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APA Ref erencing Guid e ( 6t h Edition)

This page is intended as an online resource for students and covers both the usage of the APA style andexamples of how to reference/cite material. If you're familiar with the APA style, and just want to know how to format your references, you can download the Library's handy APA quick guide (2 page printable PDF). PAGE CONTENTS Download the APA quick guide Tutorials on how to use APA How to use the APA referencing style How to reference/cite material

APA QUICK GUIDE Download the Library's APA quick guide if you're familiar with the APA style, and just want to know how to format your references. APA Quick Guide (2 page printable PDF)

TUTORIALS The library provides tutorials on how to use APA that are free to attend and are designed for new students and current students wanting to polish their referencing skills. Referencing or APA for Electronic Resources tutorials Sign up to one of our APA You can also access online tutorials on the American Psychological Assocation website. now.

HOW TO USE THE APA REFERENCING STYLE A research paper without the acknowledgment of sources will be considered plagiarised - a breach not only ofUniversity statute that may result in disciplinary action, but of your own academic integrity. The consequences of plagiarism are serious and enduring. Another key reason why it is essential that you reference your sources is that readers need to be able to retrieve the source information you have used. So whether you are paraphrasing, summarising, or quoting directly from a work, you must credit the source by way of an in text citation and by including the bibliographic information of the resource in your list of references.

The following topics are covered in this section:


1. 2. 3. How to use in text citations How to format a list of references Key points

Editor's notes:

y y y

The latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) is nowavailable in the Library. Corrections to the first printing can be found on the APA website: Corrections to the first printing (PDF) and Corrected sample paper (PDF). Changes to the 5th edition are highlighted with the word (NEW).

1. How to use in text citations (quotes, paraphrasing) Direct quotation


Use quotation marks and include page numbers. Samovar and Porter (1997) point out that "language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (p. 188). Alternatively: "Language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p. 188).

A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without quotation marks. Note the location of the final full stop. Weston (1948) argues that: One of the most important phases of our special guests was to get information that would throw light on degeneration of the facial pattern that occurs so often in our modern civilization. This has its expression in the narrowing and lengthening of the face and the development of crooked teeth. (p. 174)

If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers (e.g. HTML based document), use the paragraph number (para.) instead. "Prevalence rates of antenatal major and minor depression have been estimated in community-based studies to range from 7% to 15% of all pregnancies" (Grote, Swartz, Geibel & Zuckoff, 2009, para. 2).

Indirect quotation/paraphrasing
Attaching meaning to symbols is considered to be the origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997). N.B. Page numbers are optional when paraphrasing, although authors are encouraged to include them, especially when it assists the reader to locate the reference in long pieces of text (Publication Manual, p. 171).

Citations from a secondary source


Use the phrase 'as cited in' to signify the secondary source. Arnett (2000, as cited in Claiborne & Drewery, 2010) suggests there is an emerging adult stage in the lifespan of humans, covering young people between the ages of 18 and 25 years. N.B. List Claiborne & Drewery in your reference list, not Arnett.

2. How to format a list of references

y o y y y

At the end of your assignment, you are required to provide the full bibliographic information for each source cited in text. Exception: When citing from a secondary source, list only the secondary source in which you found the original information, and do not list the primary source in the reference list. Start the list of References on a new page at the end of your assignment - do not use footnotes(Publication Manual, p.37). References must be listed in alphabetical order by author, and then chronologically. References should use the hanging indent format.

Books and book chapters


Each reference should include four elements: (1) Author/Editor/Producer (2) Date (3) Title of the work and (4) Publication Information. If the item is available online, a retrieval statement or DOI is required after (3) Title. Exclude (4) Publication Information. N.B. Using a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is the preferred method of identifying online material such as journal articles, books and reports. For researchers, when a DOI is available, no matter whether electronic or print, include it (Publication Manual, p. 189).

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the work. Place name: Publisher. Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the work. Retrieved from http://... Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the work. doi: xx-xxxxxxx When a book consists of many chapters written by different authors, reference each chapter you used. Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp.xx-xx). Place name: Publisher. Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp.xx-xx). Retrieved from http://... Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp.xx-xx). doi: xx-xxxxxxx

Periodicals
Items published on a regular basis, such as journals, magazines and newspapers, are known as serials or periodicals. Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add the volume, issue and page number(s) instead. Each reference should include following elements: (1) Author (2) Date (3) Title of article (4) Title of Periodical (5) Volume, Issue and Page numbers. Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp. doi:xxx-xxxxx Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://...

Webpages
Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add a retrieval statement in its place: (1) Author (2) Date (3) Title (4) Retrieval statement. Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time (Publication Manual, p. 192) Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the webpage. Retrieved from http://... Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the webpage. Retrieved from ...website: http://... Author, A., & Author, B. (Year, Month Day). Title of the webpage [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://...

3. Key points

Author(s)

y y y y y

Invert the author(s) name(s), and use initial(s) of first name(s). Use the ampersand (&) between the last two authors' names (also note the full stop and comma after each author's name). Eight or more authors: List first six authors, then insert three elipses (...), followed by the last author(NEW). Corporate / group author: i.e. an organisation, association or government department. If the author's first name is hyphenated, include the hyphen with a full stop after each initial. One author Two authors Three to five authors Six or seven authors (NEW) Eight or more authors (NEW) Corporate / group author No author Brown, W. P. Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. Chiappini, E., Principi, N., Longhi, R., Tovo, P. A., Becherucci, P., Bonsignori, F., ... de Martino, M. Ministry of Education. Use Anonymous only if this is used in the publication.

Date
The year of publication goes in parentheses () after the author(s). Books and academic journals Magazines and newspapers: Monthly Daily, weekly No date In press (1993, June) (1993, June 12) (n.d.) (in press) (1993)

If an author has published more than one item in the same year, add lower case letters a, b, c etc. immediately after the year. The order is arranged alphabetically by title, but exclude A or The when it is the first word(Publication Manual, p. 182). In text: As discussed by Lohan (2009b), it is ... Moreover, Lohan (2009a) concludes ...

In the references list: Lohan, L. (2009a). Managerial behaviour and... The Journal of Information and... Lohan, L. (2009b). A new perspective on ... New Zealand Journal of Management...

Title of the work


Book titles are italicised, with the first letter of the first word of the main title and the subtitle in capital letters. Proper nouns also begin with a capital letter. y Journal titles (including magazines and newspapers) are italicised and all key words in the journal title begin with a capital letter. y Chapters in books and journal article titles are in lowercase except for the first letter of the first word of the title, subtitle, and any proper nouns (Publication Manual, pp. 102-103). y The book or journal title is italicised, not the chapter or article. Additional information that goes after the title: y Information such as edition or report number goes in parentheses ( ) immediately after the title (Publication Manual, p. 186). y A description of the work goes in square brackets [ ] after the title. e.g. [DVD], [PowerPoint slides], [Poster], [Letter to the editor], [Video file] etc. Christchurch Methodist Central Mission. (1984). Durham Street Church: 120 years anniversary brochure: 18641984 [Brochure]. Christchurch, New Zealand: Author.

Publication information

y o y y

Give the location (city) of the publisher - give the first city listed only. Exception: Place of publication is not required for journal, magazine or newspaper articles. All publishing cities now require the state or province, if applicable, and country (NEW). For the United States, use the city name, then the 2-letter postal code instead of the United States. American cities Non-American cities Non-American cities with a state Thousand Oaks, CA Hamilton, New Zealand London, England Sydney, NSW, Australia

y y y o

Do not include words like Publishers, Co., or Inc. However, keep words like Books or Press. Use the first publisher listed if multiple publishers are given. When the author is the publisher of the work, use the word 'Author' in the publisher field. Exception: Publishers are not required for journal, magazine or newspaper articles.

H O W T O R EF ER EN C E/ C IT E MAT ER IAL
This section provides examples of how to reference materials both in your list of references and in text citations. For an easy to use, 2 page printable version of this section, download the Library's handy APA Quick Guide. Changes to the 5th edition are highlighted with the word (NEW). To get started, select the kind of resource you want to reference from the following: Books Journals Magazines and newspapers Audiovisual Unpublished and informally published works (webpages etc.)

Others (course handouts, Images, tables, and figures

legal

material,

conference

papers,

reports,

personal

communications,

etc.)

BOOKS
Book - one author
In Reference List In Text Citation

King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame.Auckland, (King,2000) or New Zealand: Viking. King (2000) compares Frame with "..." (p. 34).

Book - two authors


In Reference List In Text Citation

Trevio, L. K., & Nelson. K. A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight (Trevio & Nelson, 2007) or talk about how to do it right. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Trevio and Nelson (2007) illustrated ... N.B. When paraphrasing, use and, not & (Publication Manual, p. 175).

Book - three authors and above


In Reference List Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational psychology for learning and teaching (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Thomson. If there are six or seven authors, treat the reference identically as you would with three to five authors (NEW). If there are eight or more authors, list the first six, then three elipses () and finish with the last author (NEW). In Text Citation (Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006) or Krause, Bochner and Duchesne (2006) recommend "..." (p. 32). In subsequent citations: According to Krause et al. (2006) N.B: Cite all authors the first time, and in subsequent citations include only the first author followed by et al.(short for et alii. Latin for 'and others'). Do not italicise et al.

Book - Electronic with no DOI (NEW)


In Reference List In Text Citation 2002) or

Will, R. J. (2002). The characteristic symphony in the age of Haydn and (Will, Beethoven [Ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from Ebrary database. N.B. If you are submitting work to a publisher and there is noDOI, you Will (2002) attributes ... are now required to give the URL of the Ebook's homepage (in this example, http://www.ebrary.com/corp/). For undergraduate students, give the name of the database, as in the example above (do not include the URL).

Book - Electronic with a DOI (NEW)


In Reference List Larochelle, M., Bednarz, N., & Garrison, J. (2010). Constructivism and education. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511752865 N.B. Although the book is first published in print in 1998, this online version is published in 2010. Use 2010 as the year of publication. In Text Citation (Larochelle, Bednarz, & Garrison, 2010) In subsequent citations: Larochelle et al. (2010) give a detailed account of ...

Book - Republished
In Reference List Baldwin, J. M. (1980). Darwin and the humanities (Library of Genetic Science and Philosophy Series: Vol. 2). New York, NY: AMS. (Original work published 1909). N.B. Information about the original publication in parentheses after the publisher's name or retrieval statement is included (See Also Publication Manual, pp. 203-204, example 21 and 26). In Text Citation (Baldwin, 1909/1980) or Baldwin (1909/1980) criticised... N.B. Both the original publication year and the year of the republished are included.

Book - Book or report by a corporate / group author


In Reference List World Health Organization. (2008) WHO global report on falls prevention in older age. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. N.B. When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the publisher field. List in the References list by the first significant word of the organisation. For group authors, the parent body precedes a subdivision (Publication Manual, p.183). In Text Citation (World Health Organization [WHO], 2008) In subsequent citations: WHO (2008) highlight the ... N.B. Some group authors may be abbreviated in subsequent citations if they are readily recognisable.

Book - no author (anonymous)


In Reference List In Text Citation

Anonymous. (1999). Courage and grace: One woman's journey of recovery (Anonymous, 1999) from food addiction and obesity. Taupo, New Zealand: Avalon. N.B. If the author's name is given as Anonymous, use Anonymous in the author field. If no author is stated, the title takes the author position.

Book - no author
In Reference List oi Joint investigations of child abuse. (1993). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. N.B. If no author is stated, the title takes the author position. In Text Citation In the book, Joint Investigations of Child Abuse, ... Note that the key words of the book title are capitalised when used in text, but not in the References list.

Book - edited
In Reference List In Text Citation

Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.). (1997). Intercultural (Samover & Porter, 1997) or communication: A reader (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Samover and Porter (1997) conclude by ... N.B. Include (Ed.) or (Eds.) after their name(s). If you are citing a chapter within an edited book, you will need to reference the contributor as well as the editor. For an example of how this is done, review the next section, "Book - chapter in an edited book".

Book - chapter in an edited book


In Reference List In Text Citation

Helber, L. E. (1995). Redeveloping mature resorts for new markets. In M. (Helber, 1995) or V. Conlin & T. Baum (Eds.), Island tourism: Management principles Helber (1995) concludes by ... and practice (pp. 105-113). Chichester, England: Wiley. N.B. The author and chapter title come first, followed by the editor(s) and book title. Note the editor's initials come before the family name. The page numbers of the chapter are also required.

Book - translated
In Reference List Sartre, J.-P. (1962). Imagination: A psychological critique (F. Williams, Trans.). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. In Text Citation (Sartre, 1962) or Sartre (1962) is an example of ...

Book - dictionary or encyclopedia entry (with author)


In Reference List In Text Citation

Hwang, E.-G. (2002). North Korea: Economic system. In D. Levinson & K. (Hwang, 2002) or Christenson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of modern Asia (Vol. 4, pp. 350-353). Hwang (2002) identifies the hurdles North New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. Korea ... N.B. If there is a volume number or edition (not 1st edition) include this in parentheses after the title along with page number(s).

Book - dictionary or encyclopedia entry (no author)


In Reference List Social constructionism. (2009). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology (3rd rev. ed.). Retrieved from Oxford Reference Online Premium database. N.B. For online dictionaries and encyclopedia, a retrieval statement takes the place of publisher location and name. Note the editors' initials precede the family name. For undergraduate students, if using a library subscription database, give the name of the database, as in the example above (do not include the database URL). In Text Citation ("Social Constructionism," 2009) N.B. Use capital letters for the first letter of key words and double quotation marks (Publication Manual, p. 176).

Book - thesis (except from the U.S.) - print version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the (Dewstow, 2006) or University of Waikato (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Dewstow (2006) recommends ... Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. N.B. For PhD use: Unpublished doctoral dissertation after the title or Unpublished master's thesis for Master's degree (Publication Manual, p. 207).

Book - thesis (except from the U.S.) - electronic version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the (Dewstow, 2006) or University of Waikato (Master's thesis, The University of Waikato, Dewstow (2006) recommends ... Hamilton, New Zealand). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2241 N.B. For PhD use: Unpublished doctoral dissertation after the title or Unpublished master's thesis for Master's degree (Publication Manual, p. 207).

Book - thesis from the U.S. - electronic version


In Reference List Rose, S. L. (2006). Essays on almost common value auctions(Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd In Text Citation (Rose, 2006) or According to Rose (2006) ...

JOURNALS

Journal article - print version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Sainaghi, R. (2008). Strategic position and performance of winter (Sainaghi, 2008) or destinations.Tourism Review, 63(4), 40-57. Sainagh (2008) suggests ... N.B. A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in parentheses (not italicised). If each issue begins with page 1, give the issue number in the parentheses immediately after the volume number. For researchers, the issue number is not required for journals with continuous pagination.

Journal article - electronic version with a DOI


In Reference List Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. Social Science & Medicine, 65(2), 377-392. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.018 In Text Citation (Shepherd et al., 2007) or Shepherd et al. (2007) highlight the ... N.B. If there are six or seven authors, list all authors in the reference list. From the first citation in text, use et al. after the first author. If there are eight or more authors, list the first six, then three elipses () and finish with the last author.

Journal article - electronic version with no DOI


In Reference List Harrison, B., & Papa, R. (2005). The development of an indigenous knowledge program in a New Zealand Maori-language immersion school. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(1), 57-72. Retrieved from Academic Research Library database. N.B. For undergraduate students, give the name of the database, as in the example above (do not include the database URL). It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval. In Text Citation (Harrison & Papa, 2005) or In their research, Harrison and Papa (2005) established ... N.B. If there are six or seven authors, list all authors in the reference list. From the first citation in text, use et al. after the first author. If there are eight or more authors, list the

If you are submitting work to a publisher and there is no DOI, you are first six, then three elipses () and finish with now required to give the URL of the journal homepage (Publication the last author. Manual, p. 199).

Journal article - internet only


In Reference List In Text Citation

Snell, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The psychology of heavy metal (Snell & Hodgetts, n.d.) or communities and white supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1.Retrieved Snell and Hodgetts (n.d.) identified "..." (para. from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka 3) N.B. (n.d.)= no date. As there are no page numbers, cite the paragraph number in text. M AGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS

Magazine - print version


In Reference List von Drehle, D., Ghosh, B., Scherer, M., Zaidi, S. H., Baker, A., James, R., Peters, G. (2009, October 12). An enemy within.Time South Pacific [Australia/New Zealand editon], 174(14), 12-17. N.B. Full date is used for weekly magazines; month and year for monthly magazines. If there are eight or more authors, list the first six, then three elipses () and finish with the last author (NEW). In Text Citation (von Drehle et al., 2009) or Von Drehle et al. (2009) assert ... N.B. If an author's name which usually begins with a lower case letter appears at the beginning of a sentence, it must be capitalised.

Magazine - electronic version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Robison, J. (2008, January). On the waka wave. North and South, 262, 80- (Robison, 2008) or 87. Retrieved from Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre database Robison (2008) considers ... N.B. If you are submitting work to a publisher, you are now required to give the URL of the journal homepage (Publication Manual, p. 199). For undergraduate students, give the name of the database and do not include the database URL. It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Newspaper - print version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Cumming, G. (2003, April 5). Cough that shook the world. The New (Cumming, 2003) or Zealand Herald, p. B4. Cumming (2003) reports ... N.B. Include p. or pp. before the page number. This is used for newspapers only, not magazines or journals. p = 1 page, pp. more than one page. If page numbers are discontinous, separate page numbers with a comma. e.g. pp. A1, A4-5.

Newspaper - electronic version


In Reference List Cumming, G. (2003, April 5). Cough that shook the world. The New In Text Citation (Cumming, 2003) or

Zealand Herald. Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz Cumming (2003) reports ... N.B. Use the URL of the homepage of the newspaper to avoid nonworking URLs. It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Newspaper - article with no author


In Reference List In Text Citation

Drivers reject fuel prices driven by war threat. (2003, March 7).The Timaru ("Drivers Reject Fuel Prices", 2003) Herald, p.1. N.B. Use capital letters and double quotation N.B. If there is no author, the article title comes first. In the in text marks. citation, abbreviate the title, use double quotation marks and capital letters (Publication Manual, p. 176).

AUDIOVISUAL

Film - motion picture


In Reference List In Text Citation

Vasile, T. (Producer), & Fellini F. (Director). (2001). Roma [Motion (Vasile & Fellini, 2001) picture]. United States: MGM Home Entertainment. In the Author field, identify the primary contributors (i.e. the director or producer or both) but not the presenters. For publication information, give the motion picture's country of origin and the name of the motion picture studio. A description of the form of the work goes in square brackets [ ]after the title. It is not italicised.

Music Recording - a song in an album (NEW)


In Reference List The Beatles. (2003). Across the universe. On Let it be... naked[CD]. Hollywood, CA: Capital Records. In Text Citation (The Beatles, 2003, track 10) N.B. Include side and band or track numbers.

Television programme
In Reference List Slater, K. (Producer). (2002). Gene in a bottle [Television series episode]. (Slater, 2002) In 60 minutes. Auckland, New Zealand: TV3 Network Services. N.B. Put television series episode or motion picture in square brackets [ ] after the title. In Text Citation

Audio podcast (NEW)


In Reference List In Text Citation

Noonan, D. (Producer). (2008, January 9). The whistle from the blunder: (Noonan, 2008) Part 5 [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.radionz.co.nz N.B. Include as much information as possible, e.g. date, title and identifier

UNPUBLI SHED AND INFORM ALLY PUBLISHED WO RKS

Webpage - informally published work


In Reference List In Text Citation

Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in profile 2007. Retrieved (Statistics New Zealand, 2007) from http://www.stats.govt.nz N.B. Do not write URLs in the text N.B. A personal or institutional webpage is considered an informally published work (Publication Manual, p. 212). It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval, unless webpage content is likely to be updated (e.g. a wiki) (NEW)

Wiki
In Reference List In Text Citation

University of Waikato, Law Library. (n.d.). Commentary. Retrieved July (University of Waikato, Law Library, n.d.) 19, 2009, from http://law.waikato.ac.nz:8080/lrs/index.php/Commentaries N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. Include the date of retrieval since the contents of a wiki are likely to change over time. For group authors, the parent body precedes a subdivision (Publication Manual, p. 183).

Online discussion
In Reference List Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://groups.google.com/group/sci.psychology.consciousness/ N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. In Text Citation (Chalmers, 2000)

Blog post (NEW)


In Reference List Wadard. (2009, June 15). Australia's climate bill may be scuttled [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://globalwarmingwatch.blogspot.com/ N.B. Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. In Text Citation (Wadard, 2009)

Video blog post (NEW)


In Reference List Leelefever. (2007, May 29). Wiki in plain English [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY In Text Citation (Leelefever, 2007)

OTHERS

Course handout, lecture notes - print version (unpublished work)


In Reference List Brown, P. (2004). Marketing: MKTG200-04B [Lecture notes]. Hamilton, In Text Citation (Brown, 2004)

New Zealand: University of Waikato, Department of Marketing. N.B. Course handouts and lecture notes belong to the group "unpublished papers, lectures from an archive or personal collections" (Publication Manual, p. 213). In the publication information field, list the organisation's name (e.g. university, department), city, and country. Put the format in square brackets after the title. e.g. [Lecture notes].

Legal material
APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (18th ed. 2005) for referencing legal material - see NZ section (p. 297). In Reference List Children's Commissioner Act 2003, 2003 S.N.Z. No. 121. In Text Citation (Children's Commissioner Act 2003) or The wellbeing of children is covered by theChildren's Commissioner Act 2003

Personal Communications - letters, telephone conversations, e-mails, personal interviews, lecture notes etc.
In Reference List In Text Citation

N.B. No information is required in the reference list as the data is not (H. Clarke, personal communication, March retrievable. 19, 2004) or Professor Clarke (personal communication, March 19, 2004) remarked that...

Conference paper as part of a book of proceedings


In Reference List In Text Citation

Shobhadevi, Y. J., & Bidarakoppa, G. S. (1994). Possession phenomena: As (Shobhadevi & Bidarakoppa, 1994) or a coping behaviour. In G. Davidson (Ed.),Applying Psychology: Shobhadevi and Bidarakoppa (1994) Lessons from Asia-Oceania (pp. 83-95). Carlton, Vic., Australia: published their ... Australian Psychological Society. N.B. To cite published proceedings from a book, use the same format as for a book or book chapter (Publication Manual, p.206). To cite proceedings published regularly use the same format as a periodical.

Contribution to Conference or Symposium not formally published - electronic version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Bochner, S. (1996, November). Mentoring in higher education: Issues to be (Bochner, 1996) or addressed in developing a mentoring program. Paper presented at the Bochner (1996) addressed this .. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/96pap/bochs96018.txt N.B. A capital letter is used for all key words in the conference name. Give the month of the conference (NEW) (Publication Manual, pp. 206208).

Report - print version


In Reference List In Text Citation

University of Waikato. (1967). First hall of residence (Information series (University of Waikato, 1967) No. 3). Hamilton, New Zealand: Author. N.B. If the report has a number, give the number in parentheses immediately after the title. If it is an annual report, reference it as a book.

Annual Report - electronic version


In Reference List Telecom New Zealand. (2007). Ready to compete, connect, communicate: Annual report 2007. Retrieved from http://annualreport07.telecom.co.nz/download/telecom-annual-report2007.pdf In Text Citation (Telecom New Zealand, 2007)

Report - electronic version


In Reference List In Text Citation

Caygill, R. (2009). Science: Trends in year 5 science achievement 1994 to (Caygill, 2009) or 2006. Retrieved from Ministry of Education, Education Counts website: Caygill (2009) concludes ... http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/34413/914_TI MSS-06_Science2.pdf N.B. If a report is available online, add the publisher as part of the retrieval statement if it has not been identified as the author (Publication Manual, p. 205).

Report - technical or research


In Reference List In Text Citation

Holmes, P. (2000). The intercultural communication experiences of ethnic (Holmes, 2000) or Chinese students in a Western tertiary institution: Implications for Holmes (2000) highlights the importance ... education providers (Working paper 2000-14). Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, Department of Management Communication. N.B. If there is a report number, give this in parentheses after the title. If the name of the state, province, or country is included in the name of the university, this does not need to be repeated in the publisher location. Give the name of the university first, followed by the department that produced the document (Publication Manual, p. 206).