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# ECE 308 Lab #2

## The 7555 (555) Precision Timer

Instructional Objectives :

2.1T Sketch the expected output vs. input voltage waveform for a given 7555 Timer hysteresis
circuit.

2.2M Display the output vs. input voltage on the X-Y display of an oscilloscope for a given 7555
Timer hysteresis circuit.

2.3M Determine the active mode drain current of a 7555 Timer discharge transistor.

2.4M Measure the current-sinking capability at the output of the 7555 Timer Chip.

2.5M Measure the current-sourcing capability at the output of the 7555 Timer Chip.

2.6T Given a Monostable Multivibrator Circuit, calculate the output pulse width.

## 2.7M Measure the output pulse width of a Monostable Multivibrator Circuit.

2.8T Given an Astable Multivibrator Circuit, calculate the output switching frequency and duty cycle.

2.9M Measure the output frequency and duty cycle of an Astable Multivibrator Circuit.

Suggested Reading Material: Chapter 13.7, Sedra and Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 5th Ed.,
Oxford University Press, 2004.

In this laboratory, you will design, build, and test several circuits using the 7555 Precision Timer
Integrated Circuit. The 7555 is a lower power better performing version of a 555 timer. The x555
Timer Chip is frequently used in analog and digital circuits for constructing circuits that generate pulse
waveforms, time delays, and oscillations.

The block schematic of the 7555 Timer Chip shown in Fig. 2.1 consists of external pin connections
that could be used to control, trigger, level-sense (or compare), discharge, and measure the output
signal. These functions can be effectively used to construct several different applications with the
7555 Timer Chip.
Figure 2.1 Functional Block Diagram of the 7555 Timer Chip

The 7555 Timer Chip is designed to operate with a DC supply voltage, VCC, in the range of
2V ≤ VCC ≥ 18 V. The VCC (8) and Gnd (1) pins are the power pins. There are four input terminals.
Reset (4) which disables the timer and three others: Control Voltage (5), Threshold (6) and Trigger
(2) which are used to control the timer functionality. Finally there are two output pins marked
Discharge (7) and Output (3). In general the timer has 2 comparators which usually change states at
1/3 and 2/3 VCC because the 3 resistors in Fig 2.1 are the same value. Usual means there is no DC
source connected to pin 5. The comparator outputs determine the state of the RS flip flop. The flip
flop output drives an output buffer and an open drain transistor which is usually used to discharge the
timing capacitor. The three timing input pins are described in detail below.

Control Voltage

The Control Voltage pin, pin 5 in Fig. 2.1, is used primarily to filter high frequency noise out of the
signal used as the first comparator inverting reference. For filtering use a 0.01 to 0.1 uF capacitor
between this pin and Gnd. When there is no external DC signal present at pin 5, the usual condition,
2V
the threshold and trigger reference voltages (where the comparator outputs change state) are 3CC
V
and 3CC , respectively. This is determined by the 3 equal value resistors in the timer IC. You can
change the voltages that the comparators change states by applying DC to pin 5. The upper
comparator will then switch at the voltage applied to pin 5. The lower comparator switches at ½ of the
voltage of the upper comparator.

Threshold Voltage

The Threshold pin, pin 6 in Fig. 2.1, is the non-inverting input to the upper comparator. When the
voltage at this pin goes above the voltage at the control voltage pin then the comparator output
2V
changes. This usually happens at 3CC and it forces the output, pin 3, to go low. The output will stay
2V
low because of the flip flop even if the threshold voltage subsequently drops below 3CC . The
discharge transistor is turned on during this period. Table 1 shows the usual switching conditions.

Trigger Voltage

The Trigger pin, pin 2, is the inverting input of the lower comparator. When the voltage at this pin
goes below the voltage at the non-inverting input to the lower comparator then the comparator output
V
changes. This usually happens at 3CC and it forces the output, pin 3, to go high. The output will stay
V
high because of the flip flop even if the trigger voltage subsequently rises above 3CC . The discharge
transistor is turned off during this period. Table 1 shows the usual switching conditions.

## Threshold voltage Trigger voltage Reset Output Discharge

Don’t care Don’t care Low Low On
> 2/3 VCC > 1/3 VCC High Low On
< 2/3 VCC > 1/3 VCC High Stable Stable
Don’t care < 1/3 VCC High High Off
Table 1. Reset dominates all inputs. Trigger dominates over Threshold

If the Threshold and Trigger terminals are tied together as inputs of the timer, the output forms a
hysteresis loop. Vo is a function of the Threshold/ Trigger voltage input, Vi as shown in Fig 2.2.

Vcc

C1
8

0.1 U1
VCC

RESET

2 3
TRIGGER OUTPUT
5
CONTROL
+
6
THRESHOLD
+ 7
DISCHARGE
Vo
GND

Vi
7555
1

- -

## Figure 2.2 Hysteresis Loop Circuit

Monostable Operation :

The circuit shown in Fig. 2.3 is configured to produce a monostable multivibrator. A monostable
multivibrator yields a single output pulse of a time length determined by C2 and R.
Vcc

R C3
100K 0.1

4
U1

VCC

RESET
Trigger
2 3
TRIGGER OUTPUT Vout
5
CONTROL
6
C1 THRESHOLD
0.01 7
DISCHARGE

GND
C2
0.1
7555

1
Figure 2.3 Monostable Multivibrator Circuit

Astable Operation :

The circuit shown in Fig. 2.4 is configured to use the 7555 timer as an astable multivibrator. An
astable multivibrator runs continuously with a frequency and duty cycle determined by RA, RB and C2.

Vcc

C3
RA 0.1
8

330K U1
VCC

RESET

2 3
TRIGGER OUTPUT Vout
5
CONTROL
6
C1 THRESHOLD
0.01 7
DISCHARGE
RB 100K
GND

C2
0.1
7555
1

## Oscilloscope 7555 Timer

Digital Multimeter Transistors
Function Generator Capacitors
Power Supply Light Emitting Diode
Resistors
ECE 308 Lab # 2

7555 Timer

## Pre Lab Quiz

Total: 25 points

Name : _______________________

Question 1:

For the circuit shown in Fig. 2.2, determine the values of Vo for consecutive input voltages of 0 V, 2
V, 4 V, 2 V, 0 V.

Question 2:
Calculate the output pulse width for the circuit shown in Fig. 2.3.

Question 3:

Calculate the switching frequency and duty cycle of the output waveform in the circuit of Fig. 2.4
Laboratory Procedure: Total Points = 40 (equally distributed)

## NOTE: 5 points are given for wiring neatness.

1. Assemble the circuit shown in Fig. 2.2. Use a VCC of about 10V. Remember the part blows up at
18V. Set function generator to produce a triangle waveform of magnitude 0 to VCC at a frequency of
100 Hz that will be used as the input signal Vi. Connect Vi and Vo to the oscilloscope and using the
X-Y display feature, capture the trace with Vo as a function of Vi.

2. Connect a 1 kΩ pull-up resistor between pin 7 (the discharge transistor drain) and VCC. Repeat
step 1, but this time, measure the output at pin 7. Note the 1KΩ pull-up resistor is large enough to
cause the FET to go into triode mode. In other words the voltage at pin 7 should get close to ground.

3. Determine the active-mode (saturation mode) drain current of the discharge transistor by reducing
the pull-up resistance until VDSON (of the FET) is 1V and VDSOFF is VCC. Measure VDS between pin 7
and ground. This means the output waveform will look like a rectangle wave that goes between VCC
and 1V with the right RPULL-UP.

4. Determine the current sinking and sourcing capability of the 7555 Timer Chip output pin, pin 3.
A. Observe the maximum VOMAX, and minimum, VOMIN, output voltage with no resistor connected
to the output.
B. To find the source current: Attach a 1 kΩ resistance (using the decade box) from pin 3 to
ground. There should be a change in VOMAX. Adjust the resistance until VOMAX is 1V less than
VOMAX found in step A. VOpp/RL = ISOURCErms or VOpp/RL = ISOURCErms.
C. To find the sink current: Attach a 1 kΩ resistance (using the decade box) from pin 3 to VCC.
There should be a change in VOMIN. Adjust the resistance until VOMIN is 1V greater than VOMIN
measured in A. VOpp/RL = ISINKrms or VOpp/RL = ISINKErms.

5. Assemble the Monostable Multivibrator circuit shown in Fig. 2.5. Use the function generator
square wave at a frequency of 1 Hz as the Trigger input. Adjust the C2 and R1 values to get a Light
Emitting Device (LED) to stay on continuously for 5 sec. Calculate the expected pulse width and

Vcc

C3
R1 0.1
8

U1
VCC

RESET

Trigger
2 3
TRIGGER OUTPUT Vout
5
CONTROL
6 2K
C1 THRESHOLD
0.01 7
DISCHARGE
D1
GND

C2 LED

7555
1

## Figure 2.5 Monostable Multivibrator Circuit

6. Assemble the Astable Multivibrator Circuit shown in Fig. 2.6. First, use a 10 µF electrolytic
capacitor for C2. Remember this is a polarized capacitor. Watch the polarity. Count the number of
times the LED lights over 1 min. period. Compare this result to the calculated value. Determine, in
each cycle, whether the on-period or off-period is longer ? Next, replace C2 with a 0.22 µF capacitor.
Using an oscilloscope, measure the on time and the off time. Determine the duty cycle and frequency
and compare the results to the calculated values.

Vcc

C3
RA 0.1

4
330K U1

VCC

RESET
2 3
TRIGGER OUTPUT Vout
5
CONTROL 2K
6
C1 THRESHOLD
0.01 7
DISCHARGE
RB 100K D1

GND
C2 LED
0.1
7555
1

## Items For Discussion:

1. Derive the equations for the astable multivibrator timer circuit seen in Fig. 2.4. The correct result is
given below.
TH=C2(RA+RB) ln2 and TL= C2RB ln2

Where TH is the time the output is high and TL is the time the output is low.

Then derive expressions for frequency and duty cycle in terms of the R’s and C.

2. Given a 12 V and a 15 V supply, show how you connect the 7555 timer to obtain the transfer
function below.

v
o

15V

v
i
V =6V V =12V
TL TH