSNB be too small?


In other words, what happens with less supernovae?
The minimum star formation is given by the smallest EBL. The start formation rate cannot be smaller by a factor 2. This also requires extreme assumptions, i.e., using the classic Salpeter IMF dust-correction is very small but background light has two comparable peaks the SN rate observations are over dust corrected too (by just the right amount)

Answer: there are enough core-collapse supernovae.


Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 16

Can the DSNB be small? 2


In other words, whats the neutrino emission? (in a sense we want to answer this by the DSNB, but we nonetheless ask ourselves, can the DSNB be truly small?)

In general, the neutrino detectability depends on: enough neutrino Luminosity


Total set by Ebind M R Energy partition and neutrino oscillation
2 1

enough neutrino Temperature


Assuming thermal spectrum:

E T 1/ 2 1/ 6 R M

1/ 4

Energy hierarchy and neutrino oscillation


Shunsaku Horiuchi, University of Tokyo 7th RESCEU Symposium [2008/11/11] 17