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Cluj Napoca 2009

1.INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION Communication serves five major purposes: - to inform, - to express feelings, - to imagine, - to influence, and - to meet social expectations. Each of these purposes is reflected in a form of communication. 1.1 DEFINITION: Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way by both sender and receiver. It is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding 2. FORMS OF COMMUNICATION: There are two main forms of communication: Verbal Communication Non-Verbal Communication 2.1 Verbal Communication: The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language. At birth, most people have vocal cords, which produce sounds. As a child grows it learns how to form these sounds into words. Some words may be imitative of natural sounds, but others may come from expressions of emotion, such as laughter or crying.

3 Words alone have no meaning. Only people can put meaning into words. As meaning is assigned to words, language develops, which leads to the development of speaking. The actual origin of language is subject to considerable speculation. Some theorists believe it is an outgrowth of group activities such as working together or dancing. Others believe that language developed from basic sounds and gestures. Over 3,000 languages and major dialects are spoken in the world today. The development of languages reflects class, gender, profession, age group, and other social factors. The huge variety of languages usually creates difficulties between different languages, but even within a single language there can be many problems in understanding. Through speaking we try to eliminate this misunderstanding, but sometimes this is a very hard thing to do. Just as we assume that our messages are clearly received, so we assume that because something is important to us, it is important to others. As time has proven this is not at all true. Many problems can arise is speaking and the only way to solve these problems is through experience. Speaking can be looked at in two major areas: interpersonal and public speaking. Since the majority of speaking is an interpersonal process, to communicate effectively we must not simply clean up our language, but learn to relate to people. In interpersonal speaking, etiquette is very important. To be an effective communicator one must speak in a manner that is not offending to the receiver. Etiquette also plays an important role in an area that has developed in most all business settings: hierarchical communication. In business today, hierarchical communication is of utmost importance to all members involved. The other major area of speaking is public speaking. From the origin of time, it has been obvious that some people are just better public speakers than others. Because of this, today a good speaker can earn a living by speaking to people in a public setting. Some of the major areas of public speaking are speaking to persuade, speaking to inform, and speaking to inspire or motivate. 2.1.1 Language:

4 A language is a syntactically organized system of signals, such as voice sounds, intonations or pitch, gestures or written symbols which communicate thoughts or feelings. Communication requires that all parties understand a common language that is exchanged. 2.1.2 Dialogue: A dialogue is a reciprocal conversation between two or more entities.in which two or more people communicate with each other. 2.2 Non-Verbal Communication: Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. 2.2.1. Types of non verbal communication 1. Facial Expression You have 80 muscles in your face that can create more than 7,000 facial expressions. There are six main types of facial expressions found in all cultures are: Happiness (round eyes, smiles, raised cheeks ) Fear (around eyes, open mouth ) Angry (lower eyebrow and stare intensely ) Disgusting (wrinkled nose, lowered eyelids and eyebrow, raised upper lip) Surprise (raised eyebrow, wide open eyes, open mouth ) Sadness (Area around mouth and eyes) 2. Gestures Deliberate movements and signals. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate number amounts. 3. Body Language and Posture

5 Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Such as armcrossing, and leg-crossing, hands in the pocket, hands on the hips. 4. Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them 5. Eye Gaze Looking, staring, and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. 6. Haptics Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. Handshakes, holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slap, high five, shoulder pat, brushing arm, e.t.c 7. Paralanguage Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone voice, pitch, loudness, inflection e.t.c 2.2.2 Advantage of non verbal communication You can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf. You can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence. You can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen to. You can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but not hear you. Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief. 2.2.3 Disadvantages You can not have long conversation. It varies culture to culture. Can not discuss the particulars of your message. Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions. Can not be used as a public tool for communication. Less influential and can not be used everywhere.

3. MEDIUMS OF COMMUNICATION There are no of mediums of communication in which some popular mediums are: Electronic media Telecommunication Information technology Print media Postal services These medium are further divided into other modes which are: Telegraph Radio Television Telecommunication Telephone Mobile phones Fax Call centers Satellites Internet Email Newspapers Magazines Newsletters Mails 3.1 Electronic media: Electronic media are media that utilize electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content. Any equipment used in the electronic communication process (e.g. television, radio telegraph) may also be considered electronic media.

3.1.1 Uses of electronic media: Electronic media devices have found their way into all partsThe term is relevant to media ecology for studying it's impact compared to printed media and broadening the scope of understanding media beyond a simplistic aspect of media such as one delivery platform (e.g. the world wide web) aside from many other options of modern life. Uses of electronic media can be seen in many setors of life because through it communication purposes are done in short time and efficiently. Journalism News Marketing Advertising Graphic Design Education Professional Training Entertainment Television Video Games Movies Music Telegraph: The electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electric signals. The electromagnetic telegraph is a device for human-to-human transmission of coded text messages over wire. Im this the codes are sent on a wire and then they are translated and the codes are translated into spellings In old times this mode of communication was considered very effective because in old times it was fastest two sided communication device.

8 Through this the global; communication was done in old times for nearly 29 years. Because through this, the communication, was done between different continents because it was considered fastest.

Radio: Radio is the transmission of signals, by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Radio was one sided communication mean in past through which information was passed to others but now even in Pakistan because of different FM channels people can also call to radio and can communicate and can share information on radio. Biggest advantage of Radio is, it is mobile so people can carry it wth them easily and can listen to it anywhere. Television: Television (TV) is a widely used telecommunication medium for sending (broadcasting) and receiving moving images, either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, 3.2 Telecommunication: Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums, semaphore, flags, Morse Code, or heliograph. Following are telecommunication examples: Telephone Mobile phone Fax Call centres

Telephone: The telephone is a telecommunications device that is used to transmit and receive sound, usually two people conversing but occasionally three or more. It is one of the most common household appliances in the world today through which people can communicate. Most telephones operate through transmission of electric signals over a complex telephone network which allows almost any phone user to communicate with almost anyone. By the end of 2006, there were a total of nearly 4 billion mobile and fixed line subscribers and over 1 billion Internet users worldwide. This included 1.27 billion fixed line subscribers and 2.68 billion mobile subscribers this is easiest device to communication and to share communication in any part of world Mobile phones: The mobile phone (also called a wireless phone or cellular phone, is a short-range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. The Finnish government decided in 2005 that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters was the mobile phone network. In Japan, mobile phone companies provide immediate notification of earthquakes and other natural disasters. So we can say that now a days mobile phones are fastest mode of communication

Fax: Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, "make similar", i.e. "make a copy") is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for "make a copy at a distance",

10 Telemarketing: Telemarketing is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits to prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled during the call.

Call centre: A call centre is a centralized office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. Print media: Print media is a biggest part of communication.The two most common print media are newspapers and magazines, but print media also include outdoor billboards, transit posters, the yellow pages, and direct mail. Print media is important because it can reach such a large audience, and the great number of specialized publications enable businesses to focus in on a target audience with a specific set of characteristics. Following print media is very popular: News paper Magazines News letters Yellow pages Newspapers: When deciding upon a newspaper in which to advertise, there are three physical criteria to consider: distribution, size, and audience. Newspapers are either daily or weekly, come in a standard or tabloid size, and reach nearly all of the reading public, which is estimated to be around 85-90 percent of the population. Because of the broad demographic reach of most newspapers it is difficult to target a specific audience;

11 however, newspapers are effective in increasing awareness of a business' products and services in a specific geographical area.

Magazines: With magazines one can focus in on a specific target audieAudiences can be reached by placing any news related to some class in magazines which have [a] welldefined geographic, demographic, or lifestyle focus. Newsletters: A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication generally about one main topic that is of interest to its subscribers. Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters.General attributes of newsletters include news and upcoming events of the related organization, as well as contact information for general inquiries. 3.3 Information technology Information Technology (IT) is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information. Presumably, when speaking of Information Technology (IT) as a whole, it is noted that the use of computers and information are associated. Internet: The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that interchange data by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of private and public,

12 academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries various information resources and services of communication between people, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and the inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). E-mail: Electronic mail, often abbreviated to e-mail, email, or originally eMail, is a storeand-forward method of writing, sending, receiving and saving messages over electronic communication systems. Satellite:

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.

Communications satellites are satellites stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites typically use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or Low Earth orbits.

Postal services: Postal services are one of the oldest methods of communicating. Through this people send mails and gifts to their relatives. Postal services include: - Mail - Couriers Mail:

13 Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects, wherein written documents, typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages, are delivered to destinations around the world. Anything sent through the postal system is called mail or post.


Communication is such an important and large part of our lives that encompasses each moment of our existence. The latest innovations in technological communication (digital and/or electronic) are wonderful tools and resources that can enhance our lives through the convenience of communication that is fast and efficient. Nonetheless, we need to be conscious of the fact that we are human beings with emotions, feelings and thoughts, unlike the digital electronic tools that enable us to communicate with anyone anywhere around the world within seconds. Thus, the best form of communication, due to our human nature, is face to face live verbal communication where we are able receive the person, come to know them in their entirety, and have the benefit of more accurate perceptions that can easily be misconstrued via e-mail or another of the many digital or electronic technologies. Indeed, technology is a wonderful tool, but it is not an end to our means. When we communicate in any way other than face to face (live) we lose that part of the humanness that makes us unique and special to each other. We must never forget our roots of communication and not allow digital or electronic forms of communication to alienate us from each other. I realize that when we desire to communicate with someone that is up north, in another province, or half way around the world, the most practical means of communication is digitally or electronically. As I have mentioned before, the more practically we use technology, the better technology will serve us and our planet.


Communicating in the right way is important.



BOOKS: Bonvillain, N. (1999). Language,culture and communication:the meaning of messages. Engleswood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall. Knapp, M.L. & Hall, J.A. (2001). Nonverbal communication in human action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. WEB-RESOURCES: 1. Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication#References This page was last modified on 5 December 2009 at 17:37. Page accesed on 5 December 2009. 2. Open Encyclopedia http://open-encyclopedia.com/Communication This page was last modified on 3 December 2009 at 14:26. Page accesed on 4 December 2009.