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and Quantum Measurement∗

Florentin Smarandache† and Vic Christianto‡

†

Department of Mathematics, University of New Mexico, Gallup, NM 87301, USA

E-mail: smarand@unm.edu

‡

Sciprint.org — a Free Scientific Electronic Preprint Server, http://www.sciprint.org

E-mail: admin@sciprint.org

In this paper we present four possible extensions of Bell’s Theorem: Bayesian and

Fuzzy Bayesian intrepretation, Information Fusion interpretation, Geometric interpre-

tation, and the viewpoint of photon fluid as medium for quantum interaction.

Gross-Piteavskii equation which is commonly used to

It is generally accepted that Bell’s theorem [1] is quite exact describe bose condensation phenomena. In turn we

to describe the linear hidden-variable interpretation of quan- provide a route where Maxwell equations and Schrödi-

tum measurement, and hence “quantum reality”. Therefore nger equation could be deduced from Gross-Pitaevskii

null result of this proposition implies that no hidden-variable equation by using known algebra involving bi-quater-

theory could provide good explanation of “quantum reality”. nion number. In our opinion, this new proposition pro-

Nonetheless, after further thought we can find that Bell’s vides us a physical mechanism of quantum interaction,

theorem is nothing more than another kind of abstraction beyond conventional “quantum algebra” which hides

of quantum observation based on a set of assumptions and causal explanation.

propositions [7]. Therefore, one should be careful before By discussing these various approaches, we use an ex-

making further generalization on the null result from exper- panded logic beyond “yes” or “no” type logic [3]. In other

iments which are “supposed” to verify Bell’s theorem. For words, there could be new possibilities to describe quantum

example, the most blatant assumption of Bell’s theorem is interaction: “both can be wrong”, or “both can be right”, as

that it takes into consideration only the classical statistical described in Table 1 below.

problem of chance of outcome A or outcome B, as result of In Belnap’s four-valued logic there are, besides Truth (T)

adoption of Von Neumann’s definition of “quantum logic”. and Falsehood (F), also Uncertainty (U) and Contradiction

Another critic will be discussed here, i. e. that Bell’s theorem (C) but they are inter-related [30]. Belnap’s logic is a parti-

is only a reformulation of statistical definition of correlation; cular case of Neutrosophic Logic (which considers three

therefore it is merely tautological [5]. components: Truth, Falsehood, and Indeterminacy (I)) when

Therefore in the present paper we will discuss a few indeterminacy is split into Uncertainty and Contradiction. In

plausible extension of Bell’s theorem: our article we have: Yes (Y), No (N), and Indeterminacy

(a) Bayesian and Fuzzy Bayesian interpretation. (I, which means: neither Yes nor No), but Indeterminacy is

(b) Information Fusion interpretation. In particular, we split into “both can be wrong” and “both can be right”.

propose a modified version of Bell’s theorem, which It could be expected that a combined interpretation re-

takes into consideration this multivalued outcome, in presents multiple-facets of quantum reality. And hopefully it

particular using the information fusion Dezert- could bring better understanding on the physical mechanism

Smarandache Theory (DSmT) [2, 3, 4]. We suppose beneath quantum measurement, beyond simple algebraic no-

that in quantum reality the outcome of P (A ∪ B) and tions. Further experiments are of course recommended in

also P (A ∩ B) shall also be taken into consideration. order to verify or refute this proposition.

This is where DSmT and Unification of Fusion Theor-

ies (UFT) could be found useful [2, 17]. 2 Bell’s theorem. Bayesian and fuzzy Bayesian inter-

(c) Geometric interpretation, using a known theorem con- pretation

necting geometry and imaginary plane. In turn, this Despite widespread belief of its ability to describe hidden-

leads us to 8-dimensional extended-Minkowski metric. variables of quantum reality [1], it shall be noted that Bell’s

(d) As an alternative to this geometric interpretation, we theorem starts with a set of assumptions inherent in its for-

submit the viewpoint of photon fluid as medium for mulation. It is assumed that each pair of particles possesses

∗ Note: The notion “hronir wave” introduced here was inspired from a particular value of λ, and we define quantity p (λ) so that

Borges’ Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius. probability of a pair being produced between λ and λ + dλ

F. Smarandache, V. Christianto. A Note on Fusion Interpretation of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Measurement 27

Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October, 2006

determines the outcome

QM is local with hidden Valid Causality preserved; The moon No interaction can exceed the speed of

variable is there even without observer light

Both can be right Valid, but there is a way to QM, special relativity and Max- Can be expanded using 8-dimensional

explain QM without violat- well electromagnetic theory can Minkowski metric with imaginary

ing Special Relativity be unified. New worldview shall plane

be used

Both can be wrong Invalid, and so Special Rel- New nonlocal QM theory is re- Is not always applicable

ativity is. We need a new quired, involving quantum po-

theory tential

is p (λ) dλ. It is also assumed that this is normalized so that: Nonetheless, it should also be noted here that there is

Z

shortcoming of this Bayesian approach. As Kracklauer points

p (λ) dλ = 1 . (1) out, Bell’s theorem is nothing but a reformulation of statist-

Further analysis shows that the integral that measures the ical definition of correlation [5]:

correlation between two spin components that are at an angle h|AB|i − hAihBi

of (δ − φ) with each other, is therefore equal to C 00 (δ − φ). Corr (A, B) = p . (6)

hA2 ihB 2 i

We can therefore write:

|C 00 (φ) − C 00 (δ)| − C 00 (δ − φ) 6 1 (2) When hAi or hBi equals to zero and hA2 ihB 2 i = 1 then

equation (6) reduces to Bell’s theorem. Therefore as such it

which is known as Bell’s theorem, and it was supposed to could be considered as merely tautological [5].

represent any local hidden-variable theorem. But it shall be

noted that actually this theorem cannot be tested completely

3 Information fusion interpretation of Bell’s theorem.

because it assumes that all particle pairs have been detected.

DSmT modification

In other words, we find that a hidden assumption behind

Bell’s theorem is that it uses classical probability assertion In the context of physical theory of information [8], Barrett

[12], which may or may be not applicable to describe Quan- has noted that “there ought to be a set theoretic language

tum Measurement. which applies directly to all quantum interactions”. This is

It is wothnoting here that the standard interpretation of because the idea of a bit is itself straight out of classical

Bell’s theorem includes the use of Bayesian posterior proba- set theory, the definitive and unambiguous assignment of

bility [13]: an element of the set {0, 1}, and so the assignment of an

p (α) p (x | α)

P (α | x) = P . (3) information content of the photon itself is fraught with the

β p (β) p (x | β) same difficulties [8]. Similarly, the problem becomes more

As we know Bayesian method is based on classical two- adverse because the fundamental basis of conventional stat-

valued logic. In the meantime, it is known that the restriction istal theories is the same classical set {0, 1}.

of classical propositional calculus to a two-valued logic has Not only that, there is also criticism over the use of

created some interesting paradoxes. For example, the Barber Bayesian approach, i. e.: [13]

of Seville has a rule that all and only those men who do not

(a) In real world, neither class probabilities nor class den-

shave themselves are shaved by the barber. It turns out that

sities are precisely known;

the only way for this paradox to work is if the statement is

both true and false simultaneously [14]. This brings us to (b) This implies that one should adopt a parametric model

fuzzy Bayesian approach [14] as an extension of (3): for the class probabilities and class densities, and then

use empirical data.

p (M | si ) p (si )

P (si |M ) = , (4) (c) Therefore, in the context where multiple sensors can

p (M ) be used, information fusion approach could be a better

where [14, p. 339]: alternative to Bayes approach.

r

X

p (M | si ) = p (xk | si ) μM (xk ) . (5) In other words, we should find an extension to standard

k=1

proposition in statistical theory [8, p. 388]:

28 F. Smarandache, V. Christianto. A Note on Fusion Interpretation of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Measurement

October, 2006 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4

P (AB | C) = P (A | BC)P (B | C) (7) geometry and algebra with imaginary plane [18]:

= P (B | AC)P (A | C) (8) x + iy = ρeiφ . (14)

P (A | B) + P (Aˉ | B) = 1 . (9)

Therefore one could expect to come up with geometrical

Such an extension is already known in the area of infor- explanation of quantum interaction, provided we could gen-

mation fusion [2], known as Dempster-Shafer theory: eralize the metric using imaginary plane:

m (A) + m (B) + m(A ∪ B) = 1 . (10) X + iX 0 = ρeiφ . (15)

Interestingly, Chapline [13] noted that neither Bayesian Interestingly, Amoroso and Rauscher [19] have proposed

theory nor Dempster-Shafer could offer insight on how to exactly the same idea, i. e. generalizing Minkowski metric to

minimize overall energy usage in the network. In the mean- become 8-dimensional metric which can be represented as:

time, Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) [2] introduced further μ

Z μ = Xre

μ

+ iXim = ρeiφ . (16)

improvement of Dempster-Shafer theory by taking into con-

sideration chance to observe intersection between A and B: A characteristic result of this 8-dimensional metric is that

“space separation” vanishes, and quantum-type interaction

m(A) + m(B) + m (A ∪ B) + m(A ∩ B) = 1 . (11) could happen in no time.

Therefore, introducing this extension from equation (11) Another viewpoint could be introduced in this regard,

into equation (2), one finds a modified version of Bell’s the- i. e. that the wave nature of photon arises from “photon fluid”

orem in the form: medium, which serves to enable photon-photon interaction.

It has been argued that this photon-fluid medium could be

| C 00 (φ) − C 00 (δ)| −

(12) described using Gross-Pitaevskii equation [20]. In turns, we

− C 00 (δ − φ) + C 00 (δ ∪ φ) + C 00 (δ ∩ φ) 6 1 , could expect to “derive” Schrödinger wave equation from

which could be called as modified Bell’s theorem according the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

to Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) theory [2]. Its direct impli- It will be shown, that we could derive Schrödinger wave

cations suggest that it could be useful to include more sen- equation from Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Interestingly,

sors in order to capture various possibilities beyond simple a new term similar to equation (14) arises here, which then

{0, 1} result, which is typical in Bell’s theorem. we propose to call it “hronir wave”. Therefore one could

Further generalization of DSmT theory (11) is known as expect that this “hronir wave” plays the role of “invisible

Unification of Fusion Theories [15, 16, 17]: light” as postulated by Maxwell long-time ago.

Consider the well-known Gross-Pitaevskii equation in

m(A) + m(B) + m(A ∪ B) + m(A ∩ B) + the context of superfluidity or superconductivity [21]:

(13)

ˉ + m (B)

+ m(A) ˉ + m(Aˉ ∪ B)

ˉ + m(Aˉ ∩ B)

ˉ = 1, ∂Ψ ˉh2

i ˉh =− ΔΨ + V (x) − γ |Ψ| p−1 Ψ, (17)

where Aˉ is the complement of A and B ˉ is the complement ∂t 2m

of B (if we consider the set theory). where p < 2N/(N − 2) if N > 3. In physical problems, the

(But if we consider the logical theory then Aˉ is the equation for p = 3 is known as Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

negation of A and B ˉ is the negation of B. The set theory and This equation (17) has standing wave solution quite similar

logical theory in this example are equivalent, hence doesn’t to Schrödinger equation, in the form:

matter which one we use from them.) In equation (13) above

we have a complement/negation for A. We might define the Ψ(x, t) = e−iEt/ˉh ∙ u (x) . (18)

Aˉ as the entangle of particle A. Hence we could expect Substituting equation (18) into equation (17) yields:

to further extend Bell’s inequality considering UFT; non-

ˉh2

etheless we leave this further generalization for the reader. − Δu + V (x) − E u = |u| p−1 u , (19)

Of course, new experimental design is recommended in 2m

order to verify and to find various implications of this new which is nothing but time-independent linear form of Schr ö-

proposition. dinger equation, except for term |u| p−1 [21]. In case the

right-hand side of this equation is negligible, equation (19)

reduces to standard Schrödinger equation. Using Maclaurin

4 An alternative geometric interpretation of Bell-type

series expansion, we get for (18):

measurement. Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the 3

iEt 2

“hronir wave” iEt ˉ

h − iEt

ˉ

h

Ψ(x, t) = 1− + + + . . . ∙ u (x) . (20)

Apart from the aforementioned Bayesian interpretation of ˉh 2! 3!

Bell’s theorem, we can consider the problem from purely Therefore we can say that standing wave solution of

geometric viewpoint. As we know, there is linkage between Gross-Pitaevskii equation (18) is similar to standing wave

F. Smarandache, V. Christianto. A Note on Fusion Interpretation of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Measurement 29

Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October, 2006

solution of Schrödinger equation (u), except for nonlinear Interestingly, equation (28) is equivalent to Maxwell eq-

term which comes from Maclaurin series expansion (20). uations. [22] Now we can generalize our result from the

By neglecting third and other higher order terms of equation preceding section, in the form of the following conjecture:

(20), one gets an approximation:

Conjecture 1 Given a particular solution of Schrödinger

Ψ(x, t) = 1 − iEt/ˉh ∙ u (x) . (21) equation (24), then the approximate solution of Gross-

Pitaevskii equation (17) reduces to the first order equation:

Note that this equation (21) is very near to hyperbolic

form z = x + iy [18]. Therefore one could conclude that 1 − iEt/ˉh D + M h F = 0 . (30)

standing wave solution of Gross-Pitaevskii equation is mere-

Therefore we can conclude here that there is neat linkage

ly an extension from ordinary solution of Schrödinger equa-

between Schrödinger equation, Maxwell equation, Riccati

tion into Cauchy (imaginary) plane. In other words, there

equation via biquaternion expression [22, 23, 24]. And ap-

shall be “hronir wave” part of Schrödinger equation in order

proximate solution of Gross-Pitaevskii equation is similar to

to describe Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We will use this result

solution of Schrödinger equation, except that it exhibits a

in the subsequent section, but first we consider how to derive

new term called here “the hronir wave” (30).

bi-quaternion from Schrödinger equation.

Our proposition is that considering equation (30) has im-

It is known that solutions of Riccati equation are loga-

aginary plane wave, therefore it could be expected to pro-

rithmic derivatives of solutions of Schrödinger equation, and

vided “physical mechanism” of quantum interaction, in the

vice versa [22]:

u00 + vu = 0 . (22) same sense of equation (14). Further experiments are of

course recommended in order to verify or refute this

Bi-quaternion of differentiable function of x =(x1 ,x2 ,x3 )

is defined as [22]: 5 Some astrophysical implications of Gross-Pitaevskii

Dq = −div (q) + grad(q0 ) + rot(q) . (23) description

By using alternative representation of Schrödinger equa- Interestingly, Moffat [25, p. 9] has also used Gross-Pitaevskii

tion [22]: in his “phion condensate fluid” to describe CMB spectrum.

−Δ + u f = 0 , (24) Therefore we could expect that this equation will also yield

interesting results in cosmological scale.

where f is twice differentiable, and introducing quaternion

Furthermore, it is well-known that Gross-Pitaevskii equa-

equation:

Dq + q 2 = −u . (25) tion could exhibit topologically non-trivial vortex solutions

[26, 27], which can be expressed as quantized vortices:

Then we could find q, where q is purely vectorial diffe- I

rentiable bi-quaternion valued function [22]. p • dr = Nv 2πˉh . (31)

We note that solutions of (24) are related to (25) as fol-

lows [22]: Therefore an implication of Gross-Pitaevskii equation

• For any nonvanishing solution f of (24), its logarithm- [25] is that topologically quantized vortex could exhibit in

ic derivative: astrophysical scale. In this context we submit the viewpoint

Df that this proposition indeed has been observed in the form

q= , (26)

f of Tifft’s quantization [28, 29]. The following description

is a solution of equation (25), and vice versa [22]. supports this assertion of topological quantized vortices in

astrophysical scale.

Furthermore, we also note that for an arbitrary scalar

We start with standard definition of Hubble law [28]:

twice differentiable function f , the following equality is per-

mitted [22]: δλ Hr

z= = (32)

λ c

−Δ + u f = D + M h D − M h f , (27) or

c

r= z. (33)

provided h is solution of equation (25). H

Therefore we can summarize that given a particular solu- Now we suppose that the major parts of redshift data

tion of Schrödinger equation (24), the general solution redu- could be explained via Doppler shift effect, therefore [28]:

ces to the first order equation [22, p. 9]:

δλ v

z= = . (34)

D + Mh F = 0 , (28) λ c

where √ In order to interpret Tifft’s observation of quantized red-

D ε

h= . (29) shift corresponding to quantized velocity 36.6 km/sec and

ε

30 F. Smarandache, V. Christianto. A Note on Fusion Interpretation of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Measurement

October, 2006 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4

72.2 km/sec, then we could write from equation (34): 5. Kracklauer A. La theorie de Bell, est-elle la plus grande

meprise de l’histoire de la physique? Annales de la Fondation

δv δλ Louis de Broglie, v. 25, 2000, 193.

= δz = δ . (35)

c λ 6. Aharonov Y. et al. arXiv: quant-ph/0311155.

Or from equation (33) we get: 7. Rosu H. C. arXiv: gr-qc/9411035.

c 8. Zurek W. (ed.), Complexity, entropy and the physics of infor-

δr = δz . (36) mation. Santa Fe Inst. Studies, Addison-Wesley, 1990.

H

9. Schrieffer J. R. Macroscopic quantum phenomena from pairing

In other words, we submit the viewpoint that Tifft’s ob- in superconductors. Lecture, December 11, 1972.

servation of quantized redshift implies a quantized distance 10. Anandan J. S. In: Quantum Coherence and Reality. Columbia

between galaxies [28], which could be expressed in the form: SC, World Sci., 1994; arXiv: gr-qc/9504002.

rn = r0 + n (δr) . (35a) 11. Goldstein S. Quantum theory without observers — part one.

Physics Today, March 1998, 42–46.

It is proposed here that this equation of quantized distan- 12. Pitowski I. arXiv: quant-ph/0510095.

ce (5) is resulted from topological quantized vortices (31), 13. Chapline G. arXiv: adap-org/9906002; quant-ph/9912019;

and agrees with Gross-Pitaevskii (quantum phion condensa- Granik A. and Chapline G. arXiv: quant-ph/0302013; http://

te) description of CMB spectrum [25]. Nonetheless, further www.whatsnextnetwork.com/technology/index.php/2006/03/.

observation is recommended in order to verify the above 14. Ross T. J. fuzzy logic with engineering applications. McGraw-

proposition. Hill, 1995, 196–197, 334–341.

15. Smarandache F. Unification of Fusion Theories (UFT). Intern.

Concluding remarks J. of Applied Math. & Statistics, 2004, v. 2, 1–14.

In the present paper we review a few extension of Bell’s 16. Smarandache F. An in-depth look at information fusion rules

theorem which could take into consideration chance to ob- and unification of fusion theories. Invited speech at NASA

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA, Nov 5, 2004.

serve outcome beyond classical statistical theory, in parti-

cular using the information fusion theory. A new geometrical 17. Smarandache F. Unification of the fusion theory (UFT).

interpretation of quantum interaction has been considered, Invited speech at NATO Advance Study Institute, Albena,

Bulgaria, May 16–27, 2005.

using Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Interestingly, Moffat [25]

also considered this equation in the context of cosmology. 18. Gogberashvili M. arXiv: hep-th/0212251.

It is recommended to conduct further experiments in 19. Rauscher E. A. and Amoroso R. Intern. J. of Comp. Anticipa-

order to verify and also to explore various implications of tory Systems, 2006.

this new proposition, including perhaps for the quantum com- 20. Chiao R. et al.. arXiv: physics/0309065.

putation theory [8, 13]. 21. Dinu T. L. arXiv: math.AP/0511184.

22. Kravchenko V. arXiv: math.AP/0408172.

Acknowledgment

23. Lipavsky P. et al. arXiv: cond-mat/0111214.

The writers would like to thank to Profs. C. Castro, J. Dezert, 24. De Haas E. P. Proc. of the Intern. Conf. PIRT-2005, Moscow,

P. Vallin, T. Love, D. Rabounski, and A. Kaivarainen for MGTU Publ., 2005.

valuable discussions. The new term “hronir wave” introduced 25. Moffat J. arXiv: astro-ph/0602607.

here was inspired from Borges’ Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius. 26. Smarandache F. and Christianto V. Progress in Physics, 2006,

Hronir wave is defined here as “almost symmetrical mirror” v. 2, 63–67.

of Schrödinger-type wave. 27. Fischer U. arXiv: cond-mat/9907457; cond-mat/ 0004339.

28. Russell Humphreys D. Our galaxy is the centre of the universe,

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F. Smarandache, V. Christianto. A Note on Fusion Interpretation of Bell’s Theorem and Quantum Measurement 31

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