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Contents

Preface List of Symbols

page x i xiii

1 2

Introduction Displacements, Strains, and Stresses


2.1 Slrain-Displacement Relations 2.2 E q u i l i b r i u m Equations 2.3 Stress-Strain Relationships 2.3.1 Generally A n i s o t r o p i c M a t e r i a l 2.3.2 M o n o c l i n i c M a t e r i a l 2.3.3 Orthotropic M a t e r i a l 2.3.4 Transversely Isotropic M a t e r i a l 2.3.5 Isotropic M a t e r i a l 2.4 Plane-Strain C o n d i t i o n 2.4.1 Frce E n d - Generally Anisotropic M a t e r i a l 2.4.2 Free E n d - M o n o c l i n i c M a t e r i a l 2.4.3 Free E n d - Orthotropic, Transversely Isotropic. or Isotropic M a t e r i a l 2.4.4 B u i l t - I n Ends - Generally Anisotropic M a t e r i a l 2.4.5 Built-Tn Ends - M o n o c l i n i c M a t e r i a l 2.4.6 B u i l t - I n Ends - O r t h o t r o p i c , Transversely Isotropic, or Isotropic M a t e r i a l 2.5 Plane-Stress C o n d i t i o n 2.6 H y g r o t h e r m a l Strains and Stresses 2.6.1 Planc-Strain C o n d i t i o n 2.6.2 Plane-Strcss C o n d i t i o n 2.7 Boundary Conditions 2.8 Continuity Conditions 2.9 Stress and Strain Transformations 2.9.1 Stress Transformaron 2.9.2 Strain Transformaron 2.9.3 Transformation o f the Stiffness and Compliance Matrices

1 3
4 6 8 8 11 14 19 20 22 28 30 34 35 36 38 38 44 47 47 47 48 49 50 52 53

vi
2.10 Strain Energy 2.10.1 The R i t z M e t h o d 2.11 Summary 2.11.1 Note o n the Compliance and Stiffness Matrices

CONTENTS
55 55 56 56

Laminated Gomposites
3.1 L a m n a t e Code 3.2 Stiffness Matrices of T h i n L a m n a l e s 3.2.1 The Significance o f the [A], [ B ] , and [D] Stiffness Matrices 3.2.2 Stiffness Matrices for Selected Laminares

63
63 65 72 74

4 ThinPlates
4.1 Governing Equations 4.1.1 Boundary Conditions 4.1.2 Strain Energy 4.2 D e e c t i o n of Rectangular Plates 4.2.1 P u r B e n d i n g and In-Plane Loads 4.2.2 L o n g Plates 4.2.3 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical L a y u p 4.2.4 Plates w i t h B u i l t - I n Edges - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p 4.3 Buckling of Rectangular Plates 4.3.1 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical L a y u p 4.3.2 Plates w i t h B u i l t - I n and Simply Supported E d g e s - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p 4.3.3 Plates with One Free Edge - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p 4.3.4 Plates w i t h Rotationally Restrained Edges - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p 4.3.5 L o n g Plates 4.4 Free V i b r a t i o n o f Rectangular Plates 4.4.1 L o n g Plates 4.4.2 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical L a y u p 4.4.3 Plates w i t h B u i l t - I n and Simply Supported Edges - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p 4.5 H y g r o t h e r m a l Effects 4.5.1 Change i n Thickness Due to H y g r o t h e r m a l Effects 4.6 Plates with a Circular or an Elliptical H o l e 4.7 Interlaminar Stresses

89
90 92 92 93 93 94 100 107 112 112 118 124 127 132 141 141 144 149 151 161 163 166

a Sandwich Plates
5.1 Governing Equations 5.1.1 Boundary Conditions 5.1.2 Strain Energy 5.1.3 Stiffness Matrices o f Sandwich Plates 5.2 Deflection of Rectangular Sandwich Plates 5.2.1 L o n g Plates 5.2.2 Simply Supported Sandwich Plates - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p

169
170 172 173 174 178 178 182

VII

5.3 Buckling o f Rectangular Sandwich Plates 5.3.1 L o n g Plates 5.3.2 Simply Supported Plates - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p 5.3.3 Face W r i n k l i n g 5.4 Free V i b r a t i o n o f Rectangular Sandwich Plates 5.4.1 L o n g Plates 5.4.2 Simply Supported Plates - O r t h o t r o p i c and Symmetrical L a y u p

185 185 187 190 196 196 199

Beams
6.1 G o v e r n i n g Equations 6.1.1 B o u n d a r y Conditions 6.1.2 Stiffness M a t r i x 6.1.3 Compliance M a t r i x 6.1.4 Replacement Stiffnesses 6.2 Rectangular, S o d Beams Subjected to A x i a l L o a d and Bending 6.2.1 Displacements - Symmetrical L a y u p 6.2.2 Displacements - Unsymmetrical L a y u p 6.2.3 Stresses and Strains 6.3 Thin-Walled, Open-Section O r t h o t r o p i c or Symmetrical Cross-Section Beams Subjected to A x i a l L o a d and Bending 6.3.1 Displacements ofT-Beams 6.3.2 Displacements of L-Beams 6.3.3 Displacements o f A r b i t r a r y Cross-Section Beams 6.3.4 Stresses and Strains 6.4 Thin-Walled, Closed-Section O r t h o t r o p i c Beams Subjected t o A x i a l L o a d and B e n d i n g 6.5 Torsin o f Thin-Walled Beams 6.5.1 T h i n Rectangular Cross Section 6.5.2 Open-Section O r t h o t r o p i c Beams 6.5.3 Closed-Section O r t h o t r o p i c Beams - Single C e l l 6.5.4 Closed-Section O r t h o t r o p i c Beams - M u l t i c e l l 6.5.5 Restrained Warping - Open-Section O r t h o t r o p i c Beams 6.5.6 Restrained Warping - Closed-Section O r t h o t r o p i c Beams 6.6 Thin-Walled Beams w i t h A r b i t r a r y L a y u p Subjected t o A x i a l L o a d , Bending, and T o r s i n 6.6.1 Displacements o f Open- and Closed-Section Beams 6.6.2 Stresses and Strains i n Open- and Closed-Section Beams 6.6.3 C e n t r o i d 6.6.4 Restrained W a r p i n g 6.7 Transversely L o a d e d Thin-Walled Beams 6.7.1 Beams w i t h O r t h o t r o p i c L a y u p or w i t h Symmetrical Cross Section 6.7.2 Beams w i t h A r b i t r a r y L a y u p 6.7.3 ShearCenter 6.8 Stiffened Thin-Walled Beams

203
203 205 205 209 210 210 211 213 214 217 217 221 226 233 243 248 248 250 252 260 261 264 265 267 268 271 271 274 276 280 283 288

CONTENTS
6.9 B u c k l i n g o f Beams Beams Subjected t o A x i a l L o a d (Flexural-Torsional 291 296 300 306 306 309 309 312 LateraI-Torsional B u c k l i n g o f O r t h o t r o p i c Beams w i t h Local B u c k l i n g Buckling) 6.9.2 6.9.3 Symmetrical Cross Section 6.10 Free V i b r a t i o n o f Beams (Flexural-Torsional V i b r a t i o n ) 6.10.1 D o u b l y Symmetrical Cross Sections 6.10.2 Beams with Symmetrical Cross Sections 6.10.3 Beams w i t h Unsymmetrical Cross Sections 6.11 Summary 290

6.9.1

7 Beams with Shear Deformation


7.1 Governing Equations Strain-Displacement Relationships Force-Strain Relationships E q u i l i b r i u r n Equations Summary of Equations B o u n d a r y Conditions Shear Stiffnesses and C o m p i a n c e s o f Thin-Walled 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3 7.4

313
314 315 315 320 320 321 321 322 325 326 329 334 335 341 345 346 347 347 356 359 359

Stiffnesses and C o m p i a n c e s o f Beams Open-Section Beams Shear Stiffnesses and C o m p i a n c e s o f Thin-Walled Stiffnesses of Sandwich Beams Closed-Section Beams Transversely L o a d e d Beams B u c k n g o f Beams A x i a l l y L o a d e d Beams w i t h D o u b l y Symmetrical Cross A x i a l l y L o a d e d Beams w i t h Symmetrical or Unsymmetrical Lateral-Torsional B u c k l i n g o f Beams w i t h Symmetrical Summary Beams w i t h D o u b l y Symmetrical Cross Sections Beams w i t h Symmetrical or Unsymmetrical Cross Sections Summary Sections (Flexural and Torsional Buckling)

7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.6

Cross Sections (Flexural-Torsional B u c k l i n g ) Cross Section Free V i b r a t i o n o f Beams

Effect of Shear D e f o r m a t i o n

8 Shells
8.1 Shells o f R c v o l u t i o n w i t h Axisymmetrical L o a d i n g 8.2 Cylindrical Shells 8.2.1 M e m b r a n e Theory 8.2.2 B u i l t - I n Ends 8.2.3 Temperature - B u i l t - I n Ends 8.3 Springback 8.3.1 8.3.2 Springback o f Cylindrical Shells D o u b l y Curved Shells

365
367 368 368 370 379 380 380 384

t'-iM'HIHif-H^

GVTBrrs
S4 B u c k l i n g o f Shells B u c k l i n g o f Cylinders 384 387 395 396 397 397 398 400 403 405 407 411 413 414 420 421 422 423 425 426 430 431 434 434 436 436 439
2

ix

$.4.1 9

Fwte Element Analysis 9.1 Three-Dimensional Element 9.2 P a t e Element 9.3 Beam Element 9.4 Sublaminate 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 Step 1. Elements o f [ / ] due t o In-Plane Stresses Step 2. Elements o f [J] due t o Out-of-Piane Step 3. Elements o f [J] due to Out-of-Plane Shear Stresses Step 4. The Stiffness M a t r i x

N o r m a l Stresses

tt

Failure Gritera 10.1 Quadratic Failure C r i t e r i o n 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.1.4 10.1.5 Orthotropic Material Transversely Isotropic M a t e r i a l Isotropic M a t e r i a l Plane-Strain and Plane-Stress Conditions P r o p o r t i o n a l L o a d i n g - Stress R a t i o

10.2 " M x i m u m Stress" Failure C r i t e r i o n 10.3 " M x i m u m Strain" Failure C r i t e r i o n 10.4 P a t e w i t h a H o l e or a N o t c h 10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 1 1 P a t e w i t h a Circular H o l e Pate with a Notch Characteristic L e n g t h

Micromechanics 11.1 Rule o f Mixtures 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 11.1.5 11.1.6 11.1.7 11.1.8 11.1.9 L o n g i t u d i n a l Y o u n g M o d u l u s E\8 Transverse Y o u n g Modulus E
2

L o n g i t u d i n a l Shear M o d u l u s G Transverse Shear M o d u l u s G 3


2

439 440 441 442 443 445 446 447 448 448 449 453

L o n g i t u d i n a l Poisson R a t i o Transverse Poisson Ratio V23 T h e r m a l E x p a n s i n Coefficients M o i s l u r e E x p a n s i n Coefficients Thermal Conductivity

11.1.10 Moisturc Diffusivity 11.1.11 SpecificHeat 11.2 Modified Rule o f M i x t u r e s 11.3 Note on the Micromechanics Models Appendix A. Cross-Sectional Properties of Thin-Walled Composite Beams Appendix B. Buckling Loads and Natural Frequencies of Orthotropic Beams with Shear Deformation Appendix C. Typical Material Properties Index

461 464 469