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from poverty through policies that provide adequate

THE 1987 CONSTITUTION social services, promote full employment, a rising

OF THE Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an
standard of living, and an improved quality of life
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES instrument of national policy, adopts the generally
for all.
accepted principles of international law as part of
the law of the land and adheres to the policy of
peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in
PREAMBLE amity with all nations. all phases of national development.

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme Section 11. The State values the dignity of every
of Almighty God, in order to build a just and over the military. The Armed Forces of the human person and guarantees full respect for human
humane society, and establish a Government that Philippines is the protector of the people and the rights.
shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the
the common good, conserve and develop our State and the integrity of the national territory.
patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of
posterity, the blessings of independence and family life and shall protect and strengthen the
democracy under the rule of law and a regime of Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to family as a basic autonomous social institution. It
truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do serve and protect the people. The Government may shall equally protect the life of the mother and the
ordain and promulgate this Constitution. call upon the people to defend the State and, in the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and
fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of
under conditions provided by law, to render the youth for civic efficiency and the development
ARTICLE I personal, military or civil service. of moral character shall receive the support of the
NATIONAL TERRITORY Section 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the
. protection of life, liberty, and property, and Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the
The national territory comprises the Philippine promotion of the general welfare are essential for youth in nation-building and shall promote and
archipelago, with all the islands and waters the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual,
embraced therein, and all other territories over democracy. and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth
which the Philippines has sovereignty or patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their
jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and involvement in public and civic affairs.
aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the Section 6. The separation of Church and State shall
seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other be inviolable.
submarine areas. The waters around, between, and Section 14. The State recognizes the role of women
connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental
of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the equality before the law of women and men.
internal waters of the Philippines.
Section 7. The State shall pursue an independent
Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the
foreign policy. In its relations with other states, the
right to health of the people and instill health
paramount consideration shall be national
ARTICLE II consciousness among them.
sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest,
and the right to self-determination.
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the
STATE POLICIES right of the people to a balanced and healthful
Section 8. The Philippines, consistent with the
ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of
national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of
PRINCIPLES freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.

Section 17. The State shall give priority to

Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and Section 9. The State shall promote a just and
education, science and technology, arts, culture, and
republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity
sports to foster patriotism and nationalism,
and all government authority emanates from them. and independence of the nation and free the people
accelerate social progress, and promote total human
liberation and development. transactions involving public interest. Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the
same within the limits prescribed by law shall not
be impaired except upon lawful order of the court.
Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary ARTICLE III
Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except
social economic force. It shall protect the rights of
in the interest of national security, public safety, or
workers and promote their welfare.
BILL OF RIGHTS public health, as may be provided by law.

Section 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant

Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, Section 7. The right of the people to information on
and independent national economy effectively
liberty, or property without due process of law, nor matters of public concern shall be recognized.
controlled by Filipinos.
shall any person be denied the equal protection of Access to official records, and to documents and
the laws. papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or
Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable decisions, as well as to government research data
role of the private sector, encourages private used as basis for policy development, shall be
Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as
enterprise, and provides incentives to needed
their persons, houses, papers, and effects against may be provided by law.
unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever
nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and
Section 21. The State shall promote comprehensive no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue Section 8. The right of the people, including those
rural development and agrarian reform. except upon probable cause to be determined employed in the public and private sectors, to form
personally by the judge after examination under unions, associations, or societies for purposes not
oath or affirmation of the complainant and the contrary to law shall not be abridged.
Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the
witnesses he may produce, and particularly
rights of indigenous cultural communities within the
describing the place to be searched and the persons
framework of national unity and development. Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for
or things to be seized.
public use without just compensation.
Section 23. The State shall encourage non-
Section 3. (1) The privacy of communication and
governmental, community-based, or sectoral Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of
correspondence shall be inviolable except upon
organizations that promote the welfare of the nation. contracts shall be passed.
lawful order of the court, or when public safety or
order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law.
Section 24. The State recognizes the vital role of Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-
communication and information in nation-building. judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall
(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the
not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.
preceding section shall be inadmissible for any
Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of purpose in any proceeding.
local governments. Section 12. (1) Any person under investigation for
the commission of an offense shall have the right to
Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the
be informed of his right to remain silent and to have
Section 26. The State shall guarantee equal access freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or
competent and independent counsel preferably of
to opportunities for public service and prohibit the right of the people peaceably to assemble and
his own choice. If the person cannot afford the
political dynasties as may be defined by law. petition the government for redress of grievances.
services of counsel, he must be provided with one.
These rights cannot be waived except in writing and
Section 27. The State shall maintain honesty and Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an in the presence of counsel.
integrity in the public service and take positive and establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
effective measures against graft and corruption. exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of
(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation,
religious profession and worship, without
or any other means which vitiate the free will shall
discrimination or preference, shall forever be
Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions be used against him. Secret detention places,
allowed. No religious test shall be required for the
prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of
exercise of civil or political rights.
a policy of full public disclosure of all its detention are prohibited.
(3) Any confession or admission obtained in witness against himself.
violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be
[2] Those whose fathers or mothers are
inadmissible in evidence against him.
Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely citizens of the Philippines;
by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations.
(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil
[3] Those born before January 17, 1973,
sanctions for violations of this section as well as
(2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine
compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of
except as a punishment for a crime whereof the citizenship upon reaching the age of
torture or similar practices, and their families.
party shall have been duly convicted. majority; and

Section 13. All persons, except those charged with

Section 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be [4] Those who are naturalized in
offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when
imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman accordance with law.
evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction,
punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be
be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on
imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving
recognizance as may be provided by law. The right Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are
heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for
to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege citizens of the Philippines from birth without having
it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be
of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. to perform any act to acquire or perfect their
reduced to reclusion perpetua.
Excessive bail shall not be required. Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine
citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3),
(2) The employment of physical, psychological, or Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born
Section 14. (1) No person shall be held to answer
degrading punishment against any prisoner or citizens.
for a criminal offense without due process of law.
detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate
penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be
Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or
(2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be dealt with by law.
reacquired in the manner provided by law.
presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and
shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and
Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt
counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of Section 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry
or non-payment of a poll tax.
the accusation against him, to have a speedy, aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their
impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses act or omission, they are deemed, under the law, to
face to face, and to have compulsory process to Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy have renounced it.
secure the attendance of witnesses and the of punishment for the same offense. If an act is
production of evidence in his behalf. However, after punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or
arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the Section 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to
acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to
absence of the accused: Provided, that he has been the national interest and shall be dealt with by law.
another prosecution for the same act.
duly notified and his failure to appear is
Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder
shall be enacted.
Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas
corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of SUFFRAGE
invasion or rebellion, when the public safety
requires it. ARTICLE IV
Section 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens
of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law,
Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a CITIZENSHIP
who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall
speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, have resided in the Philippines for at least one year,
quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. Section 1. The following are citizens of the and in the place wherein they propose to vote, for at
Philippines: least six months immediately preceding the election.
Section 17. No person shall be compelled to be a [1] Those who are citizens of the No literacy, property, or other substantive
Philippines at the time of the adoption of requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of
this Constitution; suffrage.
he was elected. Section 7. The Members of the House of
Representatives shall be elected for a term of three
Section 2. The Congress shall provide a system for
years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided
securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as Section 5. (1) The House of Representatives shall be
by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next
well as a system for absentee voting by qualified composed of not more than two hundred and fifty
following their election. No Member of the House
Filipinos abroad. members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall
of Representatives shall serve for more than three
be elected from legislative districts apportioned
consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the
among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan
The Congress shall also design a procedure for the office for any length of time shall not be considered
Manila area in accordance with the number of their
disabled and the illiterates to vote without the as an interruption in the continuity of his service for
respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform
assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be the full term for which he was elected.
and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided
allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules
by law, shall be elected through a party-list system
as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to
of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties Section 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the
protect the secrecy of the ballot.
or organizations. regular election of the Senators and the Members of
the House of Representatives shall be held on the
second Monday of May.
(2) The party-list representatives shall constitute
twenty per centum of the total number of
representatives including those under the party list. Section 9. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the
THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT For three consecutive terms after the ratification of House of Representatives, a special election may be
this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed
party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of
Section 1. The legislative power shall be vested in by law, by selection or election from the labor, Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the
the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural unexpired term.
of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except
communities, women, youth, and such other sectors
to the extent reserved to the people by the provision as may be provided by law, except the religious
on initiative and referendum. Section 10. The salaries of Senators and Members
of the House of Representatives shall be determined
by law. No increase in said compensation shall take
Section 2. The Senate shall be composed of twenty- (3) Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as effect until after the expiration of the full term of all
four Senators who shall be elected at large by the practicable, contiguous, compact, and adjacent the Members of the Senate and the House of
qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be
territory. Each city with a population of at least two Representatives approving such increase.
provided by law. hundred fifty thousand, or each province, shall have
at least one representative.
Section 11. A Senator or Member of the House of
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by
a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the (4) Within three years following the return of every not more than six years imprisonment, be privileged
day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of census, the Congress shall make a reapportionment from arrest while the Congress is in session. No
age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a of legislative districts based on the standards Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in
resident of the Philippines for not less than two provided in this section. any other place for any speech or debate in the
years immediately preceding the day of the election.
Congress or in any committee thereof.
Section 6. No person shall be a Member of the
Section 4. The term of office of the Senators shall House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born Section 12. All Members of the Senate and the
be six years and shall commence, unless otherwise
citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of
provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to office, make a full disclosure of their financial and
next following their election. No Senator shall serve read and write, and, except the party-list business interests. They shall notify the House
for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary
representatives, a registered voter in the district in concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may
renunciation of the office for any length of time which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of
shall not be considered as an interruption in the a period of not less than one year immediately which they are authors.
continuity of his service for the full term of which
preceding the day of the election.
Section 13. No Senator or Member of the House of
Representatives may hold any other office or proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Congress from their submission. The Commission
employment in the Government, or any subdivision, behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members.
agency, or instrumentality thereof, including all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A
government-owned or controlled corporations or penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not
Section 19. The Electoral Tribunals and the
their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting exceed sixty days.
Commission on Appointments shall be constituted
his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office
within thirty days after the Senate and the House of
which may have been created or the emoluments
(4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its Representatives shall have been organized with the
thereof increased during the term for which he was
proceedings, and from time to time publish the election of the President and the Speaker. The
same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, Commission on Appointments shall meet only
affect national security; and the yeas and nays on while the Congress is in session, at the call of its
Section 14. No Senator or Member of the House of any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to
Representatives may personally appear as counsel Members present, be entered in the Journal. Each discharge such powers and functions as are herein
before any court of justice or before the Electoral House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings. conferred upon it.
Tribunals, or quasi-judicial and other administrative
bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be
(5) Neither House during the sessions of the Section 20. The records and books of accounts of
interested financially in any contract with, or in any
Congress shall, without the consent of the other, the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the
franchise or special privilege granted by the
adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other public in accordance with law, and such books shall
Government, or any subdivision, agency, or
place than that in which the two Houses shall be be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall
instrumentality thereof, including any government-
sitting. publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to
owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary,
and expenses incurred for each Member.
during his term of office. He shall not intervene in
any matter before any office of the Government for Section 17. The Senate and the House of
his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called Representatives shall each have an Electoral Section 21. The Senate or the House of
upon to act on account of his office. Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all Representatives or any of its respective committees
contests relating to the election, returns, and may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in
qualifications of their respective Members. Each accordance with its duly published rules of
Section 15. The Congress shall convene once every
Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine procedure. The rights of persons appearing in, or
year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular
Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the affected by, such inquiries shall be respected.
session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and
Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief
shall continue to be in session for such number of
Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of
days as it may determine until thirty days before the Section 22. The heads of departments may, upon
the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the
opening of its next regular session, exclusive of their own initiative, with the consent of the
case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of
Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President, or upon the request of either House, as
proportional representation from the political parties
President may call a special session at any time. the rules of each House shall provide, appear before
and the parties or organizations registered under the
and be heard by such House on any matter
party-list system represented therein. The senior
pertaining to their departments. Written questions
Section 16. (1). The Senate shall elect its President Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its
shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or
and the House of Representatives, its Speaker, by a Chairman.
the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least
majority vote of all its respective Members. Each
three days before their scheduled appearance.
House shall choose such other officers as it may
Section 18. There shall be a Commission on Interpellations shall not be limited to written
deem necessary.
Appointments consisting of the President of the questions, but may cover matters related thereto.
Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and When the security of the State or the public interest
(2) A majority of each House shall constitute a twelve Members of the House of Representatives, so requires and the President so states in writing, the
quorum to do business, but a smaller number may elected by each House on the basis of proportional appearance shall be conducted in executive session.
adjourn from day to day and may compel the representation from the political parties and parties
attendance of absent Members in such manner, and or organizations registered under the party-list
Section 23. (1) The Congress, by a vote of two-
under such penalties, as such House may provide. system represented therein. The chairman of the
thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled,
Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie.
voting separately, shall have the sole power to
The Commission shall act on all appointments
(3) Each House may determine the rules of its
submitted to it within thirty session days of the
declare the existence of a state of war. the general appropriations law for their respective or nays, and the names of the Members voting for or
offices from savings in other items of their against shall be entered in its Journal. The President
respective appropriations. shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House
(2) In times of war or other national emergency, the
where it originated within thirty days after the date
Congress may, by law, authorize the President, for a
of receipt thereof, otherwise, it shall become a law
limited period and subject to such restrictions as it (6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular
as if he had signed it.
may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes
proper to carry out a declared national policy. to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject
Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. (2) The President shall have the power to veto any
Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next particular item or items in an appropriation,
adjournment thereof. revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect
(7) If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress
the item or items to which he does not object.
shall have failed to pass the general appropriations
Section 24. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general
bills authorizing increase of the public debt, bills of appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year Section 28. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform
local application, and private bills, shall originate shall be deemed re-enacted and shall remain in and equitable. The Congress shall evolve a
exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the force and effect until the general appropriations bill progressive system of taxation.
Senate may propose or concur with amendments. is passed by the Congress.
(2) The Congress may, by law, authorize the
Section 25. (1) The Congress may not increase the Section 26. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress President to fix within specified limits, and subject
appropriations recommended by the President for shall embrace only one subject which shall be to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose,
the operation of the Government as specified in the expressed in the title thereof. tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and
budget. The form, content, and manner of wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within
preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law. the framework of the national development program
(2) No bill passed by either House shall become a
of the Government.
law unless it has passed three readings on separate
(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in days, and printed copies thereof in its final form
the general appropriations bill unless it relates have been distributed to its Members three days (3) Charitable institutions, churches and personages
specifically to some particular appropriation therein. before its passage, except when the President or convents appurtenant thereto, mosques, non-
Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and
its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. to meet a public calamity or emergency. Upon the improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively
last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be used for religious, charitable, or educational
allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken purposes shall be exempt from taxation.
(3) The procedure in approving appropriations for
immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays
the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for
entered in the Journal.
approving appropriations for other departments and (4) No law granting any tax exemption shall be
agencies. passed without the concurrence of a majority of all
Section 27. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress the Members of the Congress.
shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the
(4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the
President. If he approves the same he shall sign it;
purpose for which it is intended, and shall be Section 29. (1) No money shall be paid out of the
otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same with
supported by funds actually available as certified by Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation
his objections to the House where it originated,
the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a made by law.
which shall enter the objections at large in its
corresponding revenue proposal therein.
Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such
reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of (2) No public money or property shall be
(5) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or
of appropriations; however, the President, the sent, together with the objections, to the other indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any
President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or
Representatives, the Chief Justice of the Supreme and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of system of religion, or of any priest, preacher,
Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, minister, other religious teacher, or dignitary as
may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, or
dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to any immediately preceding such election. votes.
penal institution, or government orphanage or
Section 3. There shall be a Vice-President who shall The person having the highest number of votes shall
have the same qualifications and term of office and be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall
(3) All money collected on any tax levied for a be elected with, and in the same manner, as the have an equal and highest number of votes, one of
special purpose shall be treated as a special fund President. He may be removed from office in the them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a
and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose same manner as the President. majority of all the Members of both Houses of the
for which a special fund was created has been Congress, voting separately.
fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be
The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member
transferred to the general funds of the Government.
of the Cabinet. Such appointment requires no The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the
confirmation. canvassing of the certificates.
Section 30. No law shall be passed increasing the
appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as
Section 4. The President and the Vice-President The Supreme Court, sitting en banc, shall be the
provided in this Constitution without its advice and
shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a sole judge of all contests relating to the election,
term of six years which shall begin at noon on the returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice-
thirtieth day of June next following the day of the President, and may promulgate its rules for the
Section 31. No law granting a title of royalty or election and shall end at noon of the same date, six purpose.
nobility shall be enacted. years thereafter. The President shall not be eligible
for any re-election. No person who has succeeded as
Section 5. Before they enter on the execution of
President and has served as such for more than four
Section 32. The Congress shall, as early as possible, their office, the President, the Vice-President, or the
years shall be qualified for election to the same
provide for a system of initiative and referendum, Acting President shall take the following oath or
office at any time.
and the exceptions therefrom, whereby the people affirmation:
can directly propose and enact laws or approve or
reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the No Vice-President shall serve for more than two
"I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I
Congress or local legislative body after the successive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the
will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill
registration of a petition therefor signed by at least office for any length of time shall not be considered
my duties as President [or Vice-
ten per centum of the total number of registered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for
President or Acting President] of the
voters, of which every legislative district must be the full term for which he was elected.
Philippines, preserve and defend its
represented by at least three per centum of the
Constitution, execute its laws, do justice
registered voters thereof.
Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular to every man, and consecrate myself to
election for President and Vice-President shall be the service of the Nation. So help me
held on the second Monday of May. God." [In case of affirmation, last
ARTICLE VII sentence will be omitted].
Section 6. The President shall have an official
The returns of every election for President and
residence. The salaries of the President and Vice-
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT Vice-President, duly certified by the board of
President shall be determined by law and shall not
canvassers of each province or city, shall be
be decreased during their tenure. No increase in said
transmitted to the Congress, directed to the
Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in compensation shall take effect until after the
President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the
the President of the Philippines. expiration of the term of the incumbent during
certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate
which such increase was approved. They shall not
shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the
receive during their tenure any other emolument
Section 2. No person may be elected President election, open all the certificates in the presence of
from the Government or any other source.
unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint
a registered voter, able to read and write, at least public session, and the Congress, upon
forty years of age on the day of the election, and a determination of the authenticity and due execution Section 7. The President-elect and the Vice
resident of the Philippines for at least ten years thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the President-elect shall assume office at the beginning
of their terms. have been elected and qualified, and be subject to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the
the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications Vice-President shall immediately assume the
as the Acting President. powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
If the President-elect fails to qualify, the Vice
President-elect shall act as President until the
President-elect shall have qualified. Section 9. Whenever there is a vacancy in the Thereafter, when the President transmits to the
Office of the Vice-President during the term for President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the
which he was elected, the President shall nominate a House of Representatives his written declaration
If a President shall not have been chosen, the Vice
Vice-President from among the Members of the that no inability exists, he shall reassume the powers
President-elect shall act as President until a
Senate and the House of Representatives who shall and duties of his office. Meanwhile, should a
President shall have been chosen and qualified.
assume office upon confirmation by a majority vote majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit
of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, within five days to the President of the Senate and
If at the beginning of the term of the President, the voting separately. to the Speaker of the House of Representatives,
President-elect shall have died or shall have become their written declaration that the President is unable
permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the
Section 10. The Congress shall, at ten o'clock in the
become President. Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose,
morning of the third day after the vacancy in the
the Congress shall convene, if it is not in session,
offices of the President and Vice-President occurs,
within forty-eight hours, in accordance with its rules
Where no President and Vice-President shall have convene in accordance with its rules without need
and without need of call.
been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both of a call and within seven days, enact a law calling
shall have died or become permanently disabled, the for a special election to elect a President and a Vice-
President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, President to be held not earlier than forty-five days If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall nor later than sixty days from the time of such call. last written declaration, or, if not in session, within
act as President until a President or a Vice-President The bill calling such special election shall be twelve days after it is required to assemble,
shall have been chosen and qualified. deemed certified under paragraph 2, Section 26, determines by a two-thirds vote of both Houses,
Article V1 of this Constitution and shall become voting separately, that the President is unable to
law upon its approval on third reading by the discharge the powers and duties of his office, the
The Congress shall, by law, provide for the manner
Congress. Appropriations for the special election Vice-President shall act as President; otherwise, the
in which one who is to act as President shall be shall be charged against any current appropriations President shall continue exercising the powers and
selected until a President or a Vice-President shall and shall be exempt from the requirements of duties of his office.
have qualified, in case of death, permanent paragraph 4, Section 25, Article V1 of this
disability, or inability of the officials mentioned in Constitution. The convening of the Congress cannot
the next preceding paragraph. Section 12. In case of serious illness of the
be suspended nor the special election postponed. No
President, the public shall be informed of the state
special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs
of his health. The members of the Cabinet in charge
Section 8. In case of death, permanent disability, within eighteen months before the date of the next
of national security and foreign relations and the
removal from office, or resignation of the President, presidential election.
Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the
the Vice-President shall become the President to Philippines, shall not be denied access to the
serve the unexpired term. In case of death, Section 11. Whenever the President transmits to the President during such illness.
permanent disability, removal from office, or
President of the Senate and the Speaker of the
resignation of both the President and Vice- House of Representatives his written declaration
President, the President of the Senate or, in case of Section 13. The President, Vice-President, the
that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties
his inability, the Speaker of the House of Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or
of his office, and until he transmits to them a written
Representatives, shall then act as President until the assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties
President or Vice-President shall have been elected this Constitution, hold any other office or
shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting
and qualified. employment during their tenure. They shall not,
during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice
any other profession, participate in any business, or
The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve Whenever a majority of all the Members of the be financially interested in any contract with, or in
as President in case of death, permanent disability,
Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and any franchise, or special privilege granted by the
or resignation of the Acting President. He shall to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their Government or any subdivision, agency, or
serve until the President or the Vice-President shall written declaration that the President is unable to instrumentality thereof, including government-
owned or controlled corporations or their or until the next adjournment of the Congress. civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor
subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of
interest in the conduct of their office. habeas corpus.
Section 17. The President shall have control of all
the executive departments, bureaus, and offices. He
The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. The suspension of the privilege of the writ of
affinity within the fourth civil degree of the habeas corpus shall apply only to persons judicially
President shall not, during his tenure, be appointed charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in, or
Section 18. The President shall be the Commander-
as Members of the Constitutional Commissions, or directly connected with, invasion.
in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and
the Office of the Ombudsman, or as Secretaries,
whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out
Undersecretaries, chairmen or heads of bureaus or
such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless During the suspension of the privilege of the writ of
offices, including government-owned or controlled
violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion habeas corpus, any person thus arrested or detained
corporations and their subsidiaries.
or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he shall be judicially charged within three days,
may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend otherwise he shall be released.
Section 14. Appointments extended by an Acting the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place
President shall remain effective, unless revoked by the Philippines or any part thereof under martial
Section 19. Except in cases of impeachment, or as
the elected President, within ninety days from his law. Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation
otherwise provided in this Constitution, the
assumption or reassumption of office. of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of
President may grant reprieves, commutations, and
the writ of habeas corpus, the President shall submit
pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after
a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The
Section 15. Two months immediately before the conviction by final judgment.
Congress, voting jointly, by a vote of at least a
next presidential elections and up to the end of his
majority of all its Members in regular or special
term, a President or Acting President shall not make
session, may revoke such proclamation or He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with
appointments, except temporary appointments to
suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of
executive positions when continued vacancies
by the President. Upon the initiative of the the Congress.
therein will prejudice public service or endanger
President, the Congress may, in the same manner,
public safety.
extend such proclamation or suspension for a period
to be determined by the Congress, if the invasion or Section 20. The President may contract or guarantee
rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the
Section 16. The President shall nominate and, with
Philippines with the prior concurrence of the
the consent of the Commission on Appointments,
Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as
appoint the heads of the executive departments,
The Congress, if not in session, shall, within may be provided by law. The Monetary Board shall,
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or
twenty-four hours following such proclamation or within thirty days from the end of every quarter of
officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel
suspension, convene in accordance with its rules the calendar year, submit to the Congress a
or naval captain, and other officers whose
without need of a call. complete report of its decision on applications for
appointments are vested in him in this Constitution.
loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the
He shall also appoint all other officers of the
Government or government-owned and controlled
Government whose appointments are not otherwise The Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate
corporations which would have the effect of
provided for by law, and those whom he may be proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of
increasing the foreign debt, and containing other
authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law
matters as may be provided by law.
law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of
rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the habeas corpus or the extension thereof, and must
heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days Section 21. No treaty or international agreement
boards. from its filing. shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at
least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.
The President shall have the power to make A state of martial law does not suspend the
appointments during the recess of the Congress, operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the Section 22. The President shall submit to the
whether voluntary or compulsory, but such functioning of the civil courts or legislative Congress, within thirty days from the opening of
appointments shall be effective only until assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of every regular session as the basis of the general
disapproved by the Commission on Appointments jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over appropriations bill, a budget of expenditures and
sources of financing, including receipts from vacancy shall be filled within ninety days from the regulation is in question.
existing and proposed revenue measures. occurrence thereof. (b) All cases involving the
legality of any tax, impost,
assessment, or toll, or any
Section 23. The President shall address the (2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a
penalty imposed in relation
Congress at the opening of its regular session. He treaty, international or executive agreement, or law,
may also appear before it at any other time. which shall be heard by the Supreme Court en banc,
(c) All cases in which the
and all other cases which under the Rules of Court
jurisdiction of any lower
are required to be heard en banc, including those
court is in issue.
involving the constitutionality, application, or
ARTICLE VIII (d) All criminal cases in
operation of presidential decrees, proclamations,
which the penalty imposed is
orders, instructions, ordinances, and other
reclusion perpetua or higher.
JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT regulations, shall be decided with the concurrence
(e) All cases in which only an
of a majority of the Members who actually took part
error or question of law is
in the deliberations on the issues in the case and
Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in one involved.
voted thereon.
Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be (3) Assign temporarily judges of lower
established by law. courts to other stations as public interest
(3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be may require. Such temporary assignment
decided or resolved with the concurrence of a shall not exceed six months without the
Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of majority of the Members who actually took part in consent of the judge concerned.
justice to settle actual controversies involving rights (4) Order a change of venue or place of
the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted
which are legally demandable and enforceable, and thereon, and in no case without the concurrence of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice.
to determine whether or not there has been a grave at least three of such Members. When the required (5) Promulgate rules concerning the
abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of protection and enforcement of
number is not obtained, the case shall be decided en
jurisdiction on the part of any branch or banc: Provided, that no doctrine or principle of law constitutional rights, pleading, practice,
instrumentality of the Government. laid down by the court in a decision rendered en and procedure in all courts, the
banc or in division may be modified or reversed admission to the practice of law, the
Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to except by the court sitting en banc. integrated bar, and legal assistance to the
define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of under-privileged. Such rules shall
the various courts but may not deprive the Supreme provide a simplified and inexpensive
Section 5. The Supreme Court shall have the procedure for the speedy disposition of
Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in following powers:
Section 5 hereof. cases, shall be uniform for all courts of
the same grade, and shall not diminish,
1) Exercise original jurisdiction over increase, or modify substantive rights.
No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary cases affecting ambassadors, other Rules of procedure of special courts and
when it undermines the security of tenure of its public ministers and consuls, and over quasi-judicial bodies shall remain
Members. petitions for certiorari, prohibition, effective unless disapproved by the
mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas Supreme Court.
Section 3. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal corpus. (6) Appoint all officials and employees
autonomy. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not (2) Review, revise, reverse, modify, or of the Judiciary in accordance with the
be reduced by the legislature below the amount affirm on appeal or certiorari, as the law Civil Service Law.
appropriated for the previous year and, after or the Rules of Court may provide, final Section 6. The Supreme Court shall have
approval, shall be automatically and regularly judgments and orders of lower courts in: administrative supervision over all courts and the
released. (a) All cases in which the personnel thereof.
constitutionality or validity of
any treaty, international or
Section 4. (1) The Supreme Court shall be Section 7. (1) No person shall be appointed Member
executive agreement, law, of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court
composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate presidential decree,
Justices. It may sit en banc or in its discretion, in unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines.
proclamation, order,
division of three, five, or seven Members. Any A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least
instruction, ordinance, or
forty years of age, and must have been for fifteen Section 9. The Members of the Supreme Court and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based.
years or more, a judge of a lower court or engaged judges of the lower courts shall be appointed by the
in the practice of law in the Philippines. President from a list of at least three nominees
No petition for review or motion for reconsideration
prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every
of a decision of the court shall be refused due
vacancy. Such appointments need no confirmation.
(2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications course or denied without stating the legal basis
of judges of lower courts, but no person may be therefor.
appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the For the lower courts, the President shall issue the
Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar. appointments within ninety days from the
Section 15. (1) All cases or matters filed after the
submission of the list.
effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or
(3) A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of resolved within twenty-four months from date of
proven competence, integrity, probity, and Section 10. The salary of the Chief Justice and of submission for the Supreme Court, and, unless
independence. the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and of reduced by the Supreme Court, twelve months for
judges of lower courts, shall be fixed by law. all lower collegiate courts, and three months for all
During their continuance in office, their salary shall other lower courts.
Section 8. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby
not be decreased.
created under the supervision of the Supreme Court
composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio (2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for
Chairman, the Secretary of Justice, and a Section 11. The Members of the Supreme Court and decision or resolution upon the filing of the last
representative of the Congress as ex officio judges of lower courts shall hold office during good pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the
Members, a representative of the Integrated Bar, a behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or Rules of Court or by the court itself.
professor of law, a retired Member of the Supreme become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their
Court, and a representative of the private sector. office. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the
(3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period,
power to discipline judges of lower courts, or order
a certification to this effect signed by the Chief
their dismissal by a vote of a majority of the
(2) The regular members of the Council shall be Justice or the presiding judge shall forthwith be
Members who actually took part in the deliberations
appointed by the President for a term of four years issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of
on the issues in the case and voted thereon.
with the consent of the Commission on the case or matter, and served upon the parties. The
Appointments. Of the Members first appointed, the certification shall state why a decision or resolution
representative of the Integrated Bar shall serve for Section 12. The Members of the Supreme Court and has not been rendered or issued within said period.
four years, the professor of law for three years, the of other courts established by law shall not be
retired Justice for two years, and the representative designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial
(4) Despite the expiration of the applicable
of the private sector for one year. or administrative functions.
mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to
such responsibility as may have been incurred in
(3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Section 13. The conclusions of the Supreme Court consequence thereof, shall decide or resolve the
Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in case or matter submitted thereto for determination,
record of its proceedings. division shall be reached in consultation before the without further delay.
case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the
opinion of the Court. A certification to this effect
(4) The regular Members of the Council shall Section 16. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty
signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a
receive such emoluments as may be determined by days from the opening of each regular session of the
copy thereof attached to the record of the case and
the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall Congress, submit to the President and the Congress
served upon the parties. Any Members who took no
provide in its annual budget the appropriations for an annual report on the operations and activities of
part, or dissented, or abstained from a decision or
the Council. the Judiciary.
resolution, must state the reason therefor. The same
requirements shall be observed by all lower
(5) The Council shall have the principal function of collegiate courts.
recommending appointees to the Judiciary. It may ARTICLE IX
exercise such other functions and duties as the
Section 14. No decision shall be rendered by any
Supreme Court may assign to it.
court without expressing therein clearly and
A. COMMON PROVISIONS otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, (3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall
any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission be removed or suspended except for cause provided
may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by law.
Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions, which
by the aggrieved party within thirty days from
shall be independent, are the Civil Service
receipt of a copy thereof.
Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the (4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall
Commission on Audit. engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering
Section 8. Each Commission shall perform such or partisan political campaign.
other functions as may be provided by law.
Section 2. No member of a Constitutional
Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other (5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied
office or employment. Neither shall he engage in B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION to government employees.
the practice of any profession or in the active
management or control of any business which, in
Section 1. (1) The civil service shall be (6) Temporary employees of the Government shall
any way, may be affected by the functions of his
administered by the Civil Service Commission be given such protection as may be provided by
office, nor shall he be financially interested, directly
composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners law.
or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any
who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines
franchise or privilege granted by the Government,
and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-
any of its subdivisions, agencies, or Section 3. The Civil Service Commission, as the
five years of age, with proven capacity for public
instrumentalities, including government-owned or central personnel agency of the Government, shall
administration, and must not have been candidates
controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. establish a career service and adopt measures to
for any elective position in the elections
promote morale, efficiency, integrity,
immediately preceding their appointment.
responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the
Section. 3. The salary of the Chairman and the
civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and
Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be rewards system, integrate all human resources
be decreased during their tenure.
appointed by the President with the consent of the development programs for all levels and ranks, and
Commission on Appointments for a term of seven institutionalize a management climate conducive to
Section 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall years without reappointment. Of those first public accountability. It shall submit to the
appoint their officials and employees in accordance appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven President and the Congress an annual report on its
with law. years, a Commissioner for five years, and another personnel programs.
Commissioner for three years, without
reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall
Section 5. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal Section 4. All public officers and employees shall
be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor.
autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend
In no case shall any Member be appointed or
shall be automatically and regularly released. this Constitution.
designated in a temporary or acting capacity.

Section 6. Each Commission en banc may Section 5. The Congress shall provide for the
Section 2. (1) The civil service embraces all
promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and standardization of compensation of government
branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and
practice before it or before any of its offices. Such officials and employees, including those in
agencies of the Government, including government-
rules, however, shall not diminish, increase, or government-owned or controlled corporations with
owned or controlled corporations with original
modify substantive rights. original charters, taking into account the nature of
the responsibilities pertaining to, and the
qualifications required for, their positions.
Section 7. Each Commission shall decide by a
(2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made
majority vote of all its Members, any case or matter
only according to merit and fitness to be
brought before it within sixty days from the date of Section 6. No candidate who has lost in any election
determined, as far as practicable, and, except to
its submission for decision or resolution. A case or shall, within one year after such election, be
positions which are policy-determining, primarily
matter is deemed submitted for decision or appointed to any office in the Government or any
confidential, or highly technical, by competitive
resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, Government-owned or controlled corporations or in
or memorandum required by the rules of the any of their subsidiaries.
Commission or by the Commission itself. Unless
Section 7. No elective official shall be eligible for designated in a temporary or acting capacity. requirements, must present their
appointment or designation in any capacity to any platform or program of government; and
public office or position during his tenure. accredit citizens' arms of the
Sec. 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise
Commission on Elections. Religious
the following powers and functions:
denominations and sects shall not be
Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary
registered. Those which seek to achieve
functions of his position, no appointive official shall
(1) Enforce and administer all laws and their goals through violence or unlawful
hold any other office or employment in the
regulations relative to the conduct of an means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to
Government or any subdivision, agency or
election, plebiscite, initiative, this Constitution, or which are supported
instrumentality thereof, including Government-
referendum, and recall. by any foreign government shall
owned or controlled corporations or their
likewise be refused registration.
(2) Exercise exclusive original
jurisdiction over all contests relating to Financial contributions from foreign
Section 8. No elective or appointive public officer
the elections, returns, and qualifications governments and their agencies to
or employee shall receive additional, double, or
of all elective regional, provincial, and political parties, organizations,
indirect compensation, unless specifically
city officials, and appellate jurisdiction coalitions, or candidates related to
authorized by law, nor accept without the consent of
over all contests involving elective elections, constitute interference in
the Congress, any present, emolument, office, or
municipal officials decided by trial national affairs, and, when accepted,
title of any kind from any foreign government.
courts of general jurisdiction, or shall be an additional ground for the
involving elective barangay officials cancellation of their registration with the
Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as decided by trial courts of limited Commission, in addition to other
additional, double, or indirect compensation. jurisdiction. penalties that may be prescribed by law.

C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the (6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on
Commission on election contests its own initiative, petitions in court for
involving elective municipal and inclusion or exclusion of voters;
Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on investigate and, where appropriate,
barangay offices shall be final,
Elections composed of a Chairman and six prosecute cases of violations of election
executory, and not appealable.
Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens laws, including acts or omissions
of the Philippines and, at the time of their constituting election frauds, offenses,
appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, (3) Decide, except those involving the and malpractices.
holders of a college degree, and must not have been right to vote, all questions affecting
candidates for any elective positions in the elections, including determination of the
immediately preceding elections. However, a number and location of polling places, (7) Recommend to the Congress
majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be appointment of election officials and effective measures to minimize election
members of the Philippine Bar who have been inspectors, and registration of voters. spending, including limitation of places
engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. where propaganda materials shall be
posted, and to prevent and penalize all
(4) Deputize, with the concurrence of the forms of election frauds, offenses,
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be President, law enforcement agencies and malpractices, and nuisance candidacies.
appointed by the President with the consent of the instrumentalities of the Government,
Commission on Appointments for a term of seven including the Armed Forces of the
years without reappointment. Of those first Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of (8) Recommend to the President the
appointed, three Members shall hold office for ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, removal of any officer or employee it
seven years, two Members for five years, and the and credible elections. has deputized, or the imposition of any
last Members for three years, without other disciplinary action, for violation or
reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall disregard of, or disobedience to, its
(5) Register, after sufficient publication,
be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. directive, order, or decision.
political parties, organizations, or
In no case shall any Member be appointed or
coalitions which, in addition to other
(9) Submit to the President and the shall not be represented in the voters' registration be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the
Congress, a comprehensive report on the boards, boards of election inspectors, boards of predecessor. In no case shall any Member be
conduct of each election, plebiscite, canvassers, or other similar bodies. However, they appointed or designated in a temporary or acting
initiative, referendum, or recall. shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in capacity.
accordance with law.
Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en Section 2. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have
banc or in two divisions, and shall promulgate its Section 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit,
rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition Commission in special cases, the election period and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and
of election cases, including pre- proclamation shall commence ninety days before the day of receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and
controversies. All such election cases shall be heard election and shall end thirty days thereafter. property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to,
and decided in division, provided that motions for the Government, or any of its subdivisions,
reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the agencies, or instrumentalities, including
Section 10. Bona fide candidates for any public
Commission en banc. government-owned or controlled corporations with
office shall be free from any form of harassment
original charters, and on a post- audit basis: (a)
and discrimination.
constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that
Section 4. The Commission may, during the
have been granted fiscal autonomy under this
election period, supervise or regulate the enjoyment
Section 11. Funds certified by the Commission as Constitution; (b) autonomous state colleges and
or utilization of all franchises or permits for the
necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular universities; (c) other government-owned or
operation of transportation and other public utilities,
and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; and
media of communication or information, all grants,
referenda, and recalls, shall be provided in the (d) such non-governmental entities receiving
special privileges, or concessions granted by the
regular or special appropriations and, once subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or
Government or any subdivision, agency, or
approved, shall be released automatically upon through the Government, which are required by law
instrumentality thereof, including any government-
certification by the Chairman of the Commission. or the granting institution to submit to such audit as
owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary.
a condition of subsidy or equity. However, where
Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure
the internal control system of the audited agencies is
equal opportunity, and equal rates therefor, for D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT inadequate, the Commission may adopt such
public information campaigns and forums among
measures, including temporary or special pre-audit,
candidates in connection with the objective of
Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on as are necessary and appropriate to correct the
holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible
Audit composed of a Chairman and two deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of
Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens the Government and, for such period as may be
of the Philippines and, at the time of their provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other
Section 5. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, supporting papers pertaining thereto.
suspension of sentence for violation of election Certified Public Accountants with not less than ten
laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the years of auditing experience, or members of the
(2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority,
President without the favorable recommendation of Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the subject to the limitations in this Article, to define
the Commission. practice of law for at least ten years, and must not the scope of its audit and examination, establish the
have been candidates for any elective position in the
techniques and methods required therefor, and
elections immediately preceding their appointment. promulgate accounting and auditing rules and
Section 6. A free and open party system shall be
At no time shall all Members of the Commission regulations, including those for the prevention and
allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the
belong to the same profession.
people, subject to the provisions of this Article. disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive,
extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures or uses
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be of government funds and properties.
Section 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party,
appointed by the President with the consent of the
organization, or coalition shall be valid, except for
Commission on Appointments for a term of seven Section 3. No law shall be passed exempting any
those registered under the party-list system as
years without reappointment. Of those first entity of the Government or its subsidiaries in any
provided in this Constitution.
appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven
guise whatever, or any investment of public funds,
years, one Commissioner for five years, and the from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit.
Section 8. Political parties, or organizations or other Commissioner for three years, without
coalitions registered under the party-list system, reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall
Section 4. The Commission shall submit to the barangays, shall ensure that the acts of their to a plebiscite as set forth in Section 10 hereof. The
President and the Congress, within the time fixed by component units are within the scope of their component cities and municipalities shall retain
law, an annual report covering the financial prescribed powers and functions. their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their
condition and operation of the Government, its own local executive and legislative assemblies. The
subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority that will
Section 5. Each local government unit shall have the
including government-owned or controlled thereby be created shall be limited to basic services
power to create its own sources of revenues and to
corporations, and non-governmental entities subject requiring coordination.
levy taxes, fees and charges subject to such
to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to
guidelines and limitations as the Congress may
improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall
provide, consistent with the basic policy of local Section 12. Cities that are highly urbanized, as
submit such other reports as may be required by
autonomy. Such taxes, fees, and charges shall determined by law, and component cities whose
accrue exclusively to the local governments. charters prohibit their voters from voting for
provincial elective officials, shall be independent of
the province. The voters of component cities within
Section 6. Local government units shall have a just
ARTICLE X a province, whose charters contain no such
share, as determined by law, in the national taxes
prohibition, shall not be deprived of their right to
which shall be automatically released to them.
vote for elective provincial officials.
Section 7. Local governments shall be entitled to an
Section 13. Local government units may group
GENERAL PROVISIONS equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and
themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts,
development of the national wealth within their
services, and resources for purposes commonly
respective areas, in the manner provided by law,
Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions beneficial to them in accordance with law.
including sharing the same with the inhabitants by
of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces,
way of direct benefits.
cities, municipalities, and barangays. There shall be
Section 14. The President shall provide for regional
autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the
development councils or other similar bodies
Cordilleras as hereinafter provided. Section 8. The term of office of elective local
composed of local government officials, regional
officials, except barangay officials, which shall be
heads of departments and other government offices,
determined by law, shall be three years and no such
Section 2. The territorial and political subdivisions and representatives from non-governmental
official shall serve for more than three consecutive
shall enjoy local autonomy. organizations within the regions for purposes of
terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any
administrative decentralization to strengthen the
length of time shall not be considered as an
autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the
Section 3. The Congress shall enact a local interruption in the continuity of his service for the
economic and social growth and development of the
government code which shall provide for a more full term for which he was elected.
units in the region.
responsive and accountable local government
structure instituted through a system of
Section 9. Legislative bodies of local governments
decentralization with effective mechanisms of AUTONOMOUS REGIONS
shall have sectoral representation as may be
recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among
prescribed by law.
the different local government units their powers,
Section 15. There shall be created autonomous
responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the
regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras
qualifications, election, appointment and removal, Section 10. No province, city, municipality, or
consisting of provinces, cities, municipalities, and
term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of barangay may be created, divided, merged,
geographical areas sharing common and distinctive
local officials, and all other matters relating to the abolished, or its boundary substantially altered,
historical and cultural heritage, economic and social
organization and operation of the local units. except in accordance with the criteria established in
structures, and other relevant characteristics within
the local government code and subject to approval
the framework of this Constitution and the national
by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the
Section 4. The President of the Philippines shall sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the
political units directly affected.
exercise general supervision over local Republic of the Philippines.
governments. Provinces with respect to component
cities and municipalities, and cities and Section 11. The Congress may, by law, create
Section 16. The President shall exercise general
municipalities with respect to component special metropolitan political subdivisions, subject
supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that
laws are faithfully executed. (7) Educational policies; all its Members, shall submit its report to the House
(8) Preservation and development of the cultural within sixty session days from such referral,
heritage; and together with the corresponding resolution. The
Section 17. All powers, functions, and
(9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law resolution shall be calendared for consideration by
responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or
for the promotion of the general welfare of the the House within ten session days from receipt
by law to the autonomous regions shall be vested in
people of the region. thereof.
the National Government.
Section 21. The preservation of peace and order
within the regions shall be the responsibility of the
(3) A vote of at least one-third of all the Members
Section 18. The Congress shall enact an organic act local police agencies which shall be organized,
of the House shall be necessary either to affirm a
for each autonomous region with the assistance and maintained, supervised, and utilized in accordance
favorable resolution with the Articles of
participation of the regional consultative with applicable laws. The defense and security of
Impeachment of the Committee, or override its
commission composed of representatives appointed the regions shall be the responsibility of the
contrary resolution. The vote of each Member shall
by the President from a list of nominees from multi- National Government.
be recorded.
sectoral bodies. The organic act shall define the
basic structure of government for the region
consisting of the executive department and (4) In case the verified complaint or resolution of
legislative assembly, both of which shall be elective impeachment is filed by at least one-third of all the
and representative of the constituent political units. ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Members of the House, the same shall constitute the
The organic acts shall likewise provide for special Articles of Impeachment, and trial by the Senate
courts with personal, family, and property law shall forthwith proceed.
Section 1. Public office is a public trust. Public
jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this
officers and employees must, at all times, be
Constitution and national laws.
accountable to the people, serve them with utmost (5) No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated
responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency; act against the same official more than once within a
The creation of the autonomous region shall be with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives. period of one year.
effective when approved by majority of the votes
cast by the constituent units in a plebiscite called for
Section 2. The President, the Vice-President, the (6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try and
the purpose, provided that only provinces, cities,
Members of the Supreme Court, the Members of the decide all cases of impeachment. When sitting for
and geographic areas voting favorably in such
Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman that purpose, the Senators shall be on oath or
plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous
may be removed from office on impeachment for, affirmation. When the President of the Philippines
and conviction of, culpable violation of the is on trial, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, shall preside, but shall not vote. No person shall be
Section 19. The first Congress elected under this other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. All convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of
Constitution shall, within eighteen months from the other public officers and employees may be all the Members of the Senate.
time of organization of both Houses, pass the removed from office as provided by law, but not by
organic acts for the autonomous regions in Muslim impeachment.
(7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not
Mindanao and the Cordilleras.
extend further than removal from office and
Section 3. (1) The House of Representatives shall disqualification to hold any office under the
Section 20. Within its territorial jurisdiction and have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of Republic of the Philippines, but the party convicted
subject to the provisions of this Constitution and impeachment. shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
national laws, the organic act of autonomous prosecution, trial, and punishment, according to
regions shall provide for legislative powers over: law.
(2) A verified complaint for impeachment may be
filed by any Member of the House of
(1) Administrative organization; Representatives or by any citizen upon a resolution (8) The Congress shall promulgate its rules on
(2) Creation of sources of revenues; or endorsement by any Member thereof, which shall impeachment to effectively carry out the purpose of
(3) Ancestral domain and natural resources; be included in the Order of Business within ten this section.
(4) Personal, family, and property relations; session days, and referred to the proper Committee
(5) Regional urban and rural planning development; within three session days thereafter. The
Section 4. The present anti-graft court known as the
(6) Economic, social, and tourism development; Committee, after hearing, and by a majority vote of
Sandiganbayan shall continue to function and three months after they occur. appropriate action against a public
exercise its jurisdiction as now or hereafter may be official or employee at fault, and
provided by law. recommend his removal, suspension,
Section 10. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall
demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution,
have the rank of Chairman and Members,
and ensure compliance therewith.
Section 5. There is hereby created the independent respectively, of the Constitutional Commissions,
Office of the Ombudsman, composed of the and they shall receive the same salary which shall
Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan, one not be decreased during their term of office. (4) Direct the officer concerned, in any
overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for appropriate case, and subject to such
Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. A separate Deputy limitations as may be provided by law,
Section 11. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall
for the military establishment may likewise be to furnish it with copies of documents
serve for a term of seven years without
appointed. relating to contracts or transactions
reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for
entered into by his office involving the
any office in the election immediately succeeding
disbursement or use of public funds or
Section 6. The officials and employees of the Office their cessation from office.
properties, and report any irregularity to
of the Ombudsman, other than the Deputies, shall
the Commission on Audit for appropriate
be appointed by the Ombudsman, according to the
Section 12. The Ombudsman and his Deputies, as action.
Civil Service Law.
protectors of the people, shall act promptly on
complaints filed in any form or manner against
(5) Request any government agency for
Section 7. The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter public officials or employees of the Government, or
assistance and information necessary in
be known as the Office of the Special Prosecutor. It any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof,
the discharge of its responsibilities, and
shall continue to function and exercise its powers as including government-owned or controlled
to examine, if necessary, pertinent
now or hereafter may be provided by law, except corporations, and shall, in appropriate cases, notify
records and documents.
those conferred on the Office of the Ombudsman the complainants of the action taken and the result
created under this Constitution. thereof.
(6) Publicize matters covered by its
investigation when circumstances so
Section 8. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall Section 13. The Office of the Ombudsman shall
warrant and with due prudence.
be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at have the following powers, functions, and duties:
the time of their appointment, at least forty years
old, of recognized probity and independence, and (7) Determine the causes of inefficiency,
(1) Investigate on its own, or on
members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have red tape, mismanagement, fraud, and
complaint by any person, any act or
been candidates for any elective office in the corruption in the Government and make
omission of any public official,
immediately preceding election. The Ombudsman recommendations for their elimination
employee, office or agency, when such
must have, for ten years or more, been a judge or and the observance of high standards of
act or omission appears to be illegal,
engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. ethics and efficiency.
unjust, improper, or inefficient.

During their tenure, they shall be subject to the (8) Promulgate its rules of procedure and
(2) Direct, upon complaint or at its own
same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided exercise such other powers or perform
instance, any public official or employee
for in Section 2 of Article 1X-A of this such functions or duties as may be
of the Government, or any subdivision,
Constitution. provided by law.
agency or instrumentality thereof, as
well as of any government-owned or
Section 9. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall controlled corporation with original Section 14. The Office of the Ombudsman shall
be appointed by the President from a list of at least charter, to perform and expedite any act enjoy fiscal autonomy. Its approved annual
six nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar or duty required by law, or to stop, appropriations shall be automatically and regularly
Council, and from a list of three nominees for every prevent, and correct any abuse or released.
vacancy thereafter. Such appointments shall require impropriety in the performance of duties.
no confirmation. All vacancies shall be filled within
Section 15. The right of the State to recover
(3) Direct the officer concerned to take properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or
employees, from them or from their nominees or as well as cooperative fish farming, with priority to
transferees, shall not be barred by prescription, subsistence fishermen and fish- workers in rivers,
The State shall promote industrialization and full
laches, or estoppel. lakes, bays, and lagoons.
employment based on sound agricultural
development and agrarian reform, through
Section 16. No loan, guaranty, or other form of industries that make full and efficient use of human The President may enter into agreements with
financial accommodation for any business purpose and natural resources, and which are competitive in foreign-owned corporations involving either
may be granted, directly or indirectly, by any both domestic and foreign markets. However, the technical or financial assistance for large-scale
government-owned or controlled bank or financial State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair exploration, development, and utilization of
institution to the President, the Vice-President, the foreign competition and trade practices. minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils
Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme according to the general terms and conditions
Court, and the Constitutional Commissions, the provided by law, based on real contributions to the
In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the
Ombudsman, or to any firm or entity in which they economic growth and general welfare of the
economy and all regions of the country shall be
have controlling interest, during their tenure. country. In such agreements, the State shall promote
given optimum opportunity to develop. Private
the development and use of local scientific and
enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives,
technical resources.
Section 17. A public officer or employee shall, upon and similar collective organizations, shall be
assumption of office and as often thereafter as may encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership.
be required by law, submit a declaration under oath The President shall notify the Congress of every
of his assets, liabilities, and net worth. In the case of contract entered into in accordance with this
Section 2. All lands of the public domain, waters,
the President, the Vice-President, the Members of provision, within thirty days from its execution.
minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all
the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, the
forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or
Constitutional Commissions and other
timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural Section 3. Lands of the public domain are classified
constitutional offices, and officers of the armed
resources are owned by the State. With the into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands and
forces with general or flag rank, the declaration
exception of agricultural lands, all other natural national parks. Agricultural lands of the public
shall be disclosed to the public in the manner
resources shall not be alienated. The exploration, domain may be further classified by law according
provided by law.
development, and utilization of natural resources to the uses to which they may be devoted. Alienable
shall be under the full control and supervision of the lands of the public domain shall be limited to
Section 18. Public officers and employees owe the State. The State may directly undertake such agricultural lands. Private corporations or
State and this Constitution allegiance at all times activities, or it may enter into co-production, joint associations may not hold such alienable lands of
and any public officer or employee who seeks to venture, or production-sharing agreements with the public domain except by lease, for a period not
change his citizenship or acquire the status of an Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not
immigrant of another country during his tenure shall least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by more than twenty-five years, and not to exceed one
be dealt with by law. such citizens. Such agreements may be for a period thousand hectares in area. Citizens of the
not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not Philippines may lease not more than five hundred
more than twenty-five years, and under such terms hectares, or acquire not more than twelve hectares
and conditions as may be provided by law. In cases thereof, by purchase, homestead, or grant.
of water rights for irrigation, water supply fisheries,
or industrial uses other than the development of
Taking into account the requirements of
NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY water power, beneficial use may be the measure and
conservation, ecology, and development, and
limit of the grant.
subject to the requirements of agrarian reform, the
Section 1. The goals of the national economy are a Congress shall determine, by law, the size of lands
more equitable distribution of opportunities, The State shall protect the nation's marine wealth in of the public domain which may be acquired,
income, and wealth; a sustained increase in the its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive developed, held, or leased and the conditions
amount of goods and services produced by the economic zone, and reserve its use and enjoyment therefor.
nation for the benefit of the people; and an exclusively to Filipino citizens.
expanding productivity as the key to raising the
Section 4. The Congress shall, as soon as possible,
quality of life for all, especially the under-
The Congress may, by law, allow small-scale determine, by law, the specific limits of forest lands
utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens, and national parks, marking clearly their boundaries
on the ground. Thereafter, such forest lands and coordinated programs and policies for national managing officers of such corporation or
national parks shall be conserved and may not be development. association must be citizens of the Philippines.
increased nor diminished, except by law. The
Congress shall provide for such period as it may
Until the Congress provides otherwise, the National Section 12. The State shall promote the preferential
determine, measures to prohibit logging in
Economic and Development Authority shall use of Filipino labor, domestic materials and locally
endangered forests and watershed areas.
function as the independent planning agency of the produced goods, and adopt measures that help make
government. them competitive.
Section 5. The State, subject to the provisions of
this Constitution and national development policies
Section 10. The Congress shall, upon Section 13. The State shall pursue a trade policy
and programs, shall protect the rights of indigenous
recommendation of the economic and planning that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms
cultural communities to their ancestral lands to
agency, when the national interest dictates, reserve and arrangements of exchange on the basis of
ensure their economic, social, and cultural well-
to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or equality and reciprocity.
associations at least sixty per centum of whose
capital is owned by such citizens, or such higher
Section 14. The sustained development of a
The Congress may provide for the applicability of percentage as Congress may prescribe, certain areas
reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino
customary laws governing property rights or of investments. The Congress shall enact measures
scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers,
relations in determining the ownership and extent of that will encourage the formation and operation of
high-level technical manpower and skilled workers
ancestral domain. enterprises whose capital is wholly owned by
and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the
State. The State shall encourage appropriate
Section 6. The use of property bears a social technology and regulate its transfer for the national
function, and all economic agents shall contribute to In the grant of rights, privileges, and concessions benefit.
the common good. Individuals and private groups, covering the national economy and patrimony, the
including corporations, cooperatives, and similar State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos.
The practice of all professions in the Philippines
collective organizations, shall have the right to own,
shall be limited to Filipino citizens, save in cases
establish, and operate economic enterprises, subject
The State shall regulate and exercise authority over prescribed by law.
to the duty of the State to promote distributive
foreign investments within its national jurisdiction
justice and to intervene when the common good so
and in accordance with its national goals and
demands. Section 15. The Congress shall create an agency to
promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as
instruments for social justice and economic
Section 7. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no
Section 11. No franchise, certificate, or any other development.
private lands shall be transferred or conveyed
form of authorization for the operation of a public
except to individuals, corporations, or associations
utility shall be granted except to citizens of the
qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public Section 16. The Congress shall not, except by
Philippines or to corporations or associations
domain. general law, provide for the formation, organization,
organized under the laws of the Philippines, at least
or regulation of private corporations. Government-
sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such
owned or controlled corporations may be created or
Section 8. Notwithstanding the provisions of citizens; nor shall such franchise, certificate, or
established by special charters in the interest of the
Section 7 of this Article, a natural-born citizen of authorization be exclusive in character or for a
common good and subject to the test of economic
the Philippines who has lost his Philippine longer period than fifty years. Neither shall any
citizenship may be a transferee of private lands, such franchise or right be granted except under the
subject to limitations provided by law. condition that it shall be subject to amendment,
alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the Section 17. In times of national emergency, when
common good so requires. The State shall the public interest so requires, the State may, during
Section 9. The Congress may establish an
encourage equity participation in public utilities by the emergency and under reasonable terms
independent economic and planning agency headed
the general public. The participation of foreign prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the
by the President, which shall, after consultations
investors in the governing body of any public utility operation of any privately-owned public utility or
with the appropriate public agencies, various private
enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate business affected with public interest.
sectors, and local government units, recommend to
share in its capital, and all the executive and
Congress, and implement continuing integrated and
Section 18. The State may, in the interest of national SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to
welfare or defense, establish and operate vital investments, and to expansion and growth.
industries and, upon payment of just compensation,
Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority
transfer to public ownership utilities and other
to the enactment of measures that protect and
private enterprises to be operated by the
enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, AGRARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES
reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, REFORM
and remove cultural inequities by equitably
Section 19. The State shall regulate or prohibit diffusing wealth and political power for the
Section 4. The State shall, by law, undertake an
monopolies when the public interest so requires. No common good.
agrarian reform program founded on the right of
combinations in restraint of trade or unfair
farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless,
competition shall be allowed.
To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or,
ownership, use, and disposition of property and its in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just
Section 20. The Congress shall establish an increments. share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State
independent central monetary authority, the shall encourage and undertake the just distribution
members of whose governing board must be of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities
Section 2. The promotion of social justice shall
natural-born Filipino citizens, of known probity, and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may
include the commitment to create economic
integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall prescribe, taking into account ecological,
opportunities based on freedom of initiative and
come from the private sector. They shall also be developmental, or equity considerations, and subject
subject to such other qualifications and disabilities to the payment of just compensation. In determining
as may be prescribed by law. The authority shall retention limits, the State shall respect the right of
provide policy direction in the areas of money, small landowners. The State shall further provide
banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over LABOR incentives for voluntary land-sharing.
the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory
powers as may be provided by law over the
Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to Section 5. The State shall recognize the right of
operations of finance companies and other
labor, local and overseas, organized and farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as
institutions performing similar functions.
unorganized, and promote full employment and cooperatives, and other independent farmers'
equality of employment opportunities for all. organizations to participate in the planning,
Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central organization, and management of the program, and
Bank of the Philippines operating under existing shall provide support to agriculture through
laws, shall function as the central monetary It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self- appropriate technology and research, and adequate
authority. organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, financial, production, marketing, and other support
and peaceful concerted activities, including the right services.
to strike in accordance with law. They shall be
Section 21. Foreign loans may only be incurred in entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of
accordance with law and the regulation of the work, and a living wage. They shall also participate Section 6. The State shall apply the principles of
monetary authority. Information on foreign loans in policy and decision-making processes affecting agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever
obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition
made available to the public. or utilization of other natural resources, including
lands of the public domain under lease or
The State shall promote the principle of shared concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior
Section 22. Acts which circumvent or negate any of responsibility between workers and employers and
rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the
the provisions of this Article shall be considered the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral
inimical to the national interest and subject to disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce lands.
criminal and civil sanctions, as may be provided by their mutual compliance therewith to foster
law. industrial peace.
The State may resettle landless farmers and
farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which
ARTICLE XIII The State shall regulate the relations between
shall be distributed to them in the manner provided
workers and employers, recognizing the right of
labor to its just share in the fruits of production and
by law. public interest and with identifiable leadership,
membership, and structure.
Section 7. The State shall protect the rights of
subsistence fishermen, especially of local Section 16. The right of the people and their
Section 11. The State shall adopt an integrated and
communities, to the preferential use of the organizations to effective and reasonable
comprehensive approach to health development
communal marine and fishing resources, both inland participation at all levels of social, political, and
which shall endeavor to make essential goods,
and offshore. It shall provide support to such economic decision-making shall not be abridged.
health and other social services available to all the
fishermen through appropriate technology and The State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment
people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for
research, adequate financial, production, and of adequate consultation mechanisms.
the needs of the under-privileged, sick, elderly,
marketing assistance, and other services. The State
disabled, women, and children. The State shall
shall also protect, develop, and conserve such
endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers.
resources. The protection shall extend to offshore
fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against
foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall receive a just Section 12. The State shall establish and maintain
share from their labor in the utilization of marine an effective food and drug regulatory system and Section 17. (1) There is hereby created an
and fishing resources. undertake appropriate health, manpower independent office called the Commission on
development, and research, responsive to the Human Rights.
country's health needs and problems.
Section 8. The State shall provide incentives to
landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian (2) The Commission shall be composed of a
reform program to promote industrialization, Section 13. The State shall establish a special Chairman and four Members who must be natural-
employment creation, and privatization of public agency for disabled person for their rehabilitation, born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of
sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as self-development, and self-reliance, and their whom shall be members of the Bar. The term of
payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in integration into the mainstream of society. office and other qualifications and disabilities of the
enterprises of their choice. Members of the Commission shall be provided by
(3) Until this Commission is constituted, the
existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights
Section 9. The State shall, by law, and for the Section 14. The State shall protect working women
shall continue to exercise its present functions and
common good, undertake, in cooperation with the by providing safe and healthful working conditions,
private sector, a continuing program of urban land taking into account their maternal functions, and
reform and housing which will make available at such facilities and opportunities that will enhance
affordable cost, decent housing and basic services to their welfare and enable them to realize their full (4) The approved annual appropriations of the
under-privileged and homeless citizens in urban potential in the service of the nation. Commission shall be automatically and regularly
centers and resettlement areas. It shall also promote released.
adequate employment opportunities to such citizens.
In the implementation of such program the State
ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLE'S Section 18. The Commission on Human Rights
shall respect the rights of small property owners.
ORGANIZATIONS shall have the following powers and functions:

Section 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not

Section 15. The State shall respect the role of (1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any
be evicted nor their dwelling demolished, except in
accordance with law and in a just and humane independent people's organizations to enable the party, all forms of human rights violations involving
manner. people to pursue and protect, within the democratic civil and political rights;
framework, their legitimate and collective interests
and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means.
No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be (2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of
undertaken without adequate consultation with them procedure, and cite for contempt for violations
People's organizations are bona fide associations of thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court;
and the communities where they are to be relocated.
citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the
(3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the curricula.
protection of human rights of all persons within the
Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad,
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism,
and provide for preventive measures and legal aid
foster love of humanity, respect for human rights,
services to the under-privileged whose human rights EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND
appreciation of the role of national heroes in the
have been violated or need protection; TECHNOLOGY, ARTS,
historical development of the country, teach the
rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical
(4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or and spiritual values, develop moral character and
detention facilities; EDUCATION personal discipline, encourage critical and creative
thinking, broaden scientific and technological
knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
(5) Establish a continuing program of research, Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the
education, and information to enhance respect for right of all citizens to quality education at all levels,
the primacy of human rights; and shall take appropriate steps to make such (3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents
education accessible to all. or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught
to their children or wards in public elementary and
(6) Recommend to Congress effective measures to
high schools within the regular class hours by
promote human rights and to provide for Section 2. The State shall:
instructors designated or approved by the religious
compensation to victims of violations of human
authorities of the religion to which the children or
rights, or their families;
(1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, wards belong, without additional cost to the
adequate, and integrated system of education Government.
(7) Monitor the Philippine Government's relevant to the needs of the people and society;
compliance with international treaty obligations on
Section 4.(1) The State recognizes the
human rights;
(2) Establish and maintain, a system of free public complementary roles of public and private
education in the elementary and high school levels. institutions in the educational system and shall
(8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all
whose testimony or whose possession of documents their children, elementary education is compulsory educational institutions.
or other evidence is necessary or convenient to for all children of school age;
determine the truth in any investigation conducted
(2) Educational institutions, other than those
by it or under its authority;
(3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship established by religious groups and mission boards,
grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines
(9) Request the assistance of any department, incentives which shall be available to deserving or corporations or associations at least sixty per
bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its students in both public and private schools, centum of the capital of which is owned by such
functions; especially to the under-privileged; citizens. The Congress may, however, require
increased Filipino equity participation in all
educational institutions.
(10) Appoint its officers and employees in (4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous
accordance with law; and learning systems, as well as self-learning,
independent, and out-of-school study programs The control and administration of educational
particularly those that respond to community needs; institutions shall be vested in citizens of the
(11) Perform such other duties and functions as may Philippines.
be provided by law.

(5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of- No educational institution shall be established
Section 19. The Congress may provide for other exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall
school youth with training in civics, vocational
cases of violations of human rights that should fall
efficiency, and other skills. comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in
within the authority of the Commission, taking into any school. The provisions of this subsection shall
account its recommendations. not apply to schools established for foreign
Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall diplomatic personnel and their dependents and,
include the study of the Constitution as part of the unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign
temporary residents. ARTS AND CULTURE may deem appropriate, the Government shall take
steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a
medium of official communication and as language
(3) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit Section 14. The State shall foster the preservation, of instruction in the educational system.
educational institutions used actually, directly, and enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino
exclusively for educational purposes shall be national culture based on the principle of unity in
exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual Section 7. For purposes of communication and
or cessation of the corporate existence of such expression. instruction, the official languages of the Philippines
institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law,
manner provided by law. English.
Section 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the
patronage of the State. The State shall conserve,
Proprietary educational institutions, including those promote, and popularize the nation's historical and The regional languages are the auxiliary official
cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary
such exemptions, subject to the limitations provided creations. media of instruction therein.
by law, including restrictions on dividends and
provisions for reinvestment.
Section 16. All the country's artistic and historic Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a
wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation voluntary and optional basis.
(4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all and shall be under the protection of the State which
grants, endowments, donations, or contributions may regulate its disposition. Section 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in
used actually, directly, and exclusively for
Filipino and English and shall be translated into
educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
Section 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish.
protect the rights of indigenous cultural
Section 5. (1) the State shall take into account communities to preserve and develop their cultures, Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national
regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these language commission composed of representatives
encourage local planning in the development of rights in the formulation of national plans and of various regions and disciplines which shall
educational policies and programs. policies. undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for
the development, propagation, and preservation of
(2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all Section 18. (1) The State shall ensure equal access Filipino and other languages.
institutions of higher learning. to cultural opportunities through the educational
system, public or private cultural entities,
(3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or scholarships, grants and other incentives, and SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and community cultural centers, and other public
equitable admission and academic requirements. venues.
Section 10. Science and technology are essential for
national development and progress. The State shall
(4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to (2) The State shall encourage and support give priority to research and development,
professional advancement. Non-teaching academic researches and studies on the arts and culture. invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to
and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the science and technology education, training, and
protection of the State. services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate,
LANGUAGE and self-reliant scientific and technological
capabilities, and their application to the country's
(5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary
productive systems and national life.
priority to education and ensure that teaching will Section 6. The national language of the Philippines
attract and retain its rightful share of the best is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further
available talents through adequate remuneration and developed and enriched on the basis of existing Section 11. The Congress may provide for
other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment. Philippine and other languages. incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage
private participation in programs of basic and
applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in-
Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to
deserving science students, researchers, scientists, be protected by the State. shall undergo military training and serve as may be
inventors, technologists, and specially gifted provided by law. It shall keep a regular force
citizens. necessary for the security of the State.
Section 3. The State shall defend:

Section 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and Section 5. (1) All members of the armed forces shall
(1) The right of spouses to found a
promote the adaptation of technology from all take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend
family in accordance with their religious
sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage this Constitution.
convictions and the demands of
the widest participation of private groups, local
responsible parenthood;
governments, and community-based organizations
(2) The right of children to assistance, (2) The State shall strengthen the patriotic spirit and
in the generation and utilization of science and
including proper care and nutrition, and nationalist consciousness of the military, and
special protection from all forms of respect for people's rights in the performance of
neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and their duty.
Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the other conditions prejudicial to their
exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and development;
(3) Professionalism in the armed forces and
other gifted citizens to their intellectual property (3) The right of the family to a family
adequate remuneration and benefits of its members
and creations, particularly when beneficial to the living wage and income; and
shall be a prime concern of the State. The armed
people, for such period as may be provided by law. (4) The right of families or family
forces shall be insulated from partisan politics.
associations to participate in the
planning and implementation of policies
and programs that affect them. No member of the military shall engage, directly or
Section 4. The family has the duty to care for its indirectly, in any partisan political activity, except
elderly members but the State may also do so to vote.
Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical through just programs of social security.
education and encourage sports programs, league
(4) No member of the armed forces in the active
competitions, and amateur sports, including training
service shall, at any time, be appointed or
for international competitions, to foster self-
ARTICLE XVI designated in any capacity to a civilian position in
discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the
the Government, including government-owned or
development of a healthy and alert citizenry.
controlled corporations or any of their subsidiaries.
(2) All educational institutions shall undertake
regular sports activities throughout the country in (5) Laws on retirement of military officers shall not
Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red,
cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. allow extension of their service.
white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as
consecrated and honored by the people and
recognized by law. (6) The officers and men of the regular force of the
ARTICLE XV armed forces shall be recruited proportionately from
all provinces and cities as far as practicable.
Section 2. The Congress may, by law, adopt a new
THE FAMILY name for the country, a national anthem, or a
national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and (7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the
symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the armed forces shall not exceed three years. However,
Section 1. The State recognizes the Filipino family
people. Such law shall take effect only upon its in times of war or other national emergency
as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall
ratification by the people in a national referendum. declared by the Congress, the President may extend
strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its
such tour of duty.
total development.
Section 3. The State may not be sued without its
consent. Section 6. The State shall establish and maintain
Section 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social
one police force, which shall be national in scope
institution, is the foundation of the family and shall
and civilian in character, to be administered and
Section 4. The Armed Forces of the Philippines
controlled by a national police commission. The
shall be composed of a citizen armed force which
authority of local executives over the police units in general welfare. Members, submit to the electorate the question of
their jurisdiction shall be provided by law. calling such a convention.
Only Filipino citizens or corporations or
Section 7. The State shall provide immediate and associations at least seventy per centum of the Section 4. Any amendment to, or revision of, this
adequate care, benefits, and other forms of capital of which is owned by such citizens shall be Constitution under Section 1 hereof shall be valid
assistance to war veterans and veterans of military allowed to engage in the advertising industry. when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a
campaigns, their surviving spouses and orphans. plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty
Funds shall be provided therefor and due days nor later than ninety days after the approval of
The participation of foreign investors in the
consideration shall be given them in the disposition such amendment or revision.
governing body of entities in such industry shall be
of agricultural lands of the public domain and, in
limited to their proportionate share in the capital
appropriate cases, in the utilization of natural
thereof, and all the executive and managing officers Any amendment under Section 2 hereof shall be
of such entities must be citizens of the Philippines. valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in
a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty
Section 8. The State shall, from time to time, review days nor later than ninety days after the certification
Section 12. The Congress may create a consultative
to increase the pensions and other benefits due to by the Commission on Elections of the sufficiency
body to advise the President on policies affecting
retirees of both the government and the private of the petition.
indigenous cultural communities, the majority of the
members of which shall come from such
Section 9. The State shall protect consumers from ARTICLE XVIII
trade malpractices and from substandard or
hazardous products.

Section 10. The State shall provide the policy

AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS Section 1. The first elections of Members of the
environment for the full development of Filipino
Congress under this Constitution shall be held on
capability and the emergence of communication
the second Monday of May, 1987.
structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of Section 1. Any amendment to, or revision of, this
the nation and the balanced flow of information Constitution may be proposed by:
into, out of, and across the country, in accordance (1) The Congress, upon a vote of three- The first local elections shall be held on a date to be
with a policy that respects the freedom of speech fourths of all its Members; or determined by the President, which may be
and of the press. (2) A constitutional convention. simultaneous with the election of the Members of
Section 2. Amendments to this Constitution may the Congress. It shall include the election of all
likewise be directly proposed by the people through Members of the city or municipal councils in the
Section 11. (1) The ownership and management of
initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per Metropolitan Manila area.
mass media shall be limited to citizens of the
centum of the total number of registered voters, of
Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or
which every legislative district must be represented
associations, wholly-owned and managed by such Section 2. The Senators, Members of the House of
by at least three per centum of the registered voters
citizens. Representatives, and the local officials first elected
therein. No amendment under this section shall be
under this Constitution shall serve until noon of
authorized within five years following the
June 30, 1992.
The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than
in commercial mass media when the public interest once every five years thereafter.
so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or Of the Senators elected in the elections in 1992, the
unfair competition therein shall be allowed. first twelve obtaining the highest number of votes
The Congress shall provide for the implementation
shall serve for six years and the remaining twelve
of the exercise of this right.
for three years.
(2) The advertising industry is impressed with
public interest, and shall be regulated by law for the
Section 3. The Congress may, by a vote of two-
protection of consumers and the promotion of the Section 3. All existing laws, decrees, executive
thirds of all its Members, call a constitutional
orders, proclamations, letters of instructions, and
convention, or by a majority vote of all its
other executive issuances not inconsistent with this operative unless amended or repealed by the Constitution shall be entitled to appropriate
Constitution shall remain operative until amended, Supreme Court or the Congress. separation pay and to retirement and other benefits
repealed, or revoked. accruing to them under the laws of general
application in force at the time of their separation.
Section 11. The incumbent Members of the
In lieu thereof, at the option of the employees, they
Section 4. All existing treaties or international Judiciary shall continue in office until they reach
may be considered for employment in the
agreements which have not been ratified shall not the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to
Government or in any of its subdivisions,
be renewed or extended without the concurrence of discharge the duties of their office or are removed
instrumentalities, or agencies, including
at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. for cause.
government-owned or controlled corporations and
their subsidiaries. This provision also applies to
Section 5. The six-year term of the incumbent Section 12. The Supreme Court shall, within one career officers whose resignation, tendered in line
President and Vice-President elected in the year after the ratification of this Constitution, adopt with the existing policy, had been accepted.
February 7, 1986 election is, for purposes of a systematic plan to expedite the decision or
synchronization of elections, hereby extended to resolution of cases or matters pending in the
Section 17. Until the Congress provides otherwise,
noon of June 30, 1992. Supreme Court or the lower courts prior to the
the President shall receive an annual salary of three
effectivity of this Constitution. A similar plan shall
hundred thousand pesos; the Vice-President, the
be adopted for all special courts and quasi-judicial
The first regular elections for the President and President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of
Vice-President under this Constitution shall be held Representatives, and the Chief Justice of the
on the second Monday of May, 1992. Supreme Court, two hundred forty thousand pesos
Section 13. The legal effect of the lapse, before the each; the Senators, the Members of the House of
ratification of this Constitution, of the applicable Representatives, the Associate Justices of the
Section 6. The incumbent President shall continue Supreme Court, and the Chairmen of the
period for the decision or resolution of the cases or
to exercise legislative powers until the first
matters submitted for adjudication by the courts, Constitutional Commissions, two hundred four
Congress is convened. thousand pesos each; and the Members of the
shall be determined by the Supreme Court as soon
as practicable. Constitutional Commissions, one hundred eighty
Section 7. Until a law is passed, the President may thousand pesos each.
fill by appointment from a list of nominees by the
Section 14. The provisions of paragraphs (3) and
respective sectors, the seats reserved for sectoral Section 18. At the earliest possible time, the
(4), Section 15 of Article VIII of this Constitution
representation in paragraph (2), Section 5 of Article Government shall increase the salary scales of the
shall apply to cases or matters filed before the
V1 of this Constitution. other officials and employees of the National
ratification of this Constitution, when the applicable
period lapses after such ratification. Government.
Section 8. Until otherwise provided by the
Congress, the President may constitute the Section 19. All properties, records, equipment,
Section 15. The incumbent Members of the Civil
Metropolitan Manila Authority to be composed of buildings, facilities, and other assets of any office or
Service Commission, the Commission on Elections,
the heads of all local government units comprising body abolished or reorganized under Proclamation
and the Commission on Audit shall continue in
the Metropolitan Manila area. No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 or this Constitution
office for one year after the ratification of this
Constitution, unless they are sooner removed for shall be transferred to the office or body to which its
Section 9. A sub-province shall continue to exist cause or become incapacitated to discharge the powers, functions, and responsibilities substantially
and operate until it is converted into a regular duties of their office or appointed to a new term pertain.
province or until its component municipalities are thereunder. In no case shall any Member serve
reverted to the mother province. longer than seven years including service before the
Section 20. The first Congress shall give priority to
ratification of this Constitution.
the determination of the period for the full
Section 10. All courts existing at the time of the implementation of free public secondary education.
ratification of this Constitution shall continue to Section 16. Career civil service employees
exercise their jurisdiction, until otherwise provided separated from the service not for cause but as a
Section 21. The Congress shall provide efficacious
by law. The provisions of the existing Rules of result of the reorganization pursuant to
procedures and adequate remedies for the reversion
Court, judiciary acts, and procedural laws not Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 and the
to the State of all lands of the public domain and
inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain reorganization following the ratification of this
real rights connected therewith which were acquired such period. Napoleon G. Rama
in violation of the Constitution or the public land Floor Leader
laws, or through corrupt practices. No transfer or
A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only
disposition of such lands or real rights shall be
upon showing of a prima facie case. The order and
allowed until after the lapse of one year from the
the list of the sequestered or frozen properties shall
ratification of this Constitution.
forthwith be registered with the proper court. For Ahmad Domocao Alonto
orders issued before the ratification of this Jose D. Calderon
Section 22. At the earliest possible time, the Constitution, the corresponding judicial action or
Government shall expropriate idle or abandoned proceeding shall be filed within six months from its
Assistant Floor Leader
agricultural lands as may be defined by law, for ratification. For those issued after such ratification,
Assistant Floor Leader
distribution to the beneficiaries of the agrarian the judicial action or proceeding shall be
reform program. commenced within six months from the issuance
thereof. Yusuf R. Abubakar
Section 23. Advertising entities affected by
paragraph (2), Section 11 of Article XV1 of this The sequestration or freeze order is deemed Felicitas S. Aquino
Constitution shall have five years from its automatically lifted if no judicial action or
ratification to comply on a graduated and proceeding is commenced as herein provided.
proportionate basis with the minimum Filipino Adolfo S. Azcuna
ownership requirement therein.
Section 27. This Constitution shall take effect
Teodoro C. Bacani
immediately upon its ratification by a majority of
Section 24. Private armies and other armed groups the votes cast in a plebiscite held for the purpose
not recognized by duly constituted authority shall be and shall supersede all previous Constitutions. Jose F. S. Bengzon, Jr.
dismantled. All paramilitary forces including Ponciano L. Bennagen
Civilian Home Defense Forces not consistent with
The foregoing proposed Constitution of the
the citizen armed force established in this
Republic of the Philippines was approved by the Joaquin G. Bernas
Constitution, shall be dissolved or, where
Constitutional Commission of 1986 on the twelfth
appropriate, converted into the regular force.
day of October, Nineteen hundred and eighty-six,
and accordingly signed on the fifteenth day of Florangel Rosario Braid
Section 25. After the expiration in 1991 of the October, Nineteen hundred and eighty-six at the
Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines Plenary Hall, National Government Center, Quezon Crispino M. de Castro
and the United States of America concerning City, by the Commissioners whose signatures are Jose C. Colayco
military bases, foreign military bases, troops, or hereunder affixed.
facilities shall not be allowed in the Philippines
except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Roberto R. Concepcion
Adopted: Hilario G. Davide, Jr.
Senate and, when the Congress so requires, ratified
by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a
national referendum held for that purpose, and Vicente B. Foz
recognized as a treaty by the other contracting State.
Cecilia Munoz Palma Edmundo G. Garcia
Section 26. The authority to issue sequestration or President
freeze orders under Proclamation No. 3 dated
March 25, 1986 in relation to the recovery of ill- Jose Luis Martin C. Gascon
gotten wealth shall remain operative for not more
than eighteen months after the ratification of this Ambrosio B. Padilla
Vice-President Serafin V.C. Guingona
Constitution. However, in the national interest, as
certified by the President, the Congress may extend
Alberto M. K. Jamir
Jose B. Laurel, Jr. Efrain B. Trenas the Railroad Tracks along Dagupan Street, thence
southward to Claro M. Recto Avenue; SE - From
point Claro M. Recto Avenue extending westward
Eulogio R. Lerum Lugum L. Uka
to Manila Bay; W - Manila Bay northward to City
boundary between Manila and Caloocan. Second
Regalado E. Maambong Wilfrido V. Villacorta District: Barangays Nos. 147-267, N - City
boundary between Manila and Caloocan; E - From
end of Rizal Avenue Extension extending
Christian S. Monsod Bernardo M. Villegas southward to Railroad Tracks at Antipolo Street;
from corner Antipolo Street and Rizal Avenue on
Teodulo C. Natividad Attested by : southern side of Railroad Tracks extending
westward to Estero de San Lazaro, southward along
Estero de San Lazaro up to corner of C. M. Recto
Ma. Teresa F. Nieva Avenue westward to bridge spanning Claro M.
Flerida Ruth P. Romero Recto at Estero de la Reina; W - Estero de la Reina
Secretary-General to Estero de Vitas to Estero Sunog Apog to City
Jose N. Nolledo
boundary between Manila and Caloocan; Third
District: Barangays Nos. 268-394, N - City
Blas F. Ople boundary between Manila and Caloocan; E - A.
Bonifacio Street extending southward to
Minda Luz M. Quesada Dimasalang, to Anda-lucia, Claro M. Recto Avenue
eastward to Estero de San Miguel ending at Pasig
ORDINANCE River; S - Mouth of Estero de San Miguel at Pasig
Florenz D. Regalado River, westward to Del Pan Bridge, thence to Del
Pan Street; W - Del Pan Street northward up to
APPORTIONING THE SEATS OF THE Claro M. Recto Extension to Estero de San Lazaro,
Rustico F. de los Reyes, Jr.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE northward to Antipolo Street, eastward to Rizal
CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES TO THE Avenue Extension, northward to boundary between
Cirilo A. Rigos DIFFERENT LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS IN Manila and Caloocan; Fourth District: Barangays
Francisco A. Rodrigo PROVINCES AND CITIES AND THE Nos. 395 - 586 SW - Estero de San Miguel up to
METROPOLITAN MANILA AREA Mendiola Bridge, thence to C. M. Recto Avenue to
Ricardo J. Romulo Quezon Boulevard; W - Quezon Boulevard,
Section 1. For purposes of the election of Members Andalucia, Dimasalang up to boundary between
of the House of Representatives of the First Manila and Quezon City; NE - City boundary
Decoroso R. Rosales Congress of the Philippines under the Constitution between Manila and Quezon City up to Ramon
proposed by the 1986 Constitutional Commission Magsaysay Boulevard; SE - Ramon Magsaysay
Rene V. Sarmiento and subsequent elections, and until otherwise Boulevard up to V. Mapa Street; S - Ramon
provided by law, the Members thereof shall be Magsaysay Boulevard up to point Estero de San
elected from legislative districts apportioned among Miguel where Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard spans
Jose E. Suarez the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila Estero de San Miguel; Fifth District: Barangays
Area as follows: Nos. 649-828 N - Mouth of Pasig River inland to
Lorenzo M. Sumulong point Paz M. Guanzon Street extending to Estero de
Jaime S. L. Tadeo Pandacan; NE - Estero de Pandacan up to Pedro Gil
METROPOLITAN MANILA AREA Street to Tejeron Street up to boundary of Manila
and Makati; SE - City boundary between Manila
Christine O. Tan MANILA, six (6) - First District: Barangays Nos. 1- and Makati up to Estero de Tripa de Gallina; S -
Gregorio J. Tingson 146, N-City Boundary between Manila and City boundary between Pasay and Manila down to
Caloocan; E - From Estero de Sunog Apog going Roxas Boulevard up to edge of reclaimed areas
South to Estero de Vitas up to the bridge spanning westward to Manila Bay; W - Manila Bay up to
Juan Luna Street, eastward to Tayuman Street up to mouth of Pasig River, Sixth District: Barangays
Nos. 587-648; and 829-905 N - Starting from point Santo Nino, Santol, Dona Imelda, Kristong Hari, Dumalneg; Second District: Municipalities of
which is mouth of Estero de San Miguel going Kalusugan, Damayang Lagi, Mariana, Valencia, Badoc, Batac, Currimao, Dingras, Espiritu, Marcos,
eastward to Mendiola Bridge, following line along Horseshoe, Pinagkaisahan, San Vicente, U.P. Nueva Era, Paoay, Pinili, San Nicolas, and Solsona.
Estero de San Miguel up to point where Ramon Campus, Krus Na Ligas, Central, Old Capital Site,
Magsaysay Boulevard eastward to City boundary U.P. Village, Teacher's East, Teacher's West,
ILOCOS SUR, two (2) - First District:
between Manila and Quezon Cityl; NE - City Sikatuna, Malaya, Pinahan, and Botocan.
Municipalities of Bantay, Cabugao, Caoayan,
boundary up to point city boundary of Manila, San
Magsingal, San Ildefonso, San Juan, San Vicente,
Juan and Quezon City; E - Manila-San Juan-
CALOOCAN CITY, two (2) - First District : 70 San Catalina, Santo Domingo, Sinait, and Vigan;
Mandaluyong-Makati boundaries up to Tejeron
Barangays; All of Caloocan North EDSA; Second Second District: Municipalities of Alilem,
Street; SE - Tejeron Street to Pedro Gil Street up to
District: 118 Barangays; All of Caloocan South Banayoyo, Burgos, Candon, Cervantes, Galimuyod,
bridge spanning Estero de Pandacan; SW & W -
EDSA. Gregorio del Pilar, Lidlidda, Nagbukel, Narvacan,
Estero de Pandacan going northward to Paz M.
Quirino, Salcedo, San Emilio, San Esteban, Santa,
Guanzon Street, then northward on Paz M. Guazon
Santa Cruz, Santa Lucia, Santa Maria, Santiago,
Street up to Pasig River to mouth of Estero de San PASAY CITY, one (1)
Suyo, Tagudin, Sigay, and Sugpon.
Miguel on Pasig River.
MALABON and NAVOTAS, one (1)
LA UNION, two (2) - First District : Municipalities
QUEZON CITY, four (4) - First District :
of Bacnotan, Balaoan, Bangar, Luna, San Fernando,
Barangays Del Monte, Paltok, Bungad, San
SAN JUAN and MANDALUYONG, one (1) San Gabriel, San Juan, Santol, and Sudipen; Second
Antonio, Katipunan, Veterans Village, Talayan,
District: Municipalities of Agoo, Aringay, Bagulin,
Damayan, Mariblo, Paraiso, Sta. Cruz, Nayong
Bauang, Burgos, Caba, Naguilian, Pugo, Rosario,
Kanluran, Philam, West Triangle, N.S. Amoranto, MARIKINA, one (1) Santo Tomas, and Tubao.
Paang Bundok, San Isidro Labrador, Sta. Teresita,
Salvacion, Maharlika, St. Peter, Lourdes, Sto.
Domingo, Sienna, San Jose, Manresa, Pag-ibig sa MAKATI, one (1)
Nayon, Balingasa, Masambong, Damar, Bahay
Toro, St. Cristo, Ramon Magsaysay, Project 6, PASIG, one (1) PARANAQUE, one (1)
Vasra, Alicia, and Bagong Pag-asa; Second District: PANGASINAN, with the Cities of Dagupan and
Barangays Fairview, New Era, Holy Spirit, Batasan San Carlos, six (6) - First District: Municipalities of
Hills, Commonwealth, Payatas, Bagong Silangan, LAS PINAS and MUNTINGLUPA, one (1) Bolinao, Bani, Agno, Burgos, Dasol, Infanta,
Sauyo, Talipapa, Bagbag, San Bartolome, Sta. Mabini, Alaminos, Anda and Sual; Second District:
Lucia, Gulod, Novaliches Proper, San Agustin, Municipalities of Labrador, Lingayen, Bugallon,
PATEROS and TAGUIG, one (1) Aguilar, Mangatarem, Binmaley, Urbiztondo, and
Nagkaisang Nayon, Sta. Monica, Kaligayahan,
Pasong Putik, Apolonio Samson, Unang Sigaw, Basista; Third District: San Carlos City, and the
VALENZUELA, one (1) Municipalities of Malasiqui, Bayambang, Calasiao,
Tandang Sora, Pasong Tamo, Culiat, Baesa, Capri,
Balumbato, and Sangandaan: Third District : Mapandan, and Sta. Barbara; Fourth District:
Barangays E. Rodriguez, Silangan, Quirino 3-A, Dagupan City and the Municipalities of Mangaldan,
REGION I San Fabian, San Jacinto, and Manaoag; Fifth
Duyan-Duyan, Quirino 3-B, Amihan, Socorro, San
Roque, Manga, Zobel Dioquino, Tagumpay, District: Municipalities of Binalonan, Laoac,
Aguinaldo, Escopa 1, Escopa 2, Escopa 3, Escopa 4, ABRA, one (1) Urdaneta, Villasis, Sison, Pozorrubio, Bautista,
Alcala, and Sto. Tomas; Sixth District:
West Kamias, East Kamias, Quirino 2 A, Quririno 2
B, Quirino 2 C, Ugong Norte, Bagumbayan, Libis, Municipalities of Rosales, Asingan, Balungao, Sta.
BENGUET, with the City of Baguio, two (2) - First Maria, Umingan, San Quintin, Natividad, Tayug,
Villa Maria Clara, Masagana, Milagrosa, Marilag, District: Baguio City; Second District: all the San Nicolas, and San Manuel.
Bagumbayan, Loyola Heights, Pansol, and Municipalities of Benguet.
Matandang Balara; Fourth District: Barangays
Bagong Lipunan, Kaunlaran, San Martin, REGION II
Immaculate Concepcion, South Triangle, Sacred ILOCOS NORTE, with Laog City, two (2) - First
Heart, Laging Handa, Paligsahan, Obrero, Roxas, District: Laoag City and the Municipalities of
Kamuning, Kanluran, Kamuning Silangan, Tatalon, Bacarra, Bangui, Burgos, Pagud-Pagud, Pasuquin, BATANES, one (1)
Don Manuel, Dona Josefa, San Isidro, Dona Aurora, Piddig, Sarrat, Vintar, Adams, Carasi, and
Norzagaray, and Remedios Trinidad; Fourth
District: Municipalities of San Jose del Monte, Sta.
CAGAYAN, three (3) - First District: BATANGAS, with the Cities of Batangas and Lipa,
Maria, Marilao, Meycauayan,, and Obando.
Municipalities of Aparri, Camalaniugan, Lallo, four (4) - First District: Municipalities of Nasugbu,
Buguey, Sta. Teresita, Gonzaga, Sta. Ana, Gattaran, Lian, Calatagan, Balayan, Tuy, Calaca, Lemery, and
Baggao, and Alcala; Second District: Municipalities NUEVA ECIJA, with the Cities of Cabanatuan, Taal; Second District: Batangas City and the
of Sta. Praxedes, Sanchez Mira, Claveria, Palayan and San Jose, four (4) - First District: Municipalities of Lobo, San Pascual, Bauan,
Pamplona, Abulug, Ballesteros, Allacapan, Lasam, Municipalities of Nampicuan, Cuyapo, Guimba, Mabini, San Luis, and Tingloy; Third District:
Sto. Nino, Rizal, Piat, and Calayan; Third District: Quezon, Talavera, Licab, Sto. Domingo, Aliaga, Municipalities of Balete, Malvar, Sto. Tomas,
Municipalities of Tuguegarao, Solana, Enrile, and Zaragoza, Second District: San Jose City and Tanauan, Talisay, Laurel, Agoncillo, San Nicolas,
Penablanca, Iguig, Amulung, and Tuao. the Municipalities of Lupao, Munoz, Talugtog, Sta. Teresita, Alitagtag, Cuenca, and Mataas na
Caranglan, Pantabangan, Lanera, and Rizal; Third Kahoy; Fourth District : Lipa City and the
District: Cabanatuan City; Palayan City, and the Municipalities of San Juan, Taysan, Rosario, P.
IFUGAO, one (1)
Municipalities of General Natividad, Bongabong, Garcia, Ibaan, and San Jose.
Laur, Gabaldon, and Sta. Rosa, Fourth District:
ISABELA, four (4) - First District: Municipalities Municipalities fof San Leonardo, General Tinio,
CAVITE, with the Cities of Tagaytay, Cavite and
of Sta. Maria, San Pablo, Cabagan, Sto. Tomas, Penaranda, Gapan, San Isidro, Cabiao, San Antonio,
Trece Martires, three (30 - First District: Cavite City
Albano, Tumauini, Ilagan, Divilican, Maconacon, and Jaen.
and the Municipalities of Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta,
and Palanan; Second District: Municipalities of
and Rosario; Second District: Trece Martires City
Aurora, San Manuel, Roxas, Mallig, Quezon,
PAMPANGA, with Angeles City, four (4) - First and the Municipalities of Imus, Dasmarinas,
Quirino, Burgos, Gamu, Naguilian, Benito Soliven,
District : Angeles City and the Municipalities of Carmona, Gen. Mariano Alvarez, General Trias,
An Mariano; Third District: Municipalities of Reina
Mabalacat and Magalang; Second District: and Tanza; Third District: Tagaytay City and the
Mercedes, Cauayan, Luna, Cabatuan, San Mateo,
Municipalities of Lubao, Guagua, Floridablanca, Municipalities of Alfonso, Amadeo, General
Alicia, Angadanan, and San Guillermo; Fourth
Porac, Sta. Rita, and Sexmoan; Third District: Aguinaldo, Indang, Magallanes, Maragondon,
District: Municipalities Cordon, Santiango, Ramon,
Municipalities of San Fernando, Arayat, Mexico, Mendez-Nunez, Naic, Silang, and Ternate.
San Isidro, Echague, Jones, San Agustin, and
Bacolor, and Sta. ana; Fourth District:
Municipalities of Candaba, Apalit, Macabebe,
LAGUNA, with San Pablo City, four (4) - First
Masantol, Minalin, Sto. Tomas, San Luis, and San
District: Municipalities of Binan, San Pedro and
KALINGA-APAYAO, one (1) Simon.
Sta. Rosa; Second District: Municipalities of Bay,
Cabuyao, Calamba, and Los Banos; Third District:
NUEVA VIZCAYA, one (1) TARLAC, three (3) - First District: Municipalities San Pablo City and the Municipalities of Calauan,
of Mayantoc, Sta. Ignacia, Camiling, Moncada, San Alaminos, Rizal, Nagcarlan, Liliw, and Victoria:
Manuel, Anao, Paniqui, Ramos, San Clemente, and Fourth District: Municipalities of Sta. Cruz, Pila,
QUIRINO, one (1) Pura; Second District: Municipalities of Tarlac, Lumban, Pagsanjan, Cavinti, Kalayaan, Paete,
Gerona, and Victoria; Third District: Municipalities Pakil, Pangil, Siniloan, Famy, Mabitac, Sta. Maria,
REGION III of Bamban, Capas, Concepcion, and La Paz. Magdalena, Luisiana, and Majayjay.

BATAAN, two (2) - First District: Municipalities of ZAMBALES, with Olongapo City, two (2) - First MARINDUQUE, one (1)
Dinalupihan, Hermosa, Orani, Samal, Abucay, and District: Olongapo City and the Municipalities of
Morong, Second District: Municipalities of Pilar, Subic, Castillejos, and San Marcelino, Second
Orion, Limay, Bagac, Mariveles, and Balanga. District: Municipalities of Botolan, Cabangan,
Candelaria, Iba, Masinloc, Palauig, San Antonio,
San Felipe, San Narciso, and Sta. Cruz. ORIENTAL MINDORO, two (2) - First District:
BULACAN, four (4) - First District : Municipalities Municipalities of Baco, Calapan, Naujan, Puerto
of Hagonoy, Paombong, Malolos, Calumpit,
Galera, San Teodoro, Victoria, Pola, and Socorro;
Pulilan, and Bulacan; Second Distict: Municipalities REGION IV
Second District: Municipalities of Bansud,
Baliuag, Bustos, Plaridel, Guiguinto, Balagtas, Bongabon, Bulalakao, Gloria, Mansalay,
Pandi, and Bocaue; Third District: Municipalities of
AURORA, one (1)
San Miguel, San Ildefonso, San Rafael, Angat,
Pinamalayan, and Roxas. CAMARINES SUR, including the Cities of Naga Tubungan, Miagao, and Oton; Second District;
and Iriga, four (4) - First District: Municipalities of Municipalities of Jordan, Nueva Valencia,
Del Gallego, Ragay, Lupi, Sipocot, Libmanan, Buenavista, Pavia, Leganes, Sta. Barbara, New
PALAWAN, with Puerto Princesa City, two (2) -
Cabusao, Pamplona, Pasacao, Minalabac, and San Lucena, Zarraga, Alimodian, Leon, and San Miguel;
First District: Municipalities of Agutaya, Araceli,
Fernando, Second District : Naga City and the Third District: Municipalities of Maasin, Cabatuan,
Busuanga, Cagayancillo, Coron, Cuyo, Dumaran, El
Municipalities of Bonbon, Calabanga, Camaligan, Janiuay, Badiangan, Mina, Pototan, Calinog,
Nido, Linapacan, Magsaysay, Roxas, San Vicente,
Canaman, Gainza, Magarao, Milaor, Ocampo, and Lambunao, and Bingawan; Fourth District:
Taytay, and Kalayaan; Second District: Puerto
Pili; Third District: Municipalities of Caramoan, Municipalities of Passi, San Enrique, Duenas,
Princesa City and the Municipalities of Aborlan,
Garchitorena, Goa, Lagonoy, Presentacion, Sangay, Dingle, Barotac Nuevo, Dumangas, Anilao, and
Balabac, Batarasa, Brooke's Point, Narra, Quezon,
San Jose, Tigaon, Tinambac, and Siruma; Fourth Banate; Fifth District: Municipalities of Barotac
and Marcos.
District: Iriga City and the Municipalities of Baao, Viejo, San Rafael, Ajuy, Lemery, Concepcion, Sara,
Balatan, Bato, Buhi, Bula, and Nabua. San Dionisio, Batad, Estancia, Balasan, and Carles.
QUEZON, with Lucena City, four (4) - First
District: Municipalities of Burdeos, Gen. Nakar,
Infanta, Jumalig, Panukulan, Patnanungan, Polilio,
Real, Sampaloc, Mauban, Pagbilao, Lucban, and
Tayabas; Second District: Lucena city and MASBATE, three (3) - First District Municipalities NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, with the Cities of San
Municipalities of Candelaria, Dolores, San Antonio, of San Pascual, Claveria, Monreal, San Jacinto, San Carlos, Cadiz, Bago, La Carlota, and Silay, six (6) -
Sariaya, and Tiaong; Third District: Municipalities Fernando, and Batuan; Second District: First District: San Carlos City and the
of Catanauan, Gen. Luna, Macalelon, Mulanay, Municipalities of Masbate, Mobo, Milagros, Municipalities of Toboso, Calatrava, Escalante, and
Pitogo, San Andres, San Francisco, San Narciso, Aroroy, Baleno, Balud, and Mandaon; Third S. Benedicto; Second District: Cadiz City and the
Buenavista, Padre Burgos, Agdangan, and Unisan; District: Municipalities of Uson, Dimasalang, Municipalities of Sagay and Manapla; Third
Fourth District: Municipalities of Calauag, Palanas, Cataingan, Pio V. Corpuz, Esperanza, District: Silay City and the Municipalities of
Guinayangan, Gumaca, Lopez, Tagkawayan, Placer, and Cawayan. Victorias, Enrique B. Magalona, Talisay, and
Atimonan, Plaridel, Alabat, Perez, and Quezon Murcia; Fourth District: Bago City and the
Municipalities of Valladolid, San Enrique,
SORSOGON, two (2) - First District: Municipalities
Pontevedra, Pulupandan, and La Carlota; Fifth
RIZAL, two (2) - First District: Municipalities of of Sorsogon, Pilar, Donsol, Castilla, Bacon,
District: Municipalities of La Castellana, Moises
Antipolo, Taytay, Cainta, Angono, and Binangonan; Casiguran, and Magallanes; Second District:
Padilla, Isabela, Binalbagan, Himamaylan, and
Second District: Municipalities of E. Rodriguez, Municipalities of Barcelona, Prieto Diaz, Gubat,
Hinigaran; Sixth District: Municipalities of
San Mateo, Morong, Cardona, Teresa, Baras, Juban, Bulusan, Irosin, Sta. Magdalena, Matnog,
Kabankalan, Ilog, Cauayan, Candoni, Sipalay, and
Tanay, Pililla, and Jala-Jala. and Bulan.





ALBAY, with Legazpi City, three (3) - First ANTIQUE, one (1)
BOHOL, with Tagbilaran City, three (3) - First
District: Municipalities of Bacacay, Malinao,
District: Tagbilaran City and the Municipalities of
Malilipot, Santo Domingo, Tabaco, and Tiwi,
CAPIZ, including Roxas City, two (2) - First Alburquerque, Antequera, Baclayon, Balilihan,
Second District: Legazpi City and the
District: Roxas City and the Municipalities of Calape, Catigbian, Corella, Cortes, Dauis, Loon,
Municipalities of Camalig, Daraga, Manito, and
Panay, Pilar, Pontevedra, President Roxas, Ma- Maribojoc, Panglao, Sikatuna, and Tubigon; Second
Rapu-Rapu; Third District: Municipalities of
ayon, and Panitan; Second District: Municipalities District: Municipalities of Clarin, Inabangan,
Guinobatan, Jovellar, Libon, Ligao, Oas, Pio Duran,
of Dumalag, Jamindan, Mambusao, Sapian, Sigma, Sagbayan, Buenavista, Jetafe, Dagohoy, Danao, San
and Polangui.
Tapaz, Cuartero, Dao, Dumarao, and Ivisan. Miguel, Trinidad, Talibon, Ubay, Bien Unido, San
Isidro, and Pres. C. P. Garcia; Third District:
CAMARINES NORTE, one (1) Municipalities of Loay, Loboc, Bilar, Batuan,
ILOILO, five (5) - First District: Municipalities of Carmen, Sevilla, Lila, Dimiao, Valencia, Garcia-
Guimbal, Igbaras, San Joaquin, Tigbauan,
Hernandez, Jagna, Duero, Guindulman, Candijay, District: Bais City, Dumaguete City, and the Basey, Calbiga, Catbalogan, Daram, Hinabangan,
Mabini, Alicia, Anda, Sierra Bullones, and Pilar. Municipalities of Mabinay, Tanjay, Pamplona, San Jose de Buan, Jiabong, Marabut, Motiong,
Amlan, San Jose, and Sibulan; Third District: Pinabacadao, San Sebastian, Sta. Rita, Talalora,
Municipalities of Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Villareal, Wright, and Zumarraga.
CEBU, with the Cities of Danao, Lapu-Lapu,
Zamboanguita, Siaton, Sta. Catalina, Bayawan, and
Mandaue, and Toledo, six (6) - First District:
Municipalities of Talisay, Minglanilla, Naga, San
Fernando, Carcar, and Sibongan; Second District: REGION IX
Municipalities of Argao, Dalaguete, Alcoy, SIQUIJOR, one (1)
Boljoon, Oslob, Santander, Samboan, Ginatilan,
BASILAN, one (1)
Malabuyoc, Alegria, Badian, Moal- boal, Alcantara,
Ronda, and Dumanjug; Third District: Toledo City
and the Municipalities of Barili, Alonguinsan, SULU, two (2) - First District: Municipalities of
Pinamungajan, Balamban, Asturias, and Tuburan; LEYTE, with the Cities of Tacloban and Ormoc, Jolo, Marungas, Indanan, Pangutaran, Parang,
Fourth District: Municipalities of Tabuelan, San five (5) - First District: Tacloban City and the Talipao, Maimbung, and Patikul; Second District:
Remigio, Sta. Fe, Bantayan, Madridejos, Daan- municipalities of Alangalang, Babatngon, Palo, San Municipalities of Siasi, Pandami, Pata, Luuk, K.
bantayan, Medellin, Bogo, and Tabogon; Fifth Miguel, Sta. Fe, Tanauan, and Talosa; Second Culuang, Panamao, New Panamao, Tapul, Lungus,
District: Danao City and the Municipalities of District: Municipalities of Barugo, Barauen, and Tongkil.
Borbon, Sogod, Catmon, Carmen, Compostela, Capoocan, Carigara, Dagami, Dulag, Jaro, Julita, La
Liloan, San Francisco, Poro, Tudela, and Pilar; Paz, Mayorga, MacArcthur, Pastrana, Tabontabon,
TAWI-TAWI, one (1)
Sixth District: Lapu-lapu City, Mandanue City, and and Tunga; Third District: Municipalities of
the Municipalities of Cordova and Consolacion. Almeria, Biliran, Cabucgayan, Caibiran, Calubian,
Culaba, Kawayan, Leyte, Maripipi, Naval, San ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE, with the Cities of
Isidro, Tabango, and Villaba; Fourth District: Dapitan and Dipolog, three (3) - First District:
CEBU CITY, two (2) - First District: Barangays of
Ormoc city and the Municipalities of Albuera, Dapitan City and the Municipalities of Sibutad,
Adlawon, Agsungot, Apas, Bacayan, Banilad,
Isabel, Kananga, Matagob, Merida, and Palompon; Rizal, La Libertad, Mutia, Pinan, Sergio Osmena,
Binaliw, Budla-an, Busay, Cmbinocot, Camputhaw,
Fifth District: Municipalities of Abuyog, Bato, Sr., and Polanco; Second District: Dipolog City and
Capitol Site, Carreta, Central Proper, Cogon-
Baybay, Hilongos, Hindang, Inopacan, Javier, the Municipalities of Katipunan, Pres. Manuel A.
Ramos, Day-as, Ermita, Guba, Hipodromo,
Mahaplag, and Matalom. Roxas, Manukan, Ponot, Siayan, and Sindangan;
Kalubihan, Kamagayan, Kasambagan, Lahug,
Lorega, Lusaran, Luz, Mabini, Mabolo, Malubog, Third District: Municipalities of Salug; Godod,
Pahina Central, Parian, Paril, Pit-os, Pulang Bato, Liloy, Tampilisan, Labason, Gutalac, Siocon,
Sambag 1, Sambag 11, San Antonio, San Jose, San Baliquian, Siraway, Bacungan, and Sibuco.
Roque, Sta. Cruz, Sirao, T. Padilla, Talamban,
Taptap, Tejero, Tinago, and Zapatera; Second EASTERN SAMAR, one (1)
ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR, with Pagadian City,
District: Barangays of Babag, Basak Pardo, Basak three (3) - First District: Pagadian City and the
San Nicolas, Bonbon, Buhisan, Bulacao pardo, NORTHERN SAMAR, two (2) - First District: Municipalities of Dumingag, Mahayag, Molave,
Bout-Taup, Calamba, Cogon Pardo, Duljo Fatima, Municipalities of Allen, Biri, Bobon, Capul, Tambulig, Midsalip, R. Magsaysay, Labangan,
Guadalupe, Inayawan, Kalunasan, Kinasang-an Catarman, Lavezares, Lope de Vega, Rosario, San Aurora, Tukuran, Josefina, and Don Mariano
Pardo, Labangon, Mambaling, Pahina San Nicolas, Antonio, San Isidro, San Jose, San Vicente, Marcos; Second District: Municipalities of
Pamutan, Pardo, Pasil Abuno, Sibugay, Punta Victoria, and Mondragon; Second District: Dumalinao, San Pablo, Tabina, Dima- taling, Dinas,
Princesa, Quiot, San Nicolas, Sawang Calero, Municipalities of Silvino Lobos, San Roque, San Miguel, Margosatubig, Lapuyan, Kumalarang,
Sinsin, Suba Pasil, Sudlon, Sapangdako, Tabunan, Pambuyan, Las Navas, Catubig, Laoang, Palapag, Bayog, Lakewood, Pitogo, and Vincenzo A. Sagun;
Tigbao, Tisa, and Toong. Mapanas, Gamay, and Lapinig. Third District: Municipalities of Malangas, Alicia,
Olutanga, Mabuhay, Siay, Kabasalan, Naga, Ipil,
NEGROS ORIENTAL, with the Cities of Bais, Titay, Tungawan, Buug, Imelda, Payao, Talusan,
SAMAR, with Calbayog City, two (2) - First
Canlaon, and Dumaguete, three (3) - First District: Diplahan, and Roseller Lim.
District: Calbayog City and the Municipalities of
Canlaon City and the Municipalities of almagro, Gandara, Matuguinao, Pag- sanghan, San
Vallehermoso, Guihulngan, La Libertad, Jimalalud, Jorge, Santa Margarita, Sto. Nino, Tagapul-an, and ZAMBOANGA CITY, one (1)
Tayasan, Ayungon, Bindoy, and Manjuyod; Second Tarangnan; Second District: Municipalities of
REGION X two (2) - First District: Municipalities of Sta. Kiamba, Maitum, and Malungon.
Monica, San Isidro, Del Carme, Pilar, General
Luna, Dapa, Socorro, Burgos, San Benito, Loreto,
AGUSAN DEL NORTE, with the City of Butuan, SURIGAO DEL SUR, two (2) - First District:
Libjo, Dinagat, Cagdianao, Tubajon, and Basilisa;
two (2) - First District: Butuan City and the Municipalities of Bayabas, Cantilan, Carrascal,
Second District: Surigao City and the Municipalities
Municipality of Las Nieves, Second District: Cortes, Lanuza, Madrid, San Miguel, Tago, Tandag,
of San Francisco, Tagana-an, Sison, Placer,
Municipalities of Buenavista, Cabadbaran, Carmen, Cagwit, Marihatag, San Agustin, Carmen, and
Malimono, Bacauag, Gigaquit, Tubod, Mainit,
Jabonga, Kitcharao, Magallanes, Nasipit, Santiago, Lianga; Second District: Municipalities of Barobo,
Alegria, and Claver.
Tubay, and Remedios T. Romualdez. Bislig, Hinatuan, Lingig, and Tagbina.

DAVAO DEL NORTE, three (3) - First District:
BUKIDNON, three (3) - First District: Municipalities of Moncayo, Montevista,
Municipalities of Talakag, Baungon, Malitbog, LANAO DEL NORTE, with Iligan City, two (2) -
Compostela, Nabunturan, New Bataan, Mawab, and
Libona, Manolo Fortich, Sumialo, Panganto-can, First District: Iligan City, Linamon, Kauswagan,
San Mariano; Second District: Municipalities of San
and Kalilangan; Second District: Municipalities of Bacolod, Maigo, Kolambugan, Tubod, and Baroy;
Vicente, Capalong, Asuncion, New Corella, Tagum,
Malay-balay, Lantapan, Cabanglasan, Valencia, San Second District: Baloi, Pantar, Tagoloan, Poona-
Maco, Mabini, and Pantukan; Third District:
Fernando, and Impasugong; Third District: Piagapo, Pantao-Ragat, Matungao, Tangkal, Munai,
Municipalities of Sto. Tomas, Carmen, Panabo,
Municipalities of Maramag, Quezon, Don Carlos, Nunungan, Magsaysay, Salvador, Kapatagan,
Babak, Samal, and Kaputian.
Kitaotao, Dangcagan, Kibawe, Damulog, and Karomatan. Sapad, and Lala.
DAVAO ORIENTAL, two (2) - First District:
LANAO DEL SUR, with Marawi City, (2) - First
Municipalities of Boston, Cateel, Baganga, Caraga,
CAMIGUIN, one (1) District: Marawi City and the Municipalities of
Manay, and Tarragona; Second District:
Marantao, Piagapo, Saguiaran, Tagoloan, Kapai,
Municipalities of Mati, Banaybanay, Lupon, San
Ditsaan - Ramain, Bubong, Buadiposo-Buntong,
MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL, with the Cities of Isidro, and Governor Generoso.
Bumbaran, Maguing, Wao, Molundo, Taraka,
Oroquieta, Ozamiz and Tangub, two (2) - First Lumba-Bayabao, Poona-Bayabao, Masiu and
District: Oroquieta City and the Municipalities of DAVAO DEL SUR, two (2) - First District: Tamparan; Second District: Municipalities of
Baliangao, Plaridel, Calamba, Sapang Dalaga, Municipalities of Magsaysay, Bansalan, Sta. Cruz, Balindong, Tugaya, Bacolod Grande, Madalum,
Lopez Jaena, Aloran, Concepcion, Panaon, and Matanao, Digos, Hagonoy, and Padada; Second Madamba, Pualas, Ganassi, Pagayawan, Sultan
Jimenez; Second District: Ozamiz City, Tangub District: Municipalities of Kiblawan, Sulop, Gumander, Malabang, Balabagan, Kapatagan,
City, and the Municipalities of Bonifacio, Tudela, Malalag, Sta. Maria, Malita, Jose Abad Santos, Don Marogong, Tubaran, Binidayan, Lumbatan,
Clarin, Sinacaban, and Don Mariano Marcos. Marcelino, and Saranggani. Lumbayanague, Butig, Bayang and Calanogas.

MISAMIS ORIENTAL, with Gingoog City, two (2) DAVAO CITY, three (3) - First District: Districts of MAGUINDANAO, with Cotabato City, two (2) -
- First District: Gingoog City and the Municipalities Poblacion and Talomo; Second District: Districts of First District: Cotabato City and the Municipalities
of Magsaysay, Talisayan, Balingoan, Medina, Buhangin, Bunawan, and Paquibato; Third District: of Parang, Sultan Kudarat, Buldon, Barira, Dinaig,
Kinogitan, Sugbongcogon, Binuangan, Salay, Districts of Toril, Tugbok, Calinan, and Baguio. Kabuntalan, Matanog and Upi; Second District:
Lagonglong, and Balingasag; Second District: Municipalities of Pagalunga, Buluan, Sultan sa
Municipalities of Claveria, Jasaan, Villanueva, Barongis, Maganoy, Talaya, South Upi, Datu Piang,
Tagoloan, Alubijid, El Salvador, Gitagum, Initao, SOUTH COTABATO, with General Santos City,
Datu Paglas, and Ampatuan.
Laguindingan, Libertad, Lugait, Manticao, Naawan, three (3) - First District: General Santos City, and
and Opol. the Municipalities of Polomolok, Tampakan, and
Tupi; Second District: Municipalities of Tantangan, NORTH COTABATO, two (2) - First District:
Norala, Banga, Sto. Nino, Surallah, Koronadal, Municipalities of Carmen, Kabacan, Libungan,
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY, one (1) Tiboli, and Lake Sebu; Third District: Midsayap, Pigkawayan, Pikit, Aleosan, Banisilan,
Municipalities of Alabel, Malapatan, Glan, Maasim, and Alamada; Second District: Municipalities of
SURIGAO DEL NORTE, with the City of Surigao, Kidapawan, Makilala, Matalam, Antipas, Mlang,
Pres. Roxas Tulunan, and Magpet. Alberto M. K. Jamir
Jose B. Laurel, Jr.
Eulogio R. Lerum
Regalado E. Maambong
MEMBERS Christian S. Monsod
OF THE Teodulo C. Natividad
Section 2. The Commission on Elections is hereby CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION Ma. Teresa F. Nieva
empowered to make minor adjustments of the [CON COM] Jose N. Nolledo
reapportionment herein made. WHICH DRAFTED THE Blas F. Ople
Florenz D. Regalado
Section 3. Any province that may hereafter be
Rustico F. de los Reyes, Jr.
created, or any city whose population may hereafter
Cecilia Munoz Palma Cirilo A. Rigos
increase to more than two hundred fifty thousand
President Francisco A. Rodrigo
shall be entitiled in the immediately following
Ricardo J. Romulo
election to at least one Member or such number of
Decoroso R. Rosales
Members as it may be entitled to on the basis of the
Rene V. Sarmiento
number of its inhabitants and according to the Ambrosio B. Padilla
Jose E. Suarez
standards setforth in paragraph (3), Section 5 of Vice-President
Lorenzo M. Sumulong
Article VI of the Constitution. The number of
Jaime S. L. Tadeo
Members apportioned to the province out of which
Christine O. Tan
such new province was created or where the city,
Napoleon G. Rama Gregorio J. Tingson
whose population has so increased, is
Floor Leader Efrain B. Trenas
geographically located shall be correspondingly
Lugum L. Uka
adjusted by the Commission on Elections but such
Wilfrido V. Villacorta
adjustment shall not be made within one hundred
Bernardo M. Villegas
and twenty days before the election. Ahmad Domocao Alonto
Assistant Floor Leader
Section 4. This Ordinance shall be appended to the
Attested by :
Constitution proposed by the 1986 Constitutional
Commission, and shall be submitted to a plebiscite Jose D. Calderon
simultaneously with such Constitution, and shall Assistant Floor Leader
take effect upon its ratification by a majority of the Flerida Ruth P. Romero
votes cast in such plebiscite. Secretary-General
Yusuf R. Abubakar
Felicitas S. Aquino
Adopted: October 15, 1986
Adolfo S. Azcuna
Teodoro C. Bacani
Jose F. S. Bengzon, Jr.
Cecilia Munoz Palma Ponciano L. Bennagen
President Joaquin G. Bernas
Florangel Rosario Braid
Crispino M. de Castro
Jose C. Colayco
Roberto R. Concepcion
Attested: Hilario G. Davide, Jr.
Flerida Ruth P. Romero Vicente B. Foz
Secretary General Edmundo G. Garcia
Jose Luis Martin C. Gascon
Serafin V.C. Guingona