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Ch 1: Introduction to Industrial Robots

Trimester 1, 2012

Program Objectives
To provide knowledge of automation and its building blocks. To provide knowledge of robotics related to drives, programming and performance.

Program Outcomes
On completion of this unit, a student should have: 1. Obtained a fair grasp of automation and robotic functions 2. In-depth knowledge with regard to robots performance and their applications to industries

Reference: Introduction to Robotics in CIM System, James Rehg

Career Spotlight
This chapter correspond to career opportunities in manufacturing automation and robotics in particular. Career span the range from system designer to system maintenance and support support. The subject of the work can be as specific as a particular type of robot arm or as broad as an entire manufacturing system.

Career Spotlight (cont)

Employers includes: 1. The designers and suppliers of automation components, 2. The vendors that sell and maintain the manufacturing hardware and software, 3. Manufacturers who are the end users of automation.

Introduction to Robotics


External Challenges
Internet New/niche market entrants Global market Customers Cost and money

Suppliers Traditional competition

Internal Challenges
The internal challenge is to develop a manufacturing strategic that satisfies: A manufacturing strategic is a plan or process that forces agreement between the market driven corporate goals and the production capability of the company. To win orders and increase market share, the enterprise must be competitive in price, quality, design lead time, delivery reliability, flexibility, customer decision, innovation and etc.

Internal Challenges
Order winning criteria by Terry Hill The minimum level of operational capability required to get an order. Setup time, Quality, Manufacturing Space Ratio, Inventory, Flexibility, Distance and Uptime.

Internal Challenges

The Problem and A solution

What is Automation?
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is accomplished without human assistance. Basic elements of an automated system:
1. Power - to accomplish the process and operate the automated system 2. Program of instructions to direct the process 3. Control system to actuate the instructions

Industrial Robot (ISO/TR/8373-2.3)

controlled, A robot is an automatically controlled reprogrammable, multipurpose, reprogrammable multipurpose manipulative machine with several reprogrammable axes axes, which they may either fixed in place or mobile for use industrial automation applications.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)

The integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies to improve organizational and personal efficacy. Include many advanced manufacturing technologies such as robotics, CNC, CAD, CAM and Just-in time Production (JIT), it goes beyond these technology.

Manufacturing system classification

Project Job Shop Repetitive Line Continuous


Job Shop

Repetitive, Line and Continuous

Manufacturing system classification

Introduction to Robotics


Robot Systems
The Robotic Industries Association define a robot system as follow: An industrial robot system includes the robot(s) (hardware and software) consisting of the manipulator, manipulator power supply and controller the controller; end-effector(s); end-effector any equipment , devices, and sensors with which the robot directly interfacing interfacing, any equipment , devices and sensors required for devices, the robot to perform its task and any task; communications interface that is operating and monitoring the robot, equipment, and sensors.

Robot Hardware

Mechanical Arm
The arm is mechanical device driven by motors, pneumatic device, or hydraulic actuators. The basic drive elements will be either linear of rotary actuators. The combination of motions included in the arm in the arm determine the type of arm geometries geometries.

Production Tooling
The arm alone a no production capability. It must interfaced to production tooling become an effective production system, The tooling to perform the work task is attached to the tool plate at the end of the arm.

Production Tooling (cont)

If the tooling is an open-and close mechanism to grasp part, it is referred to as a gripper gripper. Usually referred as end-effector. end-effector
More discussion on Lecture 4.

External Power Source

The external power source is required to drive electric, the arm motion (electric pneumatic & hydraulic) hydraulic and electricity for the electronic controller. Most grippers are activated by compressed air, a source of compressed air is required for most system.

External Power Source (cont)

External Power Source

Large robot arms using hydraulic actuators for motion require a hydraulic power source.

Robot Controller
special The controller, basically a specialpurpose computer has all the computer, elements commonly found in computers, such as a CPU, memory and input/output devices. The distributed microcomputer network in the controller has the primary responsibility for controlling the robot arm and controlling/communicating with the work cell in which it is operating.

Robot Controller
The controller receives feedback from the arm on current joint position and velocity and responds with the outputs to the servo drives to change the current position and velocity based on the program stored in the memory memory. The controller also communicates with external devices through the input/output interface. More discussion on Lecture 2 and 7.

Teach Station
Consists of teach pendants, programming units, controller panels and software running under windows. The main 3 activities: 1. Robot power-up and preparation for programming. 2. Entry and editing of programs 3. Execution of programs in the work cell. More discussion on Lecture 8

Controller Interface (ABB)

What is Fieldbus?
Fieldbus is a generic-term which describes a new digital communications network which will be used in industry to replace the existing 4 - 20mA analogue signal. The network is a digital, bi-directional, multidrop, serial-bus, communications network used to link isolated field devices such as controllers devices, controllers, transducers, actuators and sensors sensors. Each field device has low cost computing power installed in it, making each device a smart device.

What is Fieldbus? (cont)

Each device will be able to execute simple functions on its own such as diagnostic, control, and maintenance functions as well as providing bi-directional communication capabilities. bi With these devices not only will the engineer be able to access the field devices, but they are also able to communicate with other field devices. In essence fieldbus will replace centralized control networks with distributed-control distributednetworks. networks

Introduction to Robotics


Work Envelope (Work Space)

This is the space in which the robot endeffector can move with no limits in travel other than those imposed by the joints.

Work Envelope (cont)

Axis Numbering
Start at the robot mounting plate (base). Label the first axis of motion encounter as axis 1. Progress from the base to the end-effector.

Position and Orientation Axes

Orientation Axes (Wrist)

Degree of Freedom
Every joint or moveable axis on the arm is a degree of freedom. A machine with moveable joints is a robot with 6 degree of freedom/axes.

Coordinate System

Accuracy is the degree to which a robot arm can move in a specific transition or position point in a work cell.

Repeatability is the degree to which a robot can return to a specific programmed position point at the work cell.

Tool Center Point (TCP)

The point of action for the tool mounted to the robot tool plate is called the offset or tool center point (TCP).

Data Sheet

Data Sheet

Data Sheet

Data Sheet