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BRIDGES

BRIDGES

It is a structure built to span a gorge, valley, road, railroad track, river, body of water or any other physical obstacle. Bridge allows for a easier passage across the river for people and cargo The first Bridges were spans of wooden logs or planks and eventually stones. Rope Bridges used earlier, wrought Iron used followed by steel bridges

Necessity of BRIDGES

Bridges span barriers They bring people, communities and nations closer who are otherwise cut-off from the main area. They shorten distances, speed transportation and facilitate commerce.

They contribute to the progress of the country and the advancement of the people. They are essential to effect a crossing when other means of passing the obstacle become inconvenient or impossible.

Components of BRIDGES

A Bridge consists of the following:

(i)

TRACK: The surface over which the pedestrains and vehicles can travel. In case of road: track consists of metalling and soling In case of railway: track consists of rails and sleepers

(ii) SUPERSTRUCTURE: It consists of structural members (arch, beam, truss etc) which span from support to support It carries the track and its dead and live loads It includes the parapets, the face walls

or blocking courses which retain the earth filling.

Components of BRIDGES

contd

(iii) SUBSTRUCTURE: It consists of abutments and the piers It supports the super-structure of the bridge and also transfers the load of super-structure It includes the foundation of the Bridge also.

Classification of BRIDGES

Bridges are classified based on: (i) Structural Characteristics (ii) Materials of construction (iii) Function (iv) Position of the Bridge floor (v) Angle of crossing (vi) Other features

Classification of BRIDGES

contd

based on Structural Characteristics (i) Arched bridges (ii) Bow-string Bridges (iii) Suspension Bridges (iv) Slab Bridges (v) Beam bridges (vi) Truss bridges (vii) Simply supported Bridges (viii) Cantilever Bridges (ix) Continuous Bridges (x) Rigid Frame Bridges

Classification of BRIDGES

Based on Materials of construction

(i) Timber bridges (ii) Masonry Bridges (iii) Plain Concrete Bridges (iv) Reinforced Concrete Bridges (v) Iron and Steel bridges (vi) Pre-stressed Concrete Bridges

Classification of BRIDGES

Based on Function of the bridge

(i) Aqueduct

(ii) Viaduct

(iii) Highway Bridge

(iv) Foot-Bridge

Classification of BRIDGES

Based on Position of the Bridge floor

(i) Deck bridge (ii) Through bridge (iii) Suspension Bridge

Classification of BRIDGES

Based on special features:

(i) Temporary Bridge (ii) Movable Bridge (iii) Submersible bridge

(iv) Skew Bridge (v) Rigid Frame Bridge

Adoption of various bridge types

Chronological order

..

(i) Timber beams, stone slabs and rope suspension bridges (ii) Stone and Brick Arches of various shapes (iii) Timber trusses, cast iron arches and wrought iron suspension bridges (iv) Steel trusses, rolled beams, plate girders, cantilevers, suspension bridges (v) Concrete arches, reinforced concrete arches, slabs, beams and trusses (vi) Continuous girders and rigid frame types of reinforced concrete and steel (vi) Prestressed concrete arches and girders

Arched Bridges

Arched Bridges consist of solid barrels or ribs of curved shape, rising from abutments and piers.

Arches bear the superimposed load as a compressive thrust

The shape of the arch may be segmental, semi-circular, semielliptical, parabolic or multicentered. Arch bridges are adopted only where rigid and reliable foundations are available

Arched Bridges

Advantages 1. Arch bridges are aesthetically superior when compared to all other types 2. Arch bridges provides sufficient headroom 3. They are economical

Disadvantages 1.

They require massive supporting system 2. They require skilled work force for construction

The types of arched bridges are, barrel type and rib type arched bridge.

Bow- string Bridges

A bow-string bridge consists of arch ribs with their feet connected by a horizontal tie beam. Tied arches are called bow-string girders due to their shape. The tie beam is connected to the arch rib by vertical or inclined hangers or suspenders. The track can be most conveniently carried on slabs between the main tie girders, hence bow string bridges are through type

Advantages Since the reactions from the

girders are vertical, the supports need not be massive They are most suitable for skew spans They can be adopted for long spans Aesthetic

Suspension Bridges

Suspension bridges consist of a floor system suspended from a pair of chains or cables hanging in a catenary curve between two tall supports. Suspension cables transmit the loads to the support Advantages

1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

The materials of construction are light and in small units. Construction is easy as the cables can be taken across the stream by simple means Navigational requirements can be easily met Can cater to very long spans The bridge is slender and its graceful sweep is aesthetically very pleasing They can be used for road bridges of very large span, where there is no provision for intermediate piers at sufficiently close intervals

Suspension Bridges contd

Disadvantages

1. 2. 3.

The Bridge lacks the stiffness They are unsuitable for railway bridges Materials having very high tensile strength must be used.

Slab Bridges

Slabs are flat structural elements They carry super-imposed loads They offer bending resistance by developing compressive stresses on one side and tensile stresses on the other. Slabs may consist of the following materials used for the approximate span ranges mentioned.

Timber Planks - upto 2.5 m Stone slabs up to 3 m Reinforced concrete slabs upto 8m Steel plates - upto 2 m Prestressed concrete slabs 6 m to 15 m

Slab Bridges . contd

Advantages Slab bridges do not require separate flooring Slabs develop vertical reactions on the supports and hence need smaller bottom widths for abutments and piers Within their span range, slabs are much smaller in depth than beams Slabs are preferred for submersible bridges

Disadvantages Can not be constructed for larger spans Thickness of the slab is high when compared with slabs of other bridge types.

ZUARI BRIDGE

Beam Bridges

Beam bridges consist of two or more beams of rectangular, Ishaped or Tshaped. Beams placed parallel to one another spanning the abutments and piers

Advantages Beams are smaller in depth than arches For longer spans, they are lighter than the slabs of slabs bridges The reactions from beams on the supports and hence need smaller bottom widths for abutments and piers Where the flooring consists of

reinforced slabs, the beam may themselves be utilized as support for the centering for the slab

Beam Bridges . contd

Disadvantages - For long spans, the depth of the beam becomes deeper - In case of railway bridges, a separate floor system is required to support the sleepers.