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MEC 557

The Finite Element Method for Solid Mechanics


attilio.frangi@polimi.it christian.rey@lmt.ens cachan.fr christian.rey@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

http://www.stru.polimi.it/home/frangi/MEC557.html
MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1 1

Teachers: Attilio Frangi: Department of Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Milano


attilio.frangi@polimi.it

Christian Rey: LMT, ENS Cachan


christian.rey@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

Amphis in english italian english - Slides always available on web-site PC in french Book in french. Chapters french Amphis (book accurately reflects contents of Amphis) New chapter related to Amphi 4 in english Written exam: text in English. Use language you prefer, even mixed WHY?? Course part of a Master in English Finite Element Method (FEM) literature is in english. Research and work environments often adopt english as common language http://www.stru.polimi.it/home/frangi/MEC557.html
MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1 2

Finite element procedures are an important and often indispensable part of engineering and design. Finite Element computer programs are now widely used in almost all branches of engineering for the analysis of structures, solids and fluids FEM is by far the most important and employed general purpose numerical tool in solid mechanics Replace and/or enrich expensive experimental campaigns in order to understand p / p p p g underlying physics (after calibration of models) Optimization of existing procedures and products Design of new products g p Wealth of commercial codes: Abaqus, Ansys (international) q , y ( ) Castem, Code Aster (typically french) and many, many more..

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Planning Basic notions in linear elasticity MEC 431 and beyond


Amphi 1 Appro imate sol tion te hniq es in solid me hani s 1: Approximate solution techniques mechanics Amphi 2: The concept of Isoparametric Finite Elements Amphi 3: The Finite Element Method PC 1-2-3-4

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Planning Element Engineering


Amphi 4 Patholo ies and cures of isoparametri finite elements 4: Pathologies res isoparametric

incompressibility.. rubber (tyres), stokes flow (MEMS!!), plasticity..

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Planning Non linear quasi-static problems


Amphi 5 Introd tion Appli ation to geometrical non linearities 5: Introduction. Application eometri al non-linearities

buckling of structures

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Planning Elastoplasticity
Amphi 6 Lo al iss es 6: Local issues Amphi 7: Global issues
Strong links with Rupture et Plasticite, J.J. Marigo (but self sufficient..)

plastic deformation in an exaust-pipe

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Planning Time dependent problems


Amphi 8 Thermal diff sion and thermoelasti it 8: diffusion thermoelasticity Amphi 9: Dynamics

Temperature chart in an engine

Impact of a tyre on a surface. Rolling of a tyre on an inclined surface

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Lesson 1: Approximate solution techniques in solid mechanics pp q


1. Governing equations in strong form 2. Weak formulation of the problem 3. Variational formulation of the problem 4. Approximate minimisation: Galerkin approach

Basically a smooth revision of some concepts already presented in MEC431 !!! (and an introduction to some english terminology)

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Lesson 1: Approximate solution techniques in solid mechanics pp q


1. Governing equations in strong form 2. Weak formulation of the problem 3. Variational formulation of the problem 4. Approximate minimisation: Galerkin approach

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Governing equations in strong form g q g


List of assumptions for Amphis 1-4 Small perturbations (HPP)
Actual configuration = Initial configuration Linearised strain tensor Cauchy stress tensor y

Quasi static evolution


Neglect inertia terms

Linear elastic, homogenoeus and isotropic material

body forces

stiffness tensor

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Revision: properties of the constitutive law

elastic energy dens. x 2

elastic energy dens. x 2

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Isotropic linear elastic material


A1111 A1122 A2222 SYM A1133 A1112 A2233 A2212 A3333 A3312 A1212 A1123 A2223 A3323 A1223 A2323 A1113 A2213 A3313 A1213 A2313 A1313

notation with lists! (freq. for implementations)

2 2 2

in case of isotropy

2(

) 2(

) 2(

)
13

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Approximation by finite differences

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Approximation by finite differences

see Amphis 8-9

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Lesson 1: Approximate solution techniques in solid mechanics pp q


1. Governing equations in strong form 2. Weak formulation of the equilibrium conditions 3. Variational formulation of the equilibrium conditions 4. Approximate minimisation: Galerkin approach

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Admissible spaces
Space of regular displacements (associated to a bounded energy)

Space of fields compatible with boundary data p p y kinematically admissible displacements:

statically admissible stresses

Space of displacements compatible with zero boundary displacements

strain operator! Formulation of the equilibrium problem in linear elasticity (strong form):

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Weak problem formulation


Weak form of local equilibrium equations:

stems from an integration by parts procedure of:

corresponds essentially to a form of the Principle of Virtual Power (PPV) Compatibility equation and constitutive law enforced pointwise

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Weak problem formulation

Remarks: no explicit reference to how kinematic data on the boundary are enforced presence of unknown T on Su (reaction forces due to imposed displacements)

Two T possible modifications ( ibl difi ti (associated t variants of th equation above): i t d to i t f the ti b ) eliminate T on Su weakly enforce displacement boundary data uD on Su

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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First variant: eliminate unknown tractions

Assume that the two following conditions can b met ( will se l t h ) A th t th t f ll i diti be t (we ill later how) restrict w to be kinematically admissible with zero boundary data: choose w in

u satisfies a priori boundary conditions in a strong form: u = uD on Su Hence the problem formulation becomes:

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Second variant: weak enforcement of displacement BC

no restrictions on w kinematic boundary conditions enforced in a weak manner with a new equation

where th set C of admissible t ti h the t f d i ibl tractions i d fi d b d lit with respect t C is defined by duality ith t to C:

classical example of mixed formulation


MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1 21

Lesson 1: Approximate solution techniques in solid mechanics pp q


1. Governing equations in strong form 2. Weak formulation 3. Variational formulation 4. Approximate minimisation: Galerkin approach

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Variational formulation
The solution of a linear elastic problem can be characterized in terms of specific functionals (typically energy functionals) this approach has already been presented in MEC431 (e.g. potential energy functional)

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Energy functionals
Total Potential energy functional The displacement field solution of the problem minimises P:

Total Complementary energy functional The stress field solution of the problem minimises P:

It is clearly sufficient to perform one of the minimisations, e.g. and th compute stresses via d then t t i
MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1 24

Stationarity of potential energy functional


Consider the displacement u solution of the problem and compute the variation of P when u is perturbed by w with

At the minimum point the variation vanishes up to the first order in along any direction p p g y

In the specific case of a linear elastic problem this yields:

which corresponds to the weak form, first variant (without unknown tractions)
weak formulation: multiply strong form of local equations by a test function and integrate variational formulation: corresponds to the requirement that the variation of a functional vanishes MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1 25

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Lesson 1: Approximate solution techniques in solid mechanics pp q


1. Governing equations in strong form

2. Weak formulation of the problem 3. Variational formulation of the problem 4. Approximate minimisation: Galerkin approach

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

Approximate minimisation: Galerkin approach


The sets and of admissible fields are are spaces of infinite dimensions The exact minimisations:

are impossible in practice (due to the complicated geometry of real problems)

An approximate minimum is sought: Galerkin approach

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach for potential energy


Minimisation of P(v) where v has the form ,

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach for potential energy

is a square NxN matrix, symmetric and positive definite (if SUITABLE bc on u are imposed):

has one and only one minumum defined by

leading to the optimal generalized displacement

by construction

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach for the weak formulation


Weak formulation of the linear elastic problem (revision)

The choice of the unknown and of the virtual fields:

leads to the l d t th same li linear system of equations as before: t f ti b f

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach: general properties (1/3)


Let us express the solution u as u = uN +u (u is the error with respect to the exact solution) Virtual field

Weak continuum formulation (written for the exact solution u)

Weak discrete formulation (written for the approximate solution uN)

The error u is orthogonal to every virtual field belonging to the space where the solution is sought (in the sense of the energy norm)

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach: general properties (2/3)


Deformation energy of with arbitrary kinematically admissible y y remember u - uN = u

Property of best approximation: uN is the best approximation of the exact solution u in the selected space of approximation, in the sense of the energy norm: p f pp , f gy

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach: general properties (3/3)


Deformation energy of exact solution

Assumption:

. Hence

and then:

Property 3: if

approximates u from below in the energy norm sense:

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Galerkin approach: complementary energy


greatest difficulty!!!!!

The Th approximate solution (i t i t l ti (in terms of stresses) i d fi d b f t ) is defined by

In general this cannot be integrated to yield a compatible displacement

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Discussion
Galerkin approach: displacement version Basis functions have to be kinematically admissible and are easy to build (regularity and finite energy) Galerkin approach: stress version pp Basis functions have to be statically admissible admissible ( and are difficult to build

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Basis functions defined over the whole domain

The convergence of terms) if u i smooth t ) is th

is very fast (exponential w.r.t. the number of

Not well adapted to complicated geometries and to problems with limited regularity Very little used in solid mechanics but very promising e.g. in fluid mechanics (spectral methods)
MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1 37

Example of the hollow sphere


Hollow sphere (inner surface r = R1, outer surface r = R2) subjected to internal pressure p and displacement u(R2) d on the outer surface ( )= h f

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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Basis functions with local support: introduction to Finite Elements


Difficulties induced by global approaches
Not well adapted to complicated geometries Enforcement of boundary conditions is difficult

Basics of the displacement Finite Element Method (FEM): Galerkin G l ki approach with basis functions having small support h i hb i f i h i ll

MEC 557, Ecole Polytechnique, September 16, 2011, Amphi 1

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http://www.stru.polimi.it/home/frangi/MEC557.html

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