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# Experiment : Specific Gravity Definition Also known as relative density, the specific gravity (SG) of a fluid is defined as the

ratio of a fluid s density to the density of water. This can be measured with a calibrated device called a hydrometer, which is used in this experiment. The hydrometer for this experiment is calibrated for density in kg/m3. Its use is described below. Procedure a) Fill one of the large graduated cylinders to the 1000 mL mark with tap water. b) Lower the hydrometer into the water and let it float freely, as shown in Figure 2. Do not allow it to touch the sides of the cylinder, or else surface tension will affect the measurement. c) Record the hydrometer reading and divide by the standard density of water to return the SG of tap water. What would you expect the specific gravity of the tap water to be? d) Repeat steps a-c with glycerin and ethylene glycol, and record the density in Section 4 of the worksheet.

Experiment : Viscosity

Definition Wherever there is a velocity gradient in a viscous fluid shear stress will occur, denoted by the symbol t.The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity gradient is determined by the viscosity of thefluid. The motion of fluid adjacent to a solid interface is largely determined by the viscosity of the fluid aswell. For a one-dimensional velocity gradient above a solid surface as shown in Figure 4, the relationshipis given by Eq. 7. Here du/dy is the velocity gradient normal to the plane of applied stress and is theconstant of proportionality, defined as the coefficient of viscosity, also referred to as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. The value of is often strongly temperature dependent, and in the SI system, it has units of N-s/m2. Procedure a) Two tall cylinders are used, one filled with glycerin (by-product of making soap) and the other with ethylene glycol (anti-freeze). b) Adjust the upper timing marker so that it is approximately 10 cm below the free surface of the fluid. c) Adjust the lower timing marker so that it is roughly 1 m from the upper timing marker. d) Holding a sphere in the supplied forceps, lower the sphere into the fluid and shake it to remove any air bubbles. Then drop the sphere into the fluid and record the time it takes to descend from the upper marker to the lower marker by using a stopwatch. e) Divide the distance traveled by the time to calculate the terminal velocity. f) Using the density of the ball and the fluid, calculate the kinematic viscosity. Compare these results to expected handbook values for kinematic viscosity at 20 C. Repeat this for several sphere diameters in both fluids. g) Is it possible to perform this experiment more accurately in glycerin or ethylene glycol? If so, why?

Experiment : Determination of Density Using Three Devices Definition Density, r, is defined as in Eq. 1. Pure water at 20oC has a density of 998.2 kg/m3, which is often rounded to 1000 kg/m3. Experimental results should be within 2% of this value. P=Mass Volume Procedure Beaker First obtain the mass of the empty beaker (Figure 1). Then add a known volume of water to the beaker by filling it to a volume mark indicated on the side of the beaker. Next obtain the mass of the beaker plus water. Finally subtract the mass of the beaker to get the mass of the water. Since the volume of water is known, density can be directly calculated from Eq. 1. Eureka Can This uses the same principle as the beaker, but with a displaced volume of water. The eureka can (Figure 1) is designed to contain a set maximum volume, and excess liquid is expelled from the can by means of a spout. This is useful for obtaining the density of an object of known volume. First obtain the mass of the empty beaker as before. Then with the eureka can full, carefully submerge an object of known volume in the eureka can and use the beaker to catch the water displaced by the object. Record

the mass of beaker and water, subtract the mass of the beaker, and calculate the density of the water. Small cylinders are provided, along with calipers to measure length and diameter for calculating their volumes. Density Bottle This bottle (Figure 1) can only contain a fixed volume, because it has a glass stopper that when inserted forces excess liquid to be expelled out the top through a small hole. When the liquid level is at the top of the stopper, the volume of liquid in the density bottle is 50 mL. First weigh the bottle and stopper dry, and then weigh the bottle and stopper when full of water. Subtract the bottle mass to obtain the water mass and calculate the density.

Beaker

Eureka Can

## Density Bottle with stopper

Experiment:Specific Gravity Density reading on calibrated hydrometer(kg/m):__________ Specific gravity of tap water:__________________ Experiment: Viscosity Glycerin density(kg/m):____________ Ethylene glycol density(kg/m):________________ Fluid Type Sphere material Sphere diameter(in) Sphere diameter(mm) Sphere volume Sphere mass Sphere density Time of fall Fall distance Terminal velocity Kinematic velocity

Experiment :Density Method Mass of empty container Mass of container plus water Mass of water Volume of water Density Beaker Eureka Can Density Bottle