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# PS/IS 206

## 7th Grade Science

Mrs. Safronsky
Class __________

Name _________________________________

## SCIENCE FAIR: COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTING IN SCIENCE

Every good scientist needs to be skilled not only at performing experiments but also at properly writing them and sharing their results with other scientists. We have already learned the ingredients needed for a well written science experiment. During this project we will apply what we learned. Your job is to select and perform an experiment that will compare one sample to other samples while testing only one variable. Think of all those times when you thought "What if I just change this one thing, will I still have the same results?" So this is your opportunity to test the effect of that change on your results. GOAL: To identify a problem, analyze the results, and evaluate the experiment in order to synthesize a well written report that can communicate effectively with other scientists. INGREDIENTS OF A WELL WRITTEN SCIENCE EXPERIMENT:

Title (Catchy titles get everyone's attention.) Your Full Name and Class
Problem: (What is your experiment about?) Use these words: The effect of [the independent variable] on [the dependent variable]. Ex: The Effect of the amount of light on the height of the plant. Hypothesis: (What do you think is going to happen in the experiment?) Use these words: If [the independent variable] is [increased, decreased, changed], then [the dependent variable] will [increase, decrease, change]. Ex: If the amount of light is increased, then the height of the plant will increase. Independent Variable: (The variable you purposely change.) Include units (for example: cm, Ex: Amount of light (hr)

mL).

Levels: (The values you choose for your independent variable.) Ex: 0 hours of light, 12 hours of light, 24 hours of light Trials: (The number of times you did the experiment or number of samples you experimented on at each level.) Must conduct at least 3 trials. Ex: 3 seeds in each pot

Dependent Variable: (Variable you will measure after the experiment. Include units.) Include units (for example: cm, mL). Ex: Height of the plant (cm)

Constants: (All the other variables that remain the same throughout the experiment.) Ex: 4 pots, 25 mL of water daily for each pot, 700 g of the same type of soil, same type of seed, same fertilizer, same temperature Control: (Normal treatment group, you compare your other levels to this group.)

Ex: 12 hours of light Materials: (List all the materials/equipment used. Write how many of each material you needed.) Ex: 3 of 4 clay pots 2100 g of potting soil 3 seeds of lily plants 375 mL of water Grow-Light (sunlight simulator) Ruler

Procedure: (Step-by-step, detailed enough so another experimenter could perform your experiment without having to ask you any questions.) Write the steps for one level of the independent variable and add repetitions for repeated trials. You can use a flowchart of pictures with a brief description to explain each picture. Ex: 1. Place 700g of soil into each of the 3 4 pots. 2. Plant 3 seeds of lily into each pot. 3. Place 1st pot in the closet (for 0 hours of light). 4. Place 2nd pot on the window (for 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness). 5. Place 3rd pot on the window, but place Grow-Lights next to it (for 24 hours of light). 6. Water each pot with 25mL of water daily for 5 days. 7. After 5th day, observe and record the height of each of the three plants in the pot in cm. Do this for all 3 pots.

Data: (ex: table) Include table title (mention the purpose of the experiment, independent and dependent variable) Usually independent variable levels go in the left column, followed by columns for each trial. Where possible add a column for the average. Include units (for example: cm, mL). Ex: The Height of Plant at Various Amounts of Light Amount of Light Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 0 hr 2.1 cm 2.3 cm 1.9 cm 12 hr 3.5 cm 3.8 cm 4.1 cm 24 hr 4.7 cm 4.5 cm 4.8 cm Average 2.1 cm 3.8 cm 4.7 cm

Graph: (Can be a line graph or bar graph) Include results sentence: As the [independent variable] [increased or decreased], the [dependent variable] [increased or decreased]. Ex: As the amount of sunlight increased, the height of the plants increased.

Analysis: (Summary of results in the paragraph form.) Include the following: o Write a topic sentence stating the independent and dependent variables, and a reference to table or graphs. Like this: The [restate problem] is summarized and presented in the [table and/or graph]. o Write a sentence comparing averages. o Restate the hypothesis. Was your hypothesis supported by the data? Explain. Ex: The effect of sunlight on the height of plants is summarized and presented in the above table and graph. The plants with 24 hours of sunlight grew to a greater average height of 4.7 cm than plants with 12 hours of sunlight. The plants with 0 hours of sunlight grew to lower average height of 2.1 cm than plants with 12 hours of sunlight whose average height was 3.8 cm. The data did support the hypothesis that if the sunlight is increased, then the height of the plants will increase.

o o o o o o o

Conclusion: (One paragraph) Answer the following questions: What was the purpose of the experiment? For example: The purpose of the experiment was to investigate [restate the problem] What were the major findings? For example: The major findings were [insert results sentence here] Was the hypothesis supported by the data? For example: The hypothesis that [insert hypothesis] was [supported, partially supported, or not supported]. How did your findings compare with those of researchers? What happened that you did not expect? How can you explain this? I did not expect I can explain this [insert explanation]. What recommendations do you have for improving this experiment? What recommendations do you have for further study?

Ex: The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the effect of sunlight on height of plants. The major findings were that as the amount of sunlight increased, the height of the plants increased. The hypothesis if the sunlight is increased, then the height of the plants will increase was supported. As researchers believe the amount of sunlight does affect the height of plants. I did not expect the plants with 0 hours of sunlight to grow at all, but they did grow just a little. I can explain this because the plant still received water. I would improve this experiment by having a larger sample and monitoring the growth of a plant for longer period of time. It would be interesting to investigate the effect of sunlight on the height of other types of plants.

PROJECT GUIDELINES:

Final Copy can be in any format, for example: PowerPoint, video/movie, website, book, etc. (no posters or

poster boards) Please get your final copy format approved by February 17, 2012. Check spelling and grammar. Do not use words I or we or you where possible. Attach the experiment that can explain itself or scan the photographs of the experiment that you conducted and include them in the final copy. Can use animations or include videos. 10 points off for each day the project is late.

PROJECT TIMELINE: TASK Planning Page 1: Problem, Hypothesis, Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, Constants, Control Planning Page 2: Materials, Procedure Worksheet 1: Data and Graph Worksheet 2: Analysis, Conclusion Final Copy DUE DATE Friday, January 6, 2012 Friday, January 13, 2012 Friday, February 3, 2012 Friday, February 10, 2012 Friday, March 2, 2012 TEACHER'S INITIALS

CCSS Addressed: Text Types and Purposes W1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. W3. Write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and reach the same results.

I understand all the rules and requirements of this project. And I will follow the deadlines. Student signature: _____________________________________ Parent signature: ______________________________________ Date: ___________ Date: ___________