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Nortons Theorm Example: Given the circuit shown below, obtain the Norton equivalent as viewed from terminals:

A-B

RN= 4 || (2 + 6 || 3) = 4 || 4 = 2 For IN consider the following:

After source transformations this becomes:

Applying KVL to the circuit -40 + 8i + 12 = 0 -> i = 3.5 A Hence Vth = 4i = 14V And IN = Vth/RN = 14 / 2 = 7 A Now find RN and IN between point c and d.

Maximum Power Transfer

In many practical situations, a circuit is designed to provide power to a load. While for electric utilities, minimizing power losses in the process of transmission and distribution is critical for efciency and economic reasons, there are other applications in areas such as communications where it is desirable to maximize the power delivered to a load. We

now address the problem of delivering the maximum power to a load when given a system with known internal losses. It should be noted that this will result in signicant internal losses greater than or equal to the power delivered to the load. The Thevenin equivalent is useful in nding the maximum power a linear circuit can deliver to a load. We assume that we can adjust the load resistance RL . If the entire circuit is replaced by its Thevenin equivalent except for the load, as shown, the power delivered to the load is:

For a given circuit, V Th and R Th are xed. By varying the load resistance RL , the power delivered to the load varies as sketched at right. We notice from that the power is small for small or large values of RL but maximum for some value of RL between 0 and . We now want to show that this maximum power occurs when RL is equal to RTh . This is known as the maximum power theorem. Maximum power is transferred to the load when the load resistance equals the Thevenin resistance as seen from the load (RL = RTh ). To prove the maximum power transfer theorem, we differentiate p in the equation above with respect to RL and set the result equal to zero. We obtain

This implies that 0 = (RTh + RL 2RL ) = (RTh RL ) which yields RL = RTh showing that the maximum power transfer takes place when the load resistance RL equals the Thevenin resistance RTh . We can readily conrm that this gives the maximum power by showing that d2p / dRL2 < 0 The maximum power transferred is obtained by substituting RL = RTh into the equation for power, so that

This equation applies only when RL = RTh . When RL != RTh , we compute the power delivered to the load using the original equation.

Example: (a) For the circuit given, obtain the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b. (b) Calculate the current in RL = 8 (c) Find RL for maximum power (d) Determine that maximum power.

Find the value RL for maximum power transfer in the circuit shown below:

We need to nd the Thevenin resistance R Th and the Thevenin voltage V Th across the terminals a-b. To get R Th , we source transformations and obtain:

To get V Th , we consider the circuit as shown.

Applying mesh analysis, 12 + 18i1 12i2 = 0, i2 = 2 A

Solving for i1 , we get i1 = 2/3. Applying KVL around the outer loop to get V Th across terminals a-b, we obtain 12 + 6i1 + 3i2 + 2(0) + V Th = 0 V Th = 22 V For maximum power transfer, RL = RTh = 9 Ohms and the maximum power is